Mocomi Kids http://mocomi.com Inspiring Curiosity! Fri, 23 Mar 2018 12:08:47 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.2.19 Discovery of Genetics http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-genetics/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-genetics/#comments Fri, 23 Mar 2018 12:08:47 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98127 What is Genetics? The study of genetics is a fascinating science and a useful one. It is the study of genes, genetic variation and hereditary characteristics in living organisms. Who discovered Genetics? Gregor Mendel is considered the father of genetics. Mendel studied ‘trait inheritance’, patterns in the way traits or characteristics are handed down from […]

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# Discovery of Genetics

## What is Genetics?

The study of genetics is a fascinating science and a useful one. It is the study of genes, genetic variation and hereditary characteristics in living organisms.

## Who discovered Genetics?

Gregor Mendel is considered the father of genetics. Mendel studied ‘trait inheritance’, patterns in the way traits or characteristics are handed down from parents to offsprings. The units of inheritance are referred to as gene.

The genetic make up is what makes a person unique.

Subsequent research and study in genetics have helped us to understand chromosomes, mutations, DNA and understand evolution better.

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London Eye Facts http://mocomi.com/london-eye-facts/ http://mocomi.com/london-eye-facts/#comments Wed, 21 Mar 2018 11:38:59 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98120 What is the London Eye? The London Eye is the world’s tallest cantilevered observation wheel, on the South Bank of the River Thames. It was formerly known as the Millennium Wheel or the revolving observation wheel. What is the height of the London Eye? At a height of 443 feet(135 meters), the London Eye was […]

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# London Eye Facts

## What is the London Eye?

The London Eye is the world’s tallest cantilevered observation wheel, on the South Bank of the River Thames.

It was formerly known as the Millennium Wheel or the revolving observation wheel.

## What is the height of the London Eye?

At a height of 443 feet(135 meters), the London Eye was the world’s tallest cantilevered observation wheel, before it was surpassed by the Star of Nanchang, in Nanchang, China.

## Who built the London Eye?

The London Eye was originally conceived by David Marks and Julia Barfield of Marks Barfield Architects in 1993, in response to a competition organised by the Sunday Times and Great Britain’s Architecture Foundation. The competition was organised to build a new monument in London, to commemorate the new Millennium.

It was finally built by the architects themselves and was funded by British Airways, Tussauds Group and the architect couple themselves.

## How long did it take to build the London Eye?

London Eye was constructed over a period of two years. Construction began in 1998 and it was inaugurated by the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair on December 31, 1999.

It admitted its first paying passenger until March 9, 2000.

## 4 Fun facts about the London Eye

1. The 32 capsules on the London Eye are representative of the 32 London boroughs and each one weighs as much as 20,000 pounds, approx But they are numbererd 1 to 33, avoiding the unlucky number 13.
2. The London Eye can carry 800 people each rotation.
3. The capsules travel at a pace of 26 cms per second, which is really slow.
4. The London Eye is not a ferris wheel, as it is supported by an A frame on just one side, and the carriages are outside the wheel rim instead of hanging low.

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Muhammad Ali Biography http://mocomi.com/muhammad-ali-biography/ http://mocomi.com/muhammad-ali-biography/#comments Wed, 14 Mar 2018 05:06:05 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98095 Who is Muhammad Ali? Muhammad Ali was one of the most celebrated sportsperson of the 20th century. He is the first and only three time lineal World Heavyweight Champion. Muhammad Ali was born as Cassius Clay and began training as a boxer at 12 years old. In a career that spanned almost 3 decades, Ali […]

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Muhammad Ali was one of the most celebrated sportsperson of the 20th century. He is the first and only three time lineal World Heavyweight Champion.

Muhammad Ali was born as Cassius Clay and began training as a boxer at 12 years old. In a career that spanned almost 3 decades, Ali became one of the ‘Greatest’. His last fight was on December 11, 1981, with Trevor Berbick. He was a month short of his 40th birthday.

In 1984, he was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, sustained due to injuries to his head. He died on June 3rd, 2016, after several years as a philanthropist and a social activist. He won the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005.

## Childhood and Early Life

Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr, as Ali at birth was known as, was born on January 17, 1942 in Louisville, Kentucky. He had a sister and four brothers. He was named after his father Cassius Marcellus Clay, who was named after a Republican Kentucky politician. His father was a billboard painter and his mother Odessa O’Grady Clay was a domestic helper. They were descendents of African slaves and some mix of Irish and English ancestry.

Clay grew up among racial discrimination and racial segregation.

On one occasion he was upset about his bicycle being stolen, and was guided to take up boxing training, by a Louisville police officer, Joe E Martin.

## Later Life and Career

Clay made his boxing debut in 1954, against local amateur boxer Ronnie O’Keefe. He went on to win six Kentucky Golden Gloves titles, two national Golden Gloves titles, an Amateur Athletic Union national title and the Light Heavyweight gold medal in the 1960 Summer Olympics, in Rome. He lost the 1960 Gold medal and it was replaced when he lit the torch, to open the 1996 Atlanta Olympics.

### Marriage and Children

Muhammad Ali was married four times and had seven daughters and two sons.

Muhammad Ali’s boxing career boasts 56 wins, 5 losses and 37 knockouts. He won the Heavyweight Championship 3 times between 1964 to 1979, which made him the title of ‘The Greatest’. He holds this title along with two others, Evander Holyfield (USA) and Lennox Lewis (UK)

• 1964 Defeated Sonny Liston
• 1974 Defeated George Foreman
• 1978 Defeated Leon Spinks

### Philanthropist

Muhammad Ali was involved in several causes he felt close to. He worked tirelessly for racial equality for African Americans and also worked on several causes to promote peace and equality globally, including working towards national debt clearance of poverty stricken countries.

## Awards and Achievements

He was honoured with a number of titles including, ‘the Greatest’, ‘Fighter of the Year’, ‘Sportsman of the Year’, ‘Sportsman of the Century’ and Sports Personality of the Century.

He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom(2005) and Presidential Citizens Medal(2009) for his contributions.

He was inducted in the International Boxing Hall of Fame. He is even honoured with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1. Ali was banned from boxing for 3 years due to his stance on the war in Vietnam.
2. Ali had starred in a Broadway musical, recorded a spoken verse album, wrote poetry.
3. Ali converted to Islam after his fight with Sonny Liston, in 1964.
4. Muhammad Ali wrote two books, I am the Greatest and The Soul of a Butterfly

## 5 Super inspiring Muhammad Ali quotes

1. If my mind can conceive it, and my heart can believe it – then I can achieve it.
2. The best way to make your dreams come true is to wake up.
3. Impossible is temporary. Impossible is nothing.
4. It isn’t the mountains ahead to climb that wear you out; it’s the pebble in your shoe.
5. It’s not bragging if you can back it up.

Meet the famous boxers from India – Vijender Singh and Mary Kom

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Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman and the Horse http://mocomi.com/tenali-raman-and-the-horse/ http://mocomi.com/tenali-raman-and-the-horse/#comments Sun, 11 Mar 2018 10:47:58 +0000 http://www.mocomi.com/?post_type=wordsmith&p=45568 For more interesting Tenali Raman stories for kids, click here For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

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# Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman and the Horse

Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, king Krishna Deva Raya wanted to expand his army. So, he needed more horses. He decided to give one horse to each person in his kingdom, to take care of. He also gave everyone a good supply ......

Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, king Krishna Deva Raya wanted to expand his army. So, he needed more horses. He decided to give one horse to each person in his kingdom, to take care of. He also gave everyone a good supply of straw to feed the horses. Everyone except Tenali Rama was happy with this plan. He shut his horse in one room and everyday at exactly nine o’clock he gave the horse very little straw through the window. He gave the rest of the straw to his cows who became fat and healthy.

At the end of a year, the king wanted to see all the horses. All the people who had been given horses to grow up, brought their horses for inspection. But Tenali Rama did not bring his horse. On being questioned, he answered that his horse had become so strong that he could not bring it to the court. The king was surprised on hearing this. He said, “Alright, I will send my chief inspector to your house tomorrow morning at nine to inspect the horse there.” Tenali agreed.

The next morning, the chief inspector went to Tenali’s house. He had a long beard. Tenali took him to the room where the horse was kept and asked him to look through the window. When the inspector peeped through the window, naturally his beard went in through the window first. Seeing the beard, the horse thought that it must be straw that was being given to him at the fixed time. It caught hold of the beard in his teeth and pulled. The inspector shouted in pain and tried to pull his beard back. But the horse knew that this was the only food he would get all day and pulled with all his might till the inspector lost his beard.

The inspector went running to the king. He reported that indeed Tenali Rama’s horse was the strongest of them all.

• For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

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Be Nice, Ask for Permission! http://mocomi.com/ask-for-permission-social-etiquette/ http://mocomi.com/ask-for-permission-social-etiquette/#comments Fri, 09 Mar 2018 12:18:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98075 Everyone is a bit inquisitive. Sometimes we go to a friend or a relative’s house. We play, we jump, we take things, even open cupboards and play inside or we may even try out clothes or shoes! Sometimes we even open the fridge and may even drink water or juice. But wait. Did we ask […]

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# Be Nice, Ask for Permission!

Everyone is a bit inquisitive. Sometimes we go to a friend or a relative’s house. We play, we jump, we take things, even open cupboards and play inside or we may even try out clothes or shoes! Sometimes we even open the fridge and may even drink water or juice.

But wait.

Did we ask our friend or relative, if we may touch or play with their things? To ask to use or touch something, or even enter a room is called Asking for Permission. Sometimes people don’t like it and may even get upset, if you touch their things. Your friend may even fight with you and not speak to you. Because they may feel they are being taken for granted.

## Asking for permission is social etiquette

Do you remember, we learned about social etiquette and that we must say please and thank you? Well, asking for permission, before we touch or use something that doesn’t belong to us, is also social etiquette.

So, remember to ask for permission the next time!

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What are Powers and Roots? http://mocomi.com/what-are-powers-and-roots/ http://mocomi.com/what-are-powers-and-roots/#comments Wed, 07 Mar 2018 09:36:13 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98063 What is the power of a number When a number is multiplied by itself either once or several times, the number of times the number is multiplied is known as the power of a number. Example – a) Multiplied by itself 5 x 5 b) Multiplied by itself multiple times 3 x 3 x 3 […]

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# What are Powers and Roots?

## What is the power of a number

When a number is multiplied by itself either once or several times, the number of times the number is multiplied is known as the power of a number.

Example –
a) Multiplied by itself
5 x 5

b) Multiplied by itself multiple times
3 x 3 x 3

We can also write these numbers in a different way.
5 x 5 = 52
Or
3 x 3 x 3 = 33
Or
6 x 6 x 6 x 6= 64

## What is an exponent, base and power in a number?

• The small number at the top is the exponent. It is how many times the number is multiplied by itself.
• The large number is called the base. It is the number that is being multiplied by it self.
• The power of the number is how many times the number is being multiplied by it self.

### How is the power of a number calculated?

The power of the number : 64 is
6 x 6 x 6 x 6 = 1296

The power of the number 72 is
7 x 7 = 49

## What is the root of a number?

The root of a number A is another number, which when multiplied by itself a given number of times, equals A.
a) 5 x 5= 25
The number 5 is the root of twenty five.

b) 6 x 6= 36.
The number 6 is the root of the number 36.

### How to calculate the root of a number?

Find the root of the number 16 :

Method –
16 is a small number – so it will be easy to figure out by multiplying small numbers by themselves:

1 x 1 = 1
2 x 2 = 4
3 x 3 = 9
4 x 4 = 16

So the root of the number 16 is 4.

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Mullah Nasruddin at Tea Shop http://mocomi.com/mullah-nasruddin-at-tea-shop/ http://mocomi.com/mullah-nasruddin-at-tea-shop/#comments Thu, 01 Mar 2018 13:07:26 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98050 Mullah Nasruddin was sitting at his favourite tea shop and having his daily tea. A twelve years old boy, came running through the door, and went directly towards the Mullah and knocked his beautiful cap off his head. The mischievous boy ran away, leaving Mullah surprised. Mullah Nasruddin remained quiet about the boy’s prank. He […]

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# Mullah Nasruddin at Tea Shop

Mullah Nasruddin was sitting at his favourite tea shop and having his daily tea.

A twelve years old boy, came running through the door, and went directly towards the Mullah and knocked his beautiful cap off his head. The mischievous boy ran away, leaving Mullah surprised. Mullah Nasruddin remained quiet about the boy’s prank. He picked up his cap, and put it back on.

The next day, the same thing happened again. Mullah didn’t react this time either. Although this happened several times, Mullah Nasruddin remained unaffected. The boy thought his prank was amusing and repeated it daily. Mullah would patiently dust his cap and put it back on, every time.

One day, Mullah’s friend questioned him about the daily incident. “Why don’t you punish that naughty boy? He is behaving so badly with you. How can you not get angry?”

“It is useless,” Mullah replied.

One day, Mullah reached the tea shop a bit late. When he reached there, he saw a tall, well built soldier sitting at his favourite place already. Wishing to avoid trouble, Mullah sat on another chair.

In a while, the mischievous boy appeared and ran straight to Mullah’s usual place. He knocked his cap off his head and started to run away. The poor unfortunate boy, in his hurry didn’t realise that it was the soldier and not Mullah Nasruddin, having tea. The soldier spilt his tea and got angry. He caught and lifted him.

Mullah Nasruddin turned to his friend and said, “Now, do you understand, why I was patient?”

It’s always better to Wait for the right time!

For more interesting Mullah Nasruddin Stories, go to Mullah Nasruddin Stories.

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Aerodynamics of Paper Planes http://mocomi.com/aerodynamics-of-paper-planes/ http://mocomi.com/aerodynamics-of-paper-planes/#comments Wed, 28 Feb 2018 12:52:07 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98038 A simple piece of paper will fall down when dropped, but if we fold the same piece of paper in a specific manner, it will fly. How do paper planes fly? The ability to fly means the ability of an object to move or travel through air. There are four things that decide if an […]

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# Aerodynamics of Paper Planes

A simple piece of paper will fall down when dropped, but if we fold the same piece of paper in a specific manner, it will fly.

## How do paper planes fly?

The ability to fly means the ability of an object to move or travel through air. There are four things that decide if an object is going to fly or not. Any change in these same factors also decide how fast it will fly or how fast it will fall.

## What are the forces that prevent an object from flying?

Forces that prevent an object from flying are :

• The weight force downwards: The heavier the object, the greater the force of gravity that pulls it down. That is why when we want to make things fly, we make them as light as possible. This is how weight affects the flight of the airplane.
• The drag force: Drag is the force that is exerted in the opposite direction that the object is pushed in. It increases as the speed increases. In airplanes, drag is caused by the air surrounding the airplane.

The field which studies the interaction between the air and the moving object is called aerodynamics. The study of aerodynamics is important when designing airplanes and other objects moving through the wind. It is even used when designing trucks and trains.

• The thrust upwards: The thrust upwards has to always be more or equal to the thrust downwards or the object will fall down. In airplanes when the plane moves in the air, the wing is designed in such a way that the air it is cutting through, is pushing the plane up. In helicopters, the thrust is generated by rotor blades that push the air downwards like a fan.
• The thrust forward: The thrust forward pushes the plane forward. This pushes the airplane in a given direction. If the thrust forward is more than the drag force, the plane increases in speed. If the thrust is less then the drag, the plane decreases in speed. In large airplanes both thrust and force is generated by propellers or jet engines.

## How far do paper planes fly?

The current world record for the distance a paper plane has flown is around 225 feet! Not bad for a folded piece of paper!

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Discovery of Gold http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-gold/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-gold/#comments Fri, 23 Feb 2018 05:33:24 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98007 What is gold? Gold, a shiny metal is also known as a noble metal. It has been revered since time immemorial to be fit for kings and god and rightly so! It is one of the most ductile and malleable metals and substances known to man. It is also resistant to tarnishing and maintains its […]

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# Discovery of Gold

## What is gold?

Gold, a shiny metal is also known as a noble metal. It has been revered since time immemorial to be fit for kings and god and rightly so!

It is one of the most ductile and malleable metals and substances known to man. It is also resistant to tarnishing and maintains its original structure even under the most severe chemical stress.

## Who discovered gold?

According to ancient Greek legends, there is proof that gold existed and was known to the Greeks of the Chalcolithic (5000 BC) period, also known as the early Bronze Age. They had even devised methods of refining and extracting gold from ores, including a smelting process called ‘Fire Sitting’. Later Greek geographer Strabo (64 BC – 24 AD) makes a mention of this in his works.

The early Romans from around the same time period, also had a fascination for gold and infact expanded their empire, to get more gold. They had improvised on physics to make a hydraulic gold mining machine.

The ancient Egyptians also have records of their gold mining sites in Nubia in the Turin Papyrus Map, one of the oldest topographical maps discovered.

## When and where was gold discovered?

Gold objects have been found in several burial sites or old civilisation of the same time. The oldest known gold objects were discovered by chance, by a Bulgarian excavator operator, Raycho Marinov, in 1972. The ancient burial site, Varna Necropolis, dates back to 4560–4450 BC, according to carbon dating conducted in 2006.

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Perpendicular Bisector: Definition & Theorem http://mocomi.com/perpendicular-bisector/ http://mocomi.com/perpendicular-bisector/#comments Wed, 21 Feb 2018 12:40:35 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=98015 What is a perpendicular bisector? A perpendicular bisector of a line segment is a line that passes through the mid point of the line segment and is perpendicular to the line. How do you draw a perpendicular bisector? To draw a perpendicular bisector you need the following things : Compass Sharpened Pencil Ruler Instructions : […]

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# Perpendicular Bisector: Definition & Theorem

## What is a perpendicular bisector?

A perpendicular bisector of a line segment is a line that passes through the mid point of the line segment and is perpendicular to the line.

## How do you draw a perpendicular bisector?

To draw a perpendicular bisector you need the following things :

• Compass
• Sharpened Pencil
• Ruler

### Instructions :

1. Draw a line of any length on a piece of blank paper.
2. Insert the pencil in the compass and extend the compass so its points are more than half the length of the line.
3. Put the pointy end of the compass down on one end of the line segment, then use the pencil inside the compass to draw an arc over the midpoint of the line segment on both sides of the line segment.
4. Now, keeping the compass exactly the way it is, put the pointy end down on the other end of the line segment and draw two more arcs over the midpoint. You will see on both sides of the line: the arcs will intersect.
5. Then take a ruler and draw a line between the two intersecting points that will pass through the line segment. This line is your perpendicular bisector.

## Perpendicular bisector of a triangle

Perpendicular bisectors of triangles are drawn at each side of the triangle. Thus each triangle has three perpendicular bisectors. The point where the perpendicular bisectors of the triangle meet is known as the circumcenter of the triangle.

## Perpendicular bisector theorem

1. The theorem states that if a point is on the perpendicular bisector of a line segment, then that point is at an equal distance from both endpoints of the line segment.
2. The converse of the perpendicular bisector theorem states that if a point is at an equal distance from both ends of a line segment, then that point lies on the perpendicular bisector of that line segment.

### Why are perpendicular bisectors useful?

Perpendicular bisectors are useful in geometry, if we want to find a mid point of distances. This is necessary in architecture and study of mechanics and machinery and their construction.

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Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman And The Great Pundit http://mocomi.com/tenali-raman-and-the-great-pundit/ http://mocomi.com/tenali-raman-and-the-great-pundit/#comments Thu, 15 Feb 2018 06:11:37 +0000 http://www.mocomi.com/?post_type=wordsmith&p=45638 For more interesting Tenali Raman stories for kids, click here. For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

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# Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman And The Great Pundit

Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, a great pundit from a foreign land visited King Krishna Deva Raya’s court. He claimed that he had knowledge of all subjects and was an expert in every field. He challenged that he would argue with all ......

Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, a great pundit from a foreign land visited King Krishna Deva Raya’s court. He claimed that he had knowledge of all subjects and was an expert in every field. He challenged that he would argue with all of his wise ministers and defeat them. The king accepted his challenge. The pundit then proceeded to argue with the learned men of the kingdom on various subjects. The king’s ministers failed miserably. Then, the king summoned his wisest minister, Tenali Raman.

Tenali took a small bundle from his home, gave it the shape of a book and tied it up. Then, he went to the court and announced that he was ready to argue against the pundit but on the condition that the topic of their debate would be based on the great book ‘Thilakashta Mahisha Bandhanam.’ The great pundit was stumped when he heard this because he had never heard of any such book. He asked the king to give him one night’s time to prepare for the argument. He was sleepless all night. He could not bear the thought of losing so he took all his belongings and left the city before sunrise. He left a note for the king saying that he had never heard of the great book.

The next day, at the appointed time Tenali appeared in court for the debate. But he was informed that the pundit had already gone away. The king being a learned man wanted to read the great book that Tenali had mentioned, so he asked Tenali about it. Tenali laughed and replied that there was no such book called ‘Thilakashta Mahisha Bandhanam’. Inside the bundle, there was til which is called Thila in Sanskrit and some sheep dung which in Sanskrit is known as Kashta. These contents were tied by a rope made of buffalo’s hide which is called Mahisha. Bandhanam refers to ‘tying’ in Sanskrit.

This is how Tenali tricked the pundit into believing that there was a great book that the pundit was completely unaware of. The king appreciated Tenali’s intelligence and rewarded him.

• For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

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Who decided a year should have 12 months? http://mocomi.com/who-decided-a-year-should-have-12-months/ http://mocomi.com/who-decided-a-year-should-have-12-months/#comments Wed, 14 Feb 2018 13:35:08 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97955 People across the world follow the Gregorian calendar. The world converted to the Gregorian calendar in 1752. Otherwise different people around the world followed different calendars. Infact people who do agriculture and farming, still use a combination of solar and lunar calendars. Who came up with the 12 month calendar? The 12 months in the […]

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# Who decided a year should have 12 months?

People across the world follow the Gregorian calendar.

The world converted to the Gregorian calendar in 1752. Otherwise different people around the world followed different calendars. Infact people who do agriculture and farming, still use a combination of solar and lunar calendars.

## Who came up with the 12 month calendar?

The 12 months in the calendar, as we know them today, were first introduced by Julius Caesar, in the year 45 BC, on 1st January.

## How many months were in the original calendar?

The calendar used previously consisted of 10 months. But it couldn’t account for the cyclic revolution of the earth around the sun, which takes exactly 365.2422 days.

### The 10 month calendar

The previous Roman calendar, began the year in March and ended it in December. It had been in use from 753 BC, by Romulus, the legendary first king of Rome.

This calendar was later modified because it accounted for only 304 days in a year.

## Who started the leap year?

The second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius added two months at the end of the calendar, Ianuarius and Februarius, to account for the missing days. He also introduced an intercalary month that occured after Februarius in certain years. These years became known as leap years. In addition, he deleted one day from all the months that had 30 days, so that they had 29 days instead.

### Around for 700 years!

This resulted in a total of 355 days in a common year and 377 days in a leap year. The leap years were declared at the whim of the king. Although unstable, the calendar was in use for 700 years.

But it got very confusing because seasons and calendars did not match. It played havoc with the farmers.

So Julius Caesar, in 45 BC, under the guidance of his astronomers, decided to alter the calendar and make it more stable. Finally, the seasons had a chance to catch up!

For sixteen centuries!

## When did we switch to the Gregorian calendar?

The same calendar had been in use since 1752, when the Gregorian calendar was adopted all over the world, to synchronise it to the English and American Colonies. The world and its boundaries had expanded quite a bit, from Caesar’s times! The Gregorian calendar fixed the Julian calendar error of calculating one revolution of the earth around the sun to take 365.2422 days, into account.

So, there you have it! It was originally Julius Caesar, who initiated the 12 months we have in the calendar today!

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Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers http://mocomi.com/alcohols-phenols-and-ethers/ http://mocomi.com/alcohols-phenols-and-ethers/#comments Wed, 07 Feb 2018 11:59:21 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97965 Remember sometimes you go to a petrol pump and smell the petrol? Or if someone is cleaning the bathroom they pour a liquid and the liquid has a smell to it? Or when you go to the doctor when you are hurt and they apply a solution that feels cool when it is put on […]

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# Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Remember sometimes you go to a petrol pump and smell the petrol? Or if someone is cleaning the bathroom they pour a liquid and the liquid has a smell to it? Or when you go to the doctor when you are hurt and they apply a solution that feels cool when it is put on your skin. These things may contain chemicals that are known in chemistry as Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers.

### What is an organic compound?

An organic compound is any compound which contains a carbon atom. Most oils, petrol and diesel and most molecules in living things are organic compounds.

### What is hydroxyl group?

A hydroxyl group is an Oxygen atom attached to a Hydrogen atom.

## What are alcohols?

An alcohol is when the Oxygen of the Hydroxyl group is also connected to the Carbon of an organic compound. Many alcohols are produced when the fruit is left alone for a few days and the bacteria eat the sugar inside the fruit. They use the sugar for energy and produce a waste that is usually alcohol.

### Classification of alcohols

Alcohols are classified depending on the number of carbon atoms they contain.

1. Methanol
2. Ethanol
3. Propanol
4. Butanol
5. Pentanol
6. Hexanol

### General formula of an alcohol

The General Formula of an alcohol is C(n)H(2n+1)-OH
Where “n”- Is the number of Carbon atoms

### 5 Uses of alcohols

Alcohols are used in a variety of ways,

1. Alcohols are used in disinfecting the skin of a patient when they are injured or are about to be operated upon.
2. Alcohols are used as fuel.
3. Alcohols are also used as antifreeze to stop liquids from freezing in winter.
4. Alcohols can also be used at preservatives.
5. Alcohol is used as a solvent to dissolve chemicals, creating perfumes and more.

## What are phenols?

Phenols are aromatic compounds- which means that when you smell phenols, they will give off a fruity smell.
Phenols are six carbon atom arranged in a circle with a Hydroxyl group attached to one of them.

### General formula of a phenol

The formula of a phenol is C6H5-OH

### Uses of phenols

Phenols are used in many cleaning agents when you clean floors and bathrooms, they are excellent at killing bacteria.
Phenol is also used in the production of cosmetics such as sunscreen and hair dye.

## What are ethers?

Ethers are two Carbon atoms connected by an Oxygen Atom. These two carbon atoms could be part of larger compounds as well.

### General formula of a ether

The general formula of a ether is C-O-C

### Uses of ethers

Ethers are very interesting molecules because of their peculiar structure. They are used in Aerosol sprays, High Boiling Solvents and as a part of cosmetics.

### Examples of ethers

Ethylene Oxide, Anisol and Diethyl ether are examples of ethers.

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Recording Daily Weather http://mocomi.com/recording-daily-weather/ http://mocomi.com/recording-daily-weather/#comments Wed, 31 Jan 2018 12:00:12 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97933 Why is it important to record daily weather? Weather forecasting has been an important part of traditions in all civilizations for thousands of years. Farmers wanted to know the weather conditions for their crops, merchants needed favourable weather to begin their sea-voyages and even the common man wanted to know how the weather would be […]

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# Recording Daily Weather

## Why is it important to record daily weather?

Weather forecasting has been an important part of traditions in all civilizations for thousands of years. Farmers wanted to know the weather conditions for their crops, merchants needed favourable weather to begin their sea-voyages and even the common man wanted to know how the weather would be in the future. Since there were no modern tools to predict the weather, everyone looked for the signs in nature. Most of the times, the ancient people banked on old mythological proverbs and religious faiths.

### When did modern weather forecasting begin?

Few hundred years ago, a naval officer named Robert FitzRoy came up with the idea of predicting the weather. He was deeply troubled by the massive loss of life at sea because of the extreme and unpredictable weather. He decided to set up an office in London where he used some basic equipment such as the barometer, nautical charts, and recorded patterns to predict the weather. As the telegraph network expanded in 1830s, FitzRoy could gather weather data from different coasts at his London office. If he thought a storm was around the corner, he immediately released a warning telegraph to the concerned port where a drum was raised to alarm the sailors. Though he had to face a lot of ridicule and mockery from the society, he continued working on weather predictions. Finally, in 1861, his forecasts started getting printed daily in ‘The Times’ newspaper of London. The first ever daily weather forecasts were published in The Times on August 1, 1861.

## How do meteorologists forecast the weather?

Meteorology is the study of weather and the atmosphere. A meteorologist is a person who studies weather patterns and predicts how the weather would be in the future. All of you would have seen a meteorologist, or weather person, talking about weather on the news channels. Meteorologists gather information about the weather from satellites, balloons, and other instruments. They use powerful computers to analyse the collected data, and then, draw weather maps to predict the weather.

## What are the different gadgets to predict weather?

1. A Thermometer measures the air temperature. Thermometers are plain glass tubes containing liquids such as alcohol or mercury filled inside them. When air around the tube heats up the liquid, the liquid expands and rises up the tube. The readings on the thermometer then shows what the actual temperature is.
2. A Barometer is a scientific device used by meteorologists to measure air pressure. When the barometer readings shoot up, it indicates sunny and dry weather, and when barometer readings fall down, it indicates rain and stormy weather.
3. A Sling Psychrometer measures relative humidity.
4. A Rain Gauge measures the amount of rain fallen over a time-period.
5. A Wind Vane is an instrument that tells the direction of the wind.
6. An Anemometer measures wind speed.
7. Weather Maps show atmospheric conditions over a large portion of the Earth’s surface.
8. A Hygrometer is a scientific instrument to measure the humidity in the air.
9. A Weather Balloon measures weather conditions high up in the atmosphere.
10. Weather Satellites are used to photograph and track large-scale air movements taking place over the Earth’s surface from the space.

## Why is weather forecasting important?

There are several reasons why weather forecasts are important. Weather forecasting is a Science, that impacts the lives of many people. It forewarns the people about the future weather conditions so that people can plan their activities accordingly. It warns people about the impending severe weather conditions and other weather hazards such as thunder storms, hurricanes, and heavy rainfalls. Thus far, accurate weather predictions have been able to save the lives of many.

### Are weather forecasts always correct?

Well, there has been a significant development in the technology of weather forecasting over the last 20 years. The weather forecast stations of today are much better equipped to provide advanced warnings of severe weather and save lives of many, but they are not always accurate. There is a lot of scope for improvement. Accurate weather forecasting requires powerful computers and lots of observational data collected from land, sea and air. A single weather station does not have the equipment to collect so much information and any major weather forecast is made only after a careful study of data received from thousands of stations across the globe. The other thing is that it is hard to predict the weather, as weather patterns are always changing.

## 8 Interesting facts about weather forecasting

1. The first ever daily weather forecast was published in ‘The Times’ on August 1, 1861.
2. If you love Math and Science, you too, can be a perfect meteorologist!
3. There are some very interesting old proverbs that you can use to predict weather.
4. Red Sky at Night, Sailor’s Delight. Red Sky in the Morning, Sailor’s Warning. This saying was used to warn the sailors about the weather conditions at the sea. If the sky was red at night, a fair weather could be expected and if the sky was red in the morning, it was a sign of a storm.
5. Clear Moon, Frost Soon. The idea behind this saying was that a clear moon in the night sky meant frost in the morning.
6. Cows Lying Down, Weather on the Way. The ancient farmers believed that when cows lied down on the ground, it was a sign of stormy weather and rain.
7. Count the Cricket Chirps, Tell the Temperature. This proverb meant that any increase in the number of crickets in the area was a sign of increasing temperature.
8. Ring around the Moon, Rain Real Soon- This meant that if you spot a ring around the moon, it would rain soon.

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Why cleaning your room is important? http://mocomi.com/why-cleaning-your-room-is-important/ http://mocomi.com/why-cleaning-your-room-is-important/#comments Thu, 25 Jan 2018 13:23:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97915 Keep your room clean and organized! We all have days when we feel a little dis – organised. But sometimes a few days of being dis – organised can become a bad habit. Soon, we start becoming messy, and start creating a messy environment around us. We misplace things or even allow them to get […]

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# Why cleaning your room is important?

## Keep your room clean and organized!

We all have days when we feel a little dis – organised. But sometimes a few days of being dis – organised can become a bad habit. Soon, we start becoming messy, and start creating a messy environment around us. We misplace things or even allow them to get spoilt. What do you think? Would you like to visit a friend’s house and see a messy room. An unkempt bed, leftover food, or all their books all over the place. Obviously, no!

So let’s keep our rooms organised and clean. Because we like coming back to a clean room!

Coley: Why would you need binoculars in your own room Bumbley?
Bumbley: Don’t disturb me. I am trying to concentrate here.
Coley: Concentrate?? For what?
Bumbley: Can’t you see? I am looking for an assignment I need to submit in school today.
Coley: Oh okay. Wait. I am gonna ask again. Why do you need binoculars for that??
Bumbley: How else do I find it in here!
Coley: Keeping your room clean would be a better start, no?
Bumbley: I keep hearing this from mom. Now, you don’t start!
Coley: Okay.
Bumbley: No, wait! Help me find this assignment. It is very important for my school report.
Coley: I will. But on one condition. Start keeping your room clean.
Bumbley: I do try. But somehow it ends up being messy. How do I keep it clean??
Coley: By putting back every item where you took it from. That way you won’t create a mess to clean it up later.
Bumbley: Hmm..
Coley: Keeping things organized not only helps you find something when you need it, but also saves you time and lets you think with clarity.
Bumbley: Really? And I find you awesome!

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Classification of Plants http://mocomi.com/classification-of-plants/ http://mocomi.com/classification-of-plants/#comments Wed, 24 Jan 2018 13:12:47 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97898 How are plants classified? Plants are autotrophs and can make their own food through photosynthesis. Plants are classified based on their genetic and evolutionary relationship and form one of the five major kingdoms of classification. Who came up with the classification system of organisms? Carl Linnaeus, father of taxonomy is credited with creating the current […]

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# Classification of Plants

## How are plants classified?

Plants are autotrophs and can make their own food through photosynthesis. Plants are classified based on their genetic and evolutionary relationship and form one of the five major kingdoms of classification.

## Who came up with the classification system of organisms?

Carl Linnaeus, father of taxonomy is credited with creating the current system of classification of organisms in use today. In classification, the binomial nomenclature system is used and is in Latin.

It is divided into :

• Kingdom
• Division
• Classification Order
• Family
• Genus
• Species

### What are the two main groups of plant classification?

Plants are classified into two main groups. This is a very basic way of classifying them.

## I. Non Vascular Plants

• Non vascular plants are known or thought to be the earliest living plants on the planet. They lack vascular tissues and wood that can give them structural support. They also lack true leaves, stem and roots that can help them transport water and nutrients. Because of this they are limited to a narrow range of habitats. The most common type of non vascular plants include the phylum Bryophyta.
• The Phylum Bryophyta is a diverse group with over 10,000 plant species and consists of mosses, liverworts and hornworts.
• Despite lacking some essential plant organs, bryophytes play an important role in minimising erosion along water bodies, carrying out water and nutrient cycling in forests and regulating temperature in permafrosts.
• They reproduce through spores.

## II. Vascular Plants

• Vascular plants posses vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) that help them to transport water and minerals. They are also known as tracheophytes.

Vascular plants are divided into three main Phylum :

### 1. Pteridophytes

This phylum consists of over 12,000 species and over two thirds of them are tropical and consist of species of ferns and fern allies.

• Pteridophytes are seedless plants. They reproduce using spores on the underside of their leaves. These are known as sporophylls. They do not flower or have seeds or cones for reproduction.
• Pteridophytes have horizontal stems called rhizomes and simple leaves roots. The leaves are called fronds and unroll at maturity.
• Pteridophytes have adapted to a wide range of habitat. They can be aquatic terrestrial and even cold resistant, but thrive in tropical regions.

### 2. Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms are thought to be some of the oldest living plants on the planet and exist in temperate and arctic regions. Members of this Phylum include pines, hemlocks, firs and spruce. The name gymnosperms means naked seed, which is exhibited by the presence of cones (or strobili) instead of seeds.

• Gymnosperms are characterised by wood and green, needle like foliage.
• Gymnosperms are considered to be heterosporous, that is they produce both male cones and female cones.

### 3. Angiosperms

Angiosperms are referred to as the flowering plants and is the most diverse Phylum with over 300,000 species, including trees, herbs, shrubs, bulbs, epiphytes(parasitic plants) and plants living in both marine and fresh water habitats.

• Angiosperms are vascular seed plants, in which the ovule (egg) is fertilised and develops into a seed in an enclosed ovary.
• The flower carry either the male reproductive system or the female or both.
• The angiosperms have a very complex vascular tissue system and have adapted themselves to almost all types of temperatures and regions. They have developed extensive root systems and leaves that help them to absorb nutrients and make food for themselves.
• Angiosperms have localised regions for plant growth called meristems and cambia. These two regions experience cell division for the regeneration or repair of a plant.
• Angiosperms maybe either monocot or dicots.

## What is the difference between monocot and dicot plants?

 Monocotyledons Dicotyledons 1. Monocotyledons or monocots have one cotyledon embryo. Dicotyledons have two cotyledons embryo. 2. The veins in the leaf are parallel The veins in the leaf are netlike(reticulated) 3. The vascular tissue bundles are arranged in a complex way. The vascular tissue bundles are arranged in a ring. 4. Fibrous root system Deep tap root system 5. Flowers parts in multiples of three Flower parts in multiples of four or five. 6. Pollen with a single pore Pollen with three pores 7. Secondary growth absent Secondary growth present.

### Examples of Monocotyledons

Banana, Orchid, Palm Tree, Sugar cane, Ginger, Onion, Rice, Wheat, Corn, Barley

### Examples of Dicotyledons

Mangoes, Almonds, Beans, Peas, Pepper

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Addition and Subtraction of Integers http://mocomi.com/addition-and-subtraction-of-integers/ http://mocomi.com/addition-and-subtraction-of-integers/#comments Tue, 23 Jan 2018 11:44:22 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97880 What are Integers? Integers are numbers that are not fractions such as 1,2,3… 45, 265 etc. Fractions or numbers that also have parts of numbers are not integers. For Example : 1.5, 2/3, ½, 23.21, 733.21 are not integers. What do you do with Integers? Integers can be added and subtracted to each other. They […]

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# Addition and Subtraction of Integers

## What are Integers?

Integers are numbers that are not fractions such as 1,2,3… 45, 265 etc.
Fractions or numbers that also have parts of numbers are not integers.

For Example :
1.5, 2/3, ½, 23.21, 733.21 are not integers.

### What do you do with Integers?

Integers can be added and subtracted to each other. They can also be divided and multiplied. But while doing so they have certain integer properties.

## Properties of Integers

### 1. The Commutative Property of Integer Addition

If you are adding two or more integers to each other, they add up to the same answer, no matter what order you add them up in.
3 + 5 + 2 = 10
2 + 3 + 5 = 10
5 + 3 + 2 = 10
Each time it is the same answer!

### 2. The Commutative Property of Integer Multiplication

If you are multiplying two or more integers to each other, they add up to the same answer, no matter what order you add them up in.
3 x 5 x 2 = 30
2 x 3 x 5 = 30
5 x 3 x 2 = 30

## 3. The Associative Property of Integer Addition

Even if you group the integers in different ways and then add them, they will have the same answers.
(3 + 5) + 2 = 8 + 2 = 10
(2 + 3) + 5 = 5 + 5 = 10
5 + (3 + 2) = 5 + 5 = 10

### 4. The Associative Property of Integer Multiplication

Even if you group the integers in different ways and then multiply them – they will have the same answers.
(3 x 5) x 2 = 15 x 2= 30
(2 x 3) x 5 = 6 x 5 = 30
5 x (3 x 2) = 5 x 6= 30

### 5. The Distributive Property of Integer Addition and Multiplication

The distributive property of Integer Addition happens when you are multiplying integers with a group of integers you have added together. For example :
4 x (2 + 5) = ?
In this case, you have to follow the distributive law which states that each integer inside the brackets is multiplied to each integer outside the brackets.
So
4 x (2 + 5) = (4 x 2) + (4 x 5)
or
6 x (7 + 9) = (6 x7) + (6 x 9)

## What are Positive Integers and Negative Integers?

Positive integers are all the integers that are greater than 0
+1, +2, +3, +4, …. +254 are all positive integers.
Usually when we write down positive integers we do not use the ‘+’ sign and this includes numbers in infinity.
Negative integers are all the integers that are less than 0
-1,-2,-3…. -254 are all negative integers

A positive integer when added to another positive integer is always going to be another positive integer.
(+4) + (+24) = (+28)
A negative integer when added to another negative integer will always result into another negative integer
(-13) + (-4) = -17

## Rules for subtracting Integers

When a negative integer is subtracted from a positive integer, you need to change all the ‘-’ signs to ‘+’.
5 – (-6) =?
Does the sign change here?
– (-6) = + (+6)
Now use the same rules for addition :
So,
5 – ( -6) =
(+5) + (+6) = 11

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Floatation and Relative Density http://mocomi.com/floatation-and-relative-density/ http://mocomi.com/floatation-and-relative-density/#comments Wed, 17 Jan 2018 09:13:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97862 What is floatation? Floatation is the phenomenon of any substance or object resting on the surface of a liquid, without sinking. The following are some floatation examples : A plastic bottle floats on water. A piece of wood floats on water. Oil drops floating on water. Why does an object float? An object floats because […]

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# Floatation and Relative Density

## What is floatation?

Floatation is the phenomenon of any substance or object resting on the surface of a liquid, without sinking.

### The following are some floatation examples :

• A plastic bottle floats on water.
• A piece of wood floats on water.
• Oil drops floating on water.

## Why does an object float?

An object floats because of the differences in density of the object and the medium which is mainly liquid.
If a substance is denser than a liquid, it will sink. If a substance is less dense than the liquid it is put into, it will float.

## What is density of a substance?

Density is the weight of a substance per unit volume. You can define the density of water by saying how many kilograms a liter of water or kerosene or any other substance weighs.
Another way of calculating density is by looking at the Relative Density of a substance. Which defines how dense a substance is, compared to another substance.

For example :
Mercury is 13.6 times denser than water. So if one liter of water weighs roughly one kilogram, one liter of mercury would weigh 13.6 kilograms.

## What is the formula for Relative Density?

The formula for Relative Density (RD) is :
RD = (Weight of any volume of a substance) / (Weight of an equal amount of water)

Example :
500 ml of citric acid (lemon juice) weighs 800 grams. If 500 ml of water weighs 500 grams. What is the relative density of citric acid?

Solution :
RD = Weight of 500 ml Citric Acid/Weight of 500 ml Water
RD = 800/500
RD = 1.6
The Relative Density of Citric Acid with respect to Water is 1.6

The Relative Densities of some common substances are given below :

 Relative Density of Water 1 Relative Density of Soil 2 Relative Density of Mercury 13.6 Relative Density of Sand, 2.65 Relative Density of Silver 10

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Antarctica’s Shrinking Iceberg http://mocomi.com/antarcticas-shrinking-iceberg/ http://mocomi.com/antarcticas-shrinking-iceberg/#comments Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:47:19 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97844 Thousands of years ago, most of Europe, Asia, North and South America was covered by huge sheets of ice, each several kilometres thick, but today, the only ice sheets on the Earth are found in Antarctica and Greenland. In this article, we will talk about Antarctica. It is a continent at the South Pole, located […]

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# Antarctica's Shrinking Iceberg

Thousands of years ago, most of Europe, Asia, North and South America was covered by huge sheets of ice, each several kilometres thick, but today, the only ice sheets on the Earth are found in Antarctica and Greenland. In this article, we will talk about Antarctica. It is a continent at the South Pole, located at the bottom of the globe. The continent remains frozen throughout the year because of extremely cold weather. Scientists believe that more than 90% of the ice found on the whole planet is in Antarctica. Today, Antarctica is changing fast because of the ongoing climate change.

## What is climate change?

Climate change is what happens when our actions affect the Earth’s atmosphere. Our indiscriminate usage of the earth’s resources have caused drastic changes in global temperatures and weather. You would have noticed that the summers are becoming warmer, with temperatures soaring as high as 50 degrees Celsius and winters too are becoming more unbearable than before. All of this is a result of climate change, and we are directly responsible for it.

## What is global warming?

Global warming is the rise in the temperature of the Earth. The harmful gases that are released from the vehicles and factories go up into the air. These gases are known as greenhouse gases and some of these gases trap heat and make the whole planet warmer. Deforestation or removal of the green cover of the Earth also contributes to global warming. Global warming does not just mean one day of hot weather. It means a slow but steady rise in the temperature over many, many years. Deforestation also contributes to global warming.

Let us explain to you in a little more detail. The Sun naturally warms up the Earth through its atmosphere, and the excessive heat from the Earth is reflected into space. Generally, the temperature on the Earth remains perfectly regulated by its atmosphere, but the presence of too many greenhouse gases makes the atmosphere thick and causes a ‘green house’ effect. The excessive heat from the sunlight gets trapped within the Earth’s atmosphere, leading to a rise in temperature. The ice in Antarctica is not supposed to melt, but because of global warming, it is melting a little bit more every year.

## What are icebergs and glaciers?

Glaciers are made up of a large chunk of snow and ice and are found in Antarctica. An iceberg is a piece of glacier that breaks off from it because of the rise in temperature. Icebergs are made of fresh water and can float on sea water.

### Are icebergs breaking away from the glaciers in Antarctica?

According to a NASA satellite, a large iceberg broke off from the Antarctic glaciers in July 2017. If the icebergs keep breaking off from the glaciers and begin melting, this will lead to a noticeable and dangerous rise in the sea-levels across the globe.

## What are the harmful effects of climate change?

Changes in climate lead to serious natural disasters such as cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis. This will lead to flooding of the low-lying areas and loss of vegetation and wildlife. Some of the major U.S. cities like Boston, Miami and New York are more likely to be flooded first. Many islands near the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean will be buried under the water. The number of people displaced could be well-imagined.

Icebergs also act like a mirror; they reflect the sunlight and thereby help in keeping the Earth’s temperature under control. If they disappear, the Earth will become warmer and many harmful climate changes would take place.

### You CAN Help!

You would be thinking that since the problem is so big, there is hardly anything that you can do to help, but this is not the case. Each one of you who is reading this article can help in preventing this crisis.

## Here is your list of do’s and don’ts to reduce climate change

• Remember the three Rs-Reduce, reuse, recycle. Reduce the use of non-renewable fuels and things that consume more power. Try to reuse your old things. You can also give away your old clothes and toys to the needy children. Be creative, make an effort to come up with ideas to make new things out of the old. Try to put everything back into use.
• Plant more trees.
• Use energy saving CFLs in your house instead of bulbs and tube lights.
• Use electrical appliances in your home wisely.
• Turn off the lights and electrical appliances when not in use
• Save water in the washroom.
• Instead of going out in your car, prefer to use your cycle, or any means of public transport.
• Let us prevent any further climate change, reduce our carbon footprint and adopt an eco-friendly lifestyle, starting TODAY!

## Fact sheet on climate change

1. As per the scientists, the global sea level rise has increased from 2.2mm each year in 1993, to 3.3mm each year in 2014.
2. The average global temperature on the Earth has increased about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880.
3. According to a research study, global warming will increase the Earth’s average temperature by 2-11 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100.
4. Small icebergs weigh hundreds of tonnes and the big icebergs may weigh about billions of tonnes.
5. Smaller icebergs are known as bergy bits and growlers. They are especially dangerous for ships because it is difficult to spot them.
6. The famous ship Titanic sank after hitting an iceberg.
7. Greenhouse gases mainly comprise of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (better known as CFCs).

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Discovery of Ink http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-ink/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-ink/#comments Thu, 11 Jan 2018 12:25:09 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97830 Human beings as they evolved from prehistoric ancestors, developed many forms of communication. One of the most important tools discovered by humans, has been written communication. He first wrote on cave walls and then stone and developed a pictorial vocabulary. As time progressed, shapes and sounds were incorporated in the written form. The earliest surviving […]

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# Discovery of Ink

Human beings as they evolved from prehistoric ancestors, developed many forms of communication. One of the most important tools discovered by humans, has been written communication.

He first wrote on cave walls and then stone and developed a pictorial vocabulary. As time progressed, shapes and sounds were incorporated in the written form. The earliest surviving texts from Mesopotamia dating back from 2100 BC, were written with reeds or stylus on clay tablets. These show that by then, man had developed an evolved form of writing and communication.

## History of ink

It was the Chinese who are credited with first discovering ink 5000 years ago. It is still being used in that form. The liquid India Ink we use today was also discovered by the Chinese. The ink was thus named because the carbon black that was used to make the ink was sourced from India. It was the Cao Wei Dynasty (220 AD – 265 AD), who established the manufacture of India Ink.

Ink and how it is used has evolved over the years, changing colours and composition to adapt it to different needs.

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History of Renaissance http://mocomi.com/history-of-renaissance/ http://mocomi.com/history-of-renaissance/#comments Wed, 10 Jan 2018 08:44:01 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97819 What does Renaissance mean? The Renaissance was a period in European history from the 14th century to the 17th century. The word Renaissance means rebirth. It was a rebirth in the sense that the period was a connecting period between the Middle Ages and Modern Ages in European history, though it is closely associated with […]

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# History of Renaissance

## What does Renaissance mean?

The Renaissance was a period in European history from the 14th century to the 17th century. The word Renaissance means rebirth. It was a rebirth in the sense that the period was a connecting period between the Middle Ages and Modern Ages in European history, though it is closely associated with Florence, Italy.

## Why is the Renaissance important?

The Renaissance is important because it signalled the beginning of change in the thinking of European Christianity and so the perception of Man, Church and God changed too. This changed art, literature and architecture also.

The seeds of Renaissance were sowed post the Black Death, the plague which wiped out millions of people in Europe, between 1346 and 1353. This caused the economy to change as well.

## Why did the Renaissance start?

The Rennaisance started with the decline in the powers of the Roman Catholic Church. The humanists emerged who believed that individuals had important contributions to make in the world, rather than that, the only ideas were of the Church.

### How did Renaissance affect science, arts and literature?

• During Renaissance, science, arts, architecture, philosophy and literature underwent a transformation in techniques and thought. Man became the measure of all things, as earlier stated by the Greek Philosopher Protagoras(490 BC to 420 BC). Some of the Renaissance thought patterns did reflect the early Greek and Roman philosophies. Renaissance art and philosophies brought human emotions into focus.
• Renaissance art did not reject Christianity. However, there was a subtle shift in how intellectuals approached religion and other cultural areas of life. Printing was also discovered during this period.
• During the Renaissance, art and money went hand in hand. The church was one the patrons apart from wealthy noblemen, who were businessmen.

### Leonardo da Vinci’s contribution to the Renaissance period

Leonardo da Vinci’s brilliance crossed multiple disciplines, that he was referred to as the Renaissance man. Apart from the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, two works of art he is famous for, he also did extensive studies and invented various machines and also surgery.

Leonardo da Vinci also created the map of the anatomical proportions of the human body, a very important study based on the notes of the architect Vitruvius. The defining of man as the measure of all things, the essence of Renaissance is reflected in this.

## The Renaissance Timeline

1. 1346   Bubonic plague begins
2. 1350   Renaissance begins
3. 1413   Brunelleschi creates Linear Perspectives in Art
4. 1429   Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orleans
5. 1439   Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press
6. 1464   Cosimo de Medici dies (Banker and Wealthy Florentine, also one of the most important patrons of Renaissance artists)
7. 1478   The Spanish Inquisition
8. 1486   Botticelli paints the Birth of Venus
9. 1492   Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbeans
10. 1495   Leonardo da Vinci paints The Last Supper
11. 1510   Raphael paints the School of Athens Fresco
12. 1512   Michaelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel
13. 1514   Machiavelli writes the Prince
14. 1514   Thomas More writes The Utopia
15. 1517   Martin Luther creates the theses for the birth of Protestantism
16. 1559   Coronation of Queen Elizabeth the First.

## Who were the important artists of the Renaissance?

Some of the important artists of the Renaissance are :

1. Giotto di Bondone
2. Leonardo da Vinci
3. Michaelangelo Buonarroti
4. Raphael Urbino
5. Donatello
6. Titian
7. Sandro Botticelli
8. Albrecht Dürer
9. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
10. Filippo Brunelleschi
11. Hieronymus Bosch

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Helen Keller Biography http://mocomi.com/helen-keller-biography/ http://mocomi.com/helen-keller-biography/#comments Mon, 08 Jan 2018 09:12:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97807 Who was Helen Keller? Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist and lecturer. She was the first deaf – blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. After graduating from Radcliffe, she went on to become one of the most influential people in the 20th Century. She worked for the rights of […]

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# Helen Keller Biography

## Who was Helen Keller?

Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist and lecturer. She was the first deaf – blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. After graduating from Radcliffe, she went on to become one of the most influential people in the 20th Century. She worked for the rights of persons with disabilities, women and under privileged sections of society.

## Early Life

Helen Keller was born a normal child in Tuscumbia, Alabama on June 27, 1880. She lost her hearing and sight at 19 months of age to what is now diagnosed as scarlet fever. Five years later, her parents, on Alexander Graham Bell’s advice, applied to hire a teacher from the Perkins Institute for the Blind, in Boston.

### Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan

Anne Mansfield Sullivan was able to bring about an extraordinary transformation in Helen’s isolated world. She taught Helen to understand and communicate with the world around her. She went on to acquire an excellent education and become an important spokesperson for the blind and the deaf. Anne Sullivan taught Helen to read and write in Braille and hand signals of the deaf mute, which she could understand by touch. Her efforts to speak later on in life, were not as successful, when she went on to become a public figure, but she was able to make herself be understood.

## Parents and Family

Helen Adams Keller’s father Arthur H Keller, was an editor for the Tuscumbia North Alabamian and had served as a captain for the Confederate Army. Her mother Kate Adam’s father was Charles W Adams, a Confederate general, in theAmerican Civil War.

Helen had two siblings, Mildred Campbell and Philip Brooks Keller, and two older half brothers from her father’s prior marriage, James and William Simpson Keller.

## Education and Achievements

Helen Keller started attending the Perkins Institute for the Blind in May, 1888. Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller moved to New York to attend the Wright – Humason School for the Deaf, and to learn from Sarah Fuller at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf. In 1896, they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance to Radcliffe in 1900.

She became the first deaf blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree, at the age of 24 in 1904.

Helen Keller was determined to communicate with others and she learned to speak. She spent much of her life giving lectures and speeches. She learned to read lips with her finger tips, so she could ‘listen’ to other people’s speeches.

She is known for her strong support for people with disabilities. She travelled to over 25 countries, giving lectures and motivational speeches about deaf people’s conditions.

### Political and Social Activism

Apart from this, she was a woman’s rights activist, a political activist, a social activist and a pacifist. She also helped set up several foundations for the various causes she believed in, like the Helen Keller International organisation, along with George A Kessler, and it is devoted to research in vision, health and nutrition.

She also helped to found the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

## Writings and Literary Career

Helen Keller wrote a total of 12 published books and several articles.

### Books by Helen Keller

• The Frost King
• The Story of My Life
• The World I Live In
• Out of the Dark
• My Religion, later revised and published as Light in My Darkness
• and many more

### Later Years

Helen Keller suffered several strokes in 1961 and spent the last years of her life at home. She spent much of her time raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. She died in her sleep on June, 1968, at her home, ‘Arcan Ridge’, located in Easton, Connecticut, a few days short of her 88th birthday. She is buried at the Washington National Cathedral in Washington, DC.

## 6 Interesting facts about Helen Keller

1. Helen Keller is Perkins School for the Blind’s most famous student
2. She was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, in 1953
3. Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan worked for 5 years in vaudeville to supplement their income. She was promoted as the 8th Wonder of the World and told her life’s story
4. Although blind and deaf, Helen was very political and had very intelligent and strong opinions
5. She was great friends with the writer Mark Twain and inventor Graham Bell
6. Helen’s first word was ‘water’, when she understood the connection between the feeling of water running on her hand and Anne Sullivan described the word on her hand. She quickly demanded to learn as many words as possible. Anne Sullivan herself was visually impaired.

## Awards and Honours

• She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964
• Ranked one of the 100 most influential person of the 20th Century, according to TIME magazine
• A commemorative stamp was issues by the US Postal Service in 1980
• The state of Alabama issued a quarter with Helen Keller on it, during the US Mint’s commemorative 50 State Quarters Program
• She was inducted into the Alabama Women’s Hall of Fame

## 3 Famous quotes by Helen Keller

1. ‘The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart.’
2. ‘Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experience of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened, vision cleared, ambition inspired, and success achieved.’
3. ‘Your success and happiness lies in you. Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties.’

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Tokyo Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/tokyo-facts/ http://mocomi.com/tokyo-facts/#comments Thu, 04 Jan 2018 09:38:16 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97783 Where is Tokyo? Tokyo is the capital of Japan. It is one of the most populous city in the world with a population of 13.5 million. It is situated in the Kanto region, on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. It is the seat of […]

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# Tokyo Facts and Information

## Where is Tokyo?

Tokyo is the capital of Japan. It is one of the most populous city in the world with a population of 13.5 million. It is situated in the Kanto region, on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese Government.

## Who founded Tokyo?

Tokyo was formerly known as Edo. Edo means estuary in Japanese. It had been the de facto seat of the government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power. He was one of the three unifiers of Japan.

In 1868, with the arrival of Emperor Meiji, the name was changed to Tokyo. In 1943, the prefecture of Tokyo and Tokyo city were merged to form the Tokyo Metropolis.

## What is Tokyo’s culture like?

Tokyo’s culture is a mix of the traditional and the new. The contemporary culture boasts of anime, fashion, design, high end robotic electronics and pop culture.

The traditional culture and rituals of Tokyo have been carried from the Edo period. The different districts in Tokyo have their own cultural backdrop. Performing arts such as Kabuki – za, Noh, Rakugo, the making of ukiyo-e prints, the writing of the short haiku poetry, tea ceremonies, all form a part of Tokyo’s cultural backdrop.

Tokyo also has beautifully landscaped gardens, streets lined with cherry blossoms, buddhist shrines and people enjoy dressing in the traditional kimono. The people of Tokyo honour omotenashi, the Japanese sincerity in showing hospitality to visitors.

## Which are the famous heritage places to visit in Tokyo?

1. The Imperial Palace, in the Marunouchi district, was built in the Edo period. It is still in use by Imperial family.
2. Sensō-ji Temple, in the Asakusa district of Tokyo, is a shrine built for the Buddhist Goddess of Compassion, Kannon. It dates back to 645 AD.
3. Ueno Park and Zoo, is the largets green space in Tokyo. The zoo was opened in 1882.
4. The National Museum of Tokyo, has impotant Japanese and Chinese artworks and artefacts dating from 7th to 14th centuries.
5. The Meiji Shrine, dedicated to the Emperor Meiji and his wife, Empress Shoken, was built in 1915. Destroyed in WW2, it was rebuilt in 1958.

## 12 Fun Tokyo facts you should know!

1. Tokyo Metropolis has its own flag, which was adopted in 1964.
2. It is the largest urban clustering of economy. It hosts 51 of the Fortune 500 companies.
3. It is host to the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.
4. Tokyo has capsule hotels, that are the size of a large refrigerator and have televisions, wifi and an electric console.
5. Tokyo is made of 23 different wards or metropolitan areas or districts which are all distinct. And all districts are referred to as city!
6. Tokyo is home to 14 Michelin three star restaurants.
7. Tokyo’s Ritz Carlton has one of the most expensive rooms in the world, at USD 20,000.
8. Shibuya Crossing is one of the busiest street crossings in the world. Around 2500 people cross at any given time.
9. The Tokyo Tower is a communications and observation tower, in the Shiba-koen district of Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is inspired by the Eiffel Tower and built in 1958.
10. The Tokyo Skytree is a 634 meter tall broadcasting and observation tower built in 2012 and is in the Sumida district.
11. Tokyo is famous for it’s varied cuisine, which include Ramen, Okonomiyaki, Udon, Sushi, Yuba, Soba, Tempura, Gyoza, Yakiniku.
12. The National Museum of Western Art, built by the Swiss architect, Le Corbusier has works by some of the finest European artists like Rodin, Paul Cezanne, Claude Monet, Edouard Manet and Degas from the collection of the Japanese businessman Kojiro Matsukata.

Note: Don’t forget to check out Interesting Facts about Japan.

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Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion http://mocomi.com/nuclear-fission-and-nuclear-fusion/ http://mocomi.com/nuclear-fission-and-nuclear-fusion/#comments Wed, 03 Jan 2018 08:10:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97773 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion are reactions which convert matter into energy. What is matter? The world you see around us has many things and all of this is made up of matter. Matter is anything and everything in the universe that occupies space. What is the relationship between matter and energy? The matter is […]

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# Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion are reactions which convert matter into energy.

### What is matter?

The world you see around us has many things and all of this is made up of matter. Matter is anything and everything in the universe that occupies space.

### What is the relationship between matter and energy?

The matter is made up of energy. Energy is what makes us do work.

## What is nuclear fusion?

• When matter fuses together to release energy, that is nuclear fusion.
• All matter is made up of molecules, molecules are made up of atoms and atoms have a nucleus and electrons.
• The Sun produces sunlight through nuclear fusion.
• Inside the sun- where it is very hot, the nucleus of one atom and the nucleus of another atom come together and become one. A little bit of matter is left out- that little bit of matter is converted into a lot of energy.

## What is nuclear fission?

• Nuclear Fission is the process through which energy is created in nuclear power plants. It is also how nuclear bombs work.
• In nuclear fission, the nucleus of an atom breaks into two or more nuclei (plural for nucleus). When the nucleus breaks, some matter is lost, this small amount of matter is converted into a large amount of energy. These broken nuclei then go and bombard other nuclei , those nuclei then break into more nuclei and this process can go on and on releasing a tremendous amount of energy.

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Winter Olympics Facts http://mocomi.com/winter-olympics-facts/ http://mocomi.com/winter-olympics-facts/#comments Tue, 02 Jan 2018 06:42:36 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97762 What is the Winter Olympics? The Winter Olympics, officially known as the Olympic Winter Games, is a major international sporting event that takes place once every four years and is practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympics took place in 1924, in Chamonix, France. How did the idea for Winter Olympics come about? […]

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# Winter Olympics Facts

## What is the Winter Olympics?

The Winter Olympics, officially known as the Olympic Winter Games, is a major international sporting event that takes place once every four years and is practiced on snow and ice.

The first Winter Olympics took place in 1924, in Chamonix, France.

## How did the idea for Winter Olympics come about?

The idea for the Winter Olympics first came about in 1901, when the Nordic Games were held in Sweden. This gave birth to the idea for the Winter Olympics. Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the Summer Olympics tried to add figure skating to the earlier Olympics, but had been unsuccessful, till 1908.

## What are the official competitive categories of the Winter Olympics?

• Alpine Skiing
• Biathlon
• Bobsleigh
• Cross-country Skiing
• Curling
• Figure Skating
• Freestyle Skiing
• Ice Hockey
• Luge
• Nordic Combined
• Skeleton
• Ski Jumping
• Snowboarding
• Speed Skating

### How are venues for the Winter Olympics decided?

The National Olympics Committees, created in 1894, selects from within their national territory cities to put forward bids to host the Olympics.

## Which country has the most gold medals in the Winter Olympics?

Norway has the most gold medals.

### Where is the 2018 Winter Olympics taking place?

The 2018 Winter Olympics, known as the PyeongChang 2018, is taking place in Pyeongchang County, South Korea, between 9th February, 2018 to 25th February, 2018.

## 4 Fun facts about the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics

1. The mascot for the PyeongChang 2018 is a white tiger named Soohorang and Bandabi, an Asiatic black bear.
2. Pyeongchang is the smallest city to host the Olympics since 1994.
3. The slogan for the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics is ‘Passion. Connected’.
4. A pentagonal, 35,000 seat Olympic stadium has been created in Pyeongchang. It will only be used for the opening and closing ceremonies and will be torn down after the games.

Related Articles:

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Don’t Litter, Make The World Better! http://mocomi.com/dont-litter/ http://mocomi.com/dont-litter/#comments Fri, 29 Dec 2017 11:07:16 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97740 Imagine it’s a beautiful summer day, and you’re out with your friends for milkshakes in the park. You finish your milkshake and look around, but there’s no trash can for your empty cup. It’s okay to just leave it underneath the park bench, right? Nobody can even see it under there, and you want to […]

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# Don't Litter, Make The World Better!

Imagine it’s a beautiful summer day, and you’re out with your friends for milkshakes in the park. You finish your milkshake and look around, but there’s no trash can for your empty cup. It’s okay to just leave it underneath the park bench, right? Nobody can even see it under there, and you want to go play baseball. You don’t want to carry around this gross, sticky milkshake cup.

You might think it’s okay, but it’s not. Leaving your empty milkshake cup under the bench is littering.

## What is littering?

All of you must have seen the bits of wrappers, packets, plastic bags lying all around when you go for a walk, or step outside your home. That is litter. Sometimes in small quantities it is just simply annoying. But when you have huge quantities of it, it becomes garbage and causes landfills.

Landfills, not only become eye sores but also places which become breeding places for disease causing animals and pollute the environment.

## What are the effects of litter on the environment?

The litter often finds its way into drain holes and waterways, choking them. It is also carried away into our water resources, in the rainy season. Our rivers and oceans become polluted causing animals and plants to die in the water.

You must have also seen animals unknowingly eating bits of paper, or plastic thinking it is food. This harms them.

## Why cleaning up our litter is expensive?

• Sometimes when we knowingly or unknowingly throw litter, we don’t realise it might become inconvenient for someone to clean it up later. Although in cities, there are people who do go about cleaning, sometimes it is delayed. It is also expensive.
• Every year, a city’s administration spends lots of money to clean up the city on a daily basis and dispose it off. Some of our litter is biodegradable and some of it is not. And lots of people spend time and energy to make sure our cities and town are clean and healthy for us to live.

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What is Antarctic Circle? http://mocomi.com/antarctic-circle-facts/ http://mocomi.com/antarctic-circle-facts/#comments Thu, 28 Dec 2017 12:21:34 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97729 The Antarctic circle is depicted as a red line at the bottom of the globe. It is actually an imaginary line placed to the south of the Equator. Where is the Antarctic Circle located? This special line of latitude is approximately 66¹/₂ degrees south of the equator and outlines the chilly southern zone of the […]

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# What is Antarctic Circle?

The Antarctic circle is depicted as a red line at the bottom of the globe. It is actually an imaginary line placed to the south of the Equator.

## Where is the Antarctic Circle located?

This special line of latitude is approximately 66¹/₂ degrees south of the equator and outlines the chilly southern zone of the world.

## What’s inside the Antarctic Circle?

The continent of Antarctica lies within the Antarctic Circle. Antarctica is bigger than Europe and almost double the size of the continent of Australia. It remains covered in 99% ice almost throughout the year and because it experiences hardly any rain, scientists often refer to it as a desert. Antarctica has very little flora and fauna to boast of because of the harsh climatic conditions, but you would find some interesting animals such as penguins, whales seals, albatrosses, skua, snow petrel and krill.

## Why is the Antarctic Circle important?

It helps the scientists in the study of the seasonal behaviour of the sunlight. It shows direct and indirect angles of sunlight.

## What countries are in the Antarctic Circle?

There are no cities or villages in Antarctica. However, the countries nearest to the Antarctic circle are South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina.

### What oceans does the Antarctic Circle touch?

Only the Southern Ocean passes through the Antarctic circle.

## 6 Interesting facts about Antarctic Circle

1. The name ‘Antarctica’ comes from a Greek word meaning ‘opposite to the north’.
2. The coldest temperature ever recorded on the Earth was in Antarctica on July 21, 1983, when it dipped 128 degrees below zero!
3. All areas in the Antarctic Circle have twenty-four hours of daylight on the Summer Solstice in December.
4. All areas in the Antarctic Circle have twenty-four hours of night in June on the Winter Solstice.
5. The South Pole is in the center of the Antarctic Circle.
6. There is no permanent population on the Antarctic Circle. Different countries have their research centres based in Antarctica where their team of scientists stay for some time of the year and conduct research.

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Ratio and Proportion http://mocomi.com/ratio-and-proportion/ http://mocomi.com/ratio-and-proportion/#comments Wed, 27 Dec 2017 13:28:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97714 What is a ratio? Ratio is a relationship between two numerical values. It shows how many times one value contains another value. Examples of ratio When we make mango crush, we are told to add one part crush to four parts water. Which means if I take one cup of crush, I need to add […]

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# Ratio and Proportion

## What is a ratio?

Ratio is a relationship between two numerical values. It shows how many times one value contains another value.

### Examples of ratio

When we make mango crush, we are told to add one part crush to four parts water. Which means if I take one cup of crush, I need to add four cups of water. This is a relation that can be written as 1:4.

## How to solve ratios?

Sam wants to make tea with the ratio of milk to water to be 2 : 3. If he needs to make 5 cups of tea, how much milk and water will Sam need?

Answer – Sam needs a ratio of 2 : 3, thus the total parts of his mixture are 2 + 3 = 5. Since he is making 5 cups of tea, 1 cup can be said to be equal to one part.

Milk has to be 2 parts out of 5 so Sam will need 2 cups of milk.
Water has to be 3 parts out of 5 so Sam will need 3 cups of water.

## What is a proportion?

Proportion is used to describe how much of a certain component is there in something. Like our mango crush will always be one part of crush and four parts of water. Thus there is a total of 5 parts in our crush. So mango crush will always be one part out of five and thus ⅕.

## Types of proportion

### 1. Direct proportion

In the case of our crush, if we take one cup crush, we need to add four cups water. If we take two cups of crush, we will have to add eight cups of water. Thus if the quantity of one proportion increases, the quantity of the other also increases. This is called Direct Proportion.

### 2. Indirect proportion

If the quantity of one value increases, the other goes down, and vice-versa. This relationship is called Indirect Proportion.

### Examples of proportion

In some cases like in a race, the relation between speed and time taken to cover a specific distance is proportional but not directly.

If we are travelling at 20 km per hour, we will cover 20 kilometer in one hour.
If we are travelling at 40 km per hour, we will cover 20 kilometer in half an hour.

As you can see, if the quantity of one value increases, the other goes down.

## Proportion formula

If a:b::c:d then a/b=c/d

## How to solve a proportion

If a car travels 30 km in one hour, then how far will it travel in two hours?
Answer – Let us assume the car travels Z km in two hours.

By the formula of proportion-
30km : 1 hour = Z km : 2 hours

So 30/1= Z/2

Z= 30/1 x 2

Z = 60

Thus the car will travel 60 km in two hours.

1) Rachel needs to make lemonade from the lemonade syrup, she has to add syrup to water in the ratio of 1:6. How will Rachel make 14 cups of lemonade?

Options
A) 12 cups water to 2 cups syrup
B) 6 cups water to one cup syrup
C) 4 cups water to 10 cups syrup
D) 2 cups water to 12 cups syrup

2) Emma is told to make mix fruit juice with a 1:1 ratio of orange juice to pineapple juice. To make 1 liter of juice how much orange juice will she need

Options
A) 1.5 liter of orange juice
B) 1 liter of orange juice
C) 0.5 liter of orange juice
D) 0.3 liter of orange juice

1) If a car goes 20 km in two hours, how far will it go in one hour?

Options
A) 40 km
B) 30 km
C) 10 km
D) 5 km

2) Casper walks 5 km in one hour. The shop is half an hour away, how far is the shop in terms of km?

Options
A) 2.5 km
B) 3 km
C) 1 km
D) 4 km

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The Battle of Plassey http://mocomi.com/the-battle-of-plassey/ http://mocomi.com/the-battle-of-plassey/#comments Tue, 26 Dec 2017 09:22:04 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97703 Why is the Battle of Plassey important to Indian colonial history? The Battle of Plassey is considered a crucial event in Indian colonial history. The British East India Company was able to gain control after winning the battle against the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj – ud – Daulah. After this battle, the East India Company […]

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# The Battle of Plassey

## Why is the Battle of Plassey important to Indian colonial history?

The Battle of Plassey is considered a crucial event in Indian colonial history. The British East India Company was able to gain control after winning the battle against the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj – ud – Daulah. After this battle, the East India Company consolidated British presence in Bengal and then India, leading to nearly 200 years of British rule in India.

## What led to the Battle of Plassey?

The British trading company, East India Company, had been given a royal charter by Queen Elizabeth on 31st December, 1600 to pursue trade in the East Indies. It included the right to form an army.

Although territorial conquest was not a priority in the first century of the company’s operations, it soon became the agenda to maintain trade in South Asia. The company faced competition from the rival companies, French East India Company and the Dutch and Portuguese counterparts. The different companies formed allies with various rulers to extend support against rebels and usurpers in exchange for trading support.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire and several independent rulers during the three Carnatic Wars, the British gained a stronger foothold in India.

The British forces became dominant, as a result of which, the British East India Company was able to extend and establish its powers and became the British Raj.

## How did the Battle of Plassey take place?

• In 1755, Siraj – ud – Daulah, became the Nawab of Bengal and allied with the French East India company. He then proceeded to overrun British trading posts, including the ones in Calcutta, because he felt the British were overriding his power and position as Nawab. He captured Fort William in Calcutta, in the Bengal Presidency, in 1756.
• Lieutenant Colonel Robert Clive was sent from Madras to retake Calcutta. One of Siraj – ud – Daulah’s discontented followers, Mir Jafar was instrumental in betraying him to the British.
• The Battle started with the French troops supporting the Nawab. Mir Jafar failed to join in the fighting, despite pleas from the Nawab. The battle was heading for a stalement, when it started to rain. The British troops were prepared with tarpaulins to keep the gun powder dry, but the Bengali troops were unprepared.
• Unaware, the Nawab underestimated the British and open charged. The British open fired at the charging Bengali cavalry. They lost their commander, panicked and started moving back, exposing their artillery.
• The British captured the Nawab’s artillery. The Nawab fled the battlefield and Mir Jafar was installed as a puppet ruler by the British.
• This was the beginning of the rise of the British Raj in India.

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A new word is added to the dictionary every two hours! http://mocomi.com/a-new-word-is-added-to-the-dictionary-every-two-hours/ http://mocomi.com/a-new-word-is-added-to-the-dictionary-every-two-hours/#comments Fri, 22 Dec 2017 14:21:49 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97682 Em: Emma, I need to finish my English homework. Can you help me? I need to borrow your Oxford dictionary. Emma: Sure I will help you Em, but do remind me to buy the new version of the dictionary tomorrow. Em: New version? Isn’t a dictionary like, forever? Emma: No it isn’t. Do you know […]

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# A new word is added to the dictionary every two hours!

Em: Emma, I need to finish my English homework. Can you help me? I need to borrow your Oxford dictionary.
Emma: Sure I will help you Em, but do remind me to buy the new version of the dictionary tomorrow.
Em: New version? Isn’t a dictionary like, forever?
Emma: No it isn’t. Do you know that a new word is added to the dictionary every two hours? So if that happens every day, imagine how many words will be added to the dictionary in a year!
Em: Wow! Is that so… but where do they get hold of so many new words from?

## How are new words born?

Reason: Everywhere. There can be old words or phrases which have been used and the meanings not known or new phrases or words or even slang words used today to communicate.
Emma: Oh right, I came to know that the word ‘Oompa Loompa’ from Charlie and the Chocolate factory has been added to the Oxford dictionary.
Em: ‘Oompa Loompa’? Really? Hahahaha. That’s silly!
Emma: You are silly!
Reason: She is right Em. These are not just any silly words that are added. They are added because they have a meaning or refer to something unique.
Em: That is interesting. I can’t imagine how much people who make dictionaries read!
Reason: They do read a lot! Today Oxford Dictionary is one of the largest and longest running research projects. Changes in language reflect in the day to day world… and so does in the dictionaries.
Em: Well, then let’s go get the new version of the Dictionary and then get on with the homework. Maybe we can fit in some new words too!
Emma: Oh sure! That’s likely, nincompoop.
Em: Huh?
Emma: Go get a dictionary.

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Aung San Suu Kyi Biography http://mocomi.com/aung-san-suu-kyi-biography/ http://mocomi.com/aung-san-suu-kyi-biography/#comments Thu, 21 Dec 2017 11:39:44 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97617 Early life Aung San Suu Kyi was born on June 19, 1945, was born to a Burmese General Aung San and his wife, Daw Khin Kyi. Her father had helped Burma in gaining independence from the United Kingdom in the year 1947. He was assassinated the same year. After her father’s demise, her mother looked […]

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# Aung San Suu Kyi Biography

## Early life

Aung San Suu Kyi was born on June 19, 1945, was born to a Burmese General Aung San and his wife, Daw Khin Kyi. Her father had helped Burma in gaining independence from the United Kingdom in the year 1947. He was assassinated the same year. After her father’s demise, her mother looked after her solely.

## Education and career

Suu Kyi received her early education in Rangoon, Burma (now known as Myanmar) until she was 15 years old. In 1960, she came to India with her mother when she came as the Burmese ambassador to India and Nepal. Suu Kyi studied politics at the Delhi University. She earned a bachelor’s degree in philosophy, politics and economics from St. Hugh’s College, Oxford University. Thereafter, she started working for the UN. In 1972, she got married to Dr. Michael Aris, a professor of Tibetan culture who lived in Bhutan, and had two children.

## Entry into active politics

In 1988, she returned to Burma to take care of her sick mother. She noticed that the Burmese people desired to break free from the military rule and wanted democracy. She decided to help her countrymen in establishing the democratic order in the country. Towards this purpose, she formed the National League for Democracy on 27 September, 1988.

## Arrest and elections

Aung San Suu Kyi was arrested in 1989 and put behind bars in 1990. This happened just after an election in which her party, then National League for Democracy, had won by a considerable majority. The military, however, still did not allow her to take charge of her country. Between 1990 to 2010, she was either kept in the prison or in the house arrest. During the periods of confinement, Kyi engaged herself in studying languages such as French and Japanese, meditation and exercising.

### Myanmar’s first free general election

In November 2010, Myanmar held its first general elections in 20 years. The army-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party won by a large majority. The new government released Suu Kyi from house arrest. In April 2012, Suu Kyi stood in the elections and won a seat for herself in the parliament. Moving on, she led her party to a majority win in Myanmar’s first openly contested election in November 2015. Today, she is the state counsellor of Myanmar and a close confidant of the President, Htin Kyaw.

## Awards and accomplishments

Aung San Suu Kyi has played a vital role in establishing democracy in Myanmar. Her outstanding contribution is that Myanmar politics is recognized by the world.
Suu Kyi received the Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize and the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990.

### Nobel Peace Prize

In 1991, she received the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize, and in 1992, she was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding by India. The US House of Representatives awarded her the Congressional Gold Medal in 2007. At that time, she was still in the prison. She was made an honorary citizen of Canada. In 2014, she was listed as the 61st most powerful woman in the world by Forbes.

## 4 Interesting facts about Aung San Suu Kyi

1. Aung San Suu Kyi’s name is made up from the names of three of her family members- ‘Kyi’ from her mother, ‘Aung San’ from her father and ‘Suu’ from her grandmother’s name.
2. Aung San Suu Kyi has been in the prison or under house arrest for more than 15 years
3. She is deeply influenced by the ideologies of Mahatma Gandhi and Buddhism.
4. Aung San Suu Kyi has also authored a number of books. Her most popular works are – Freedom from Fear, The Voice Of Hope, Let’s Visit Burma and Letters from Burma

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Structure of An Atom http://mocomi.com/structure-of-an-atom/ http://mocomi.com/structure-of-an-atom/#comments Wed, 20 Dec 2017 09:21:14 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97668 What is an atom? Everything in our universe is made of matter and matter is made of atoms. An atom maybe described as the smallest particle that matter is made with and has the properties of a chemical element. An atom is minute in size and typical sizes are in picometers, a ten billionth of […]

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# Structure of An Atom

## What is an atom?

Everything in our universe is made of matter and matter is made of atoms. An atom maybe described as the smallest particle that matter is made with and has the properties of a chemical element. An atom is minute in size and typical sizes are in picometers, a ten billionth of a meter.

## What are atoms made of?

An atom is made of three parts – protons, neutrons and electrons.

Each of these parts has an associated charge. The protons carry a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge and neutron possess no charge. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom and electrons orbit the nucleus at different energy levels.

### What is atomic number?

Atomic number of an atom is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

### What is atomic mass?

Atomic mass of an atom is equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom.

## Parts of an atom

### What is a proton?

A proton is a positively charged particle found within the atom’s nucleus. Rutherford discovered them in his experiments with cathode ray tubes.

The number of protons in an atom define what the element is. This is what is referred to as the atomic number of that element. The number of protons also determine the chemical behaviour of that element.

### What is a neutron?

A neutron is the neutral part of the atom’s nucleus, with no electric charge, and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. It was discovered by the English physicist, James Chadwick.
Neutrons and protons combined make up the mass of the atom. We can find the number of neutrons if we know the atomic mass and the atomic number of an element, using this simple equation.

Atomic Mass – Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons

Atoms of the same element may have different number of neutrons. Adding neutrons changes the radioactivity of the element, without changing the charge of the atom. This is important in nuclear physics.

### What is an electron?

An electron is a negatively charged part of the atom found outside the nucleus in orbits and are attached to the protons in the atom with electromagnetic force. Closer the electron to the nucleus, the stronger the electromagnetic force between them.

Electrons can escape from their orbit in response to an external energy being applied. It can also change its state to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with sufficient energy to boost it to a new quantum state. It can also drop down to lower energy state emitting the excessive energy as a photon.

Atoms are neutral if the number of protons and electrons are equal. Atoms that have an excess or deficit of electrons are called ions. Electrons have no internal structure, though protons and neutrons on the other hand are made of quarks.

## Thomson’s model of an atom

The Thomson Model of an atom was proposed by JJ Thomson, in 1897. He discovered electrons while experimenting with cathode ray tube. The cathode ray tube was negatively charged. He also studied positively charged particles in neon gas. Although his theory explained somethings about atoms and electrons, it failed to provide sufficient information about the positively charged particles and the nucleus of the atom.

## Rutherford model of an atom

After the model of an atom, by Thomson, was unable to explain the positively charged particles in an atom, Ernest Rutherford proved the presence of positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom through the gold foil experiment. This theory proved that the nucleus of an atom contains positively charged particles.

## Bohr’s model of an atom

Bohr’s model of an atom was proposed by Neil Bohr in 1915. He specified that electrons move in fixed orbits/shells, which have fixed energy levels.

### What is valency?

Valency is a measure of the reactivity of an atom. It is defined by the capacity of the atom to lose or gain valence electrons in the valence shell.
Every atom wants to have 8 electrons in the valence shell and this is known as the octet rule.

### What are isotopes?

Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but that have a different number of neutrons. Since the atomic number is equal to the number of protons and neutrons, isotopes have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers.

Carbon 14, used in carbon dating to find out the age of really old archeological and biological remains, is an isotope of carbon.
Tritium, an isotope of hydrogen, is used to make glow in the dark faces on clocks and wrist watches.

### What are isobars?

Isobars are defined as atoms of different elements that have the same atomic mass number, but different atomic number.
Carbon 14 and Nitrogen have the same mass number, which is 14, hence they are isobars.

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How to write an essay? http://mocomi.com/how-to-write-an-essay/ http://mocomi.com/how-to-write-an-essay/#comments Tue, 19 Dec 2017 12:37:58 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97657 What is an essay? Essays are brief, non – fiction compositions that describe, clarify, argue or analyse a subject. An essay is composed of an introduction, body and conclusion. An essay will teach you to communicate with specific readers as it is a shorter form of communication with a clear beginning, middle and end. Basics […]

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# How to write an essay?

## What is an essay?

Essays are brief, non – fiction compositions that describe, clarify, argue or analyse a subject. An essay is composed of an introduction, body and conclusion. An essay will teach you to communicate with specific readers as it is a shorter form of communication with a clear beginning, middle and end.

## Basics of essay writing

The purpose of your essay is determined by your goal. Some essays will be to either inform, to persuade, to explain or to entertain.

To write a good essay, it is very important to first understand the purpose and the title. A good title will make sure you :

1. Understand the precise task set by the title.
2. Identify the right research or reference material.
3. Divide the content of your essay before you begin to write it, which is introduction, body and conclusion and are able to have a clear thesis statement.
4. Are able to construct informative content in the body text and have an effective conclusion for it.

## Importance of research in an essay

A well researched essay is interesting to read as well as makes sure, the reader can understand what you are trying to say, without too much trouble. Research makes sure you have understood and can prove what you are communicating.

## How to organize your essay?

A well written essay makes interesting reading, irrespective of the subject. Some of these points help you to write it better.

1. After you finish, read it again and see if it has covered the points you want to communicate.
2. Is the language kept clear, without the use of words you do not understand?
3. Made sure your body text essay is divided into paragraphs to separate or breakdown the points or topic you are discussing.
4. Make sure your essay has enough examples if it is explaining something.

## So, how to write a good essay?

Here is a simple way to write a good essay.

Step 1. Title of the Essay

• Decide the title of your essay.

Step 2. Introduction of the Essay

• When writing the introduction, remember, the introduction should have two important parts. A sentence outlining what your essay will be about and a sentence outlining what your point of view on the subject of your essay is. It should be interesting enough to attract the attention of the reader.

Step 3. Text Body or Content Text Body of the Essay

• Writing the body of the essay requires that you organise the subject of your essay into parts.
• Divide each point into paragraphs. Illustrate and support the points with research, diagrams, illustrations and comparisons to explain it well.

Step 4. Conclusion or Ending to the Essay

• Writing the conclusion will help you put together the points you have discussed in the essay into a simple and logical way. Make sure it is brief and presents your point of view well.

## Quick writing tips

1. Practice writing simple sentences every day.
2. Learn a new word every day, with its meaning.
3. Practice punctuations and grammar.

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Difference between elements and compounds http://mocomi.com/difference-between-elements-and-compounds/ http://mocomi.com/difference-between-elements-and-compounds/#comments Mon, 18 Dec 2017 12:48:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97646 What is an element? An element maybe defined as any substance that : Contains only one kind of atom. It cannot be broken down into a simpler form due to either a chemical or physical means (Copper or Sulphur) Can exist as either atoms or molecules (Oxygen or Nitrogen) Elements are arranged in the periodic […]

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# Difference between elements and compounds

## What is an element?

An element maybe defined as any substance that :

• Contains only one kind of atom.
• It cannot be broken down into a simpler form due to either a chemical or physical means (Copper or Sulphur)
• Can exist as either atoms or molecules (Oxygen or Nitrogen)
• Elements are arranged in the periodic table and are assigned a unique symbol based on their name.
• Elements are divided into three categories that have characteristic properties: metals, non metals and semi – metals.

## What is a compound?

A compound consists of two or more elements bonded together through a chemical reaction. A compound can be separated into its constituting elements only through a chemical reaction.

## Types of compounds

These are divided into ionic compounds and covalent compounds.

### 1. Ionic compounds

They are made of electrically charged atoms or molecules, as a result of gaining or losing electrons. Ions of opposite charges form ionic compounds and usually a metal reacting with a non – metal.

• NaCl
• CO
• KI

### 2. Covalent compounds

Also known as molecular compounds, these are formed when two non metals react with each other. The elements form a compound by sharing electrons, resulting in an electrically neutral molecule.

1. C6H6
2. CH3COOH
3. C2H5OH

## How do we write a compound formula?

The names of compounds are their chemical formula. These are generally descriptions of their composition and the valency of the elements. An element can form a compound with another element, only if the outer shell has electrons to either give or space to take electrons to form the electron octet.

### The naming is done by :

• Writing the symbol for the composition of the compound with the cation first and the anion after.
• Determine the valance or charge of each element and place it in brackets above the symbol.
• Balance the total positive and total negative charge on the cation and anion. The total of cation and anion must be zero.

Most compounds are named by the elements’ position on the periodic table.

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Why do we have feelings? http://mocomi.com/why-do-we-have-feelings/ http://mocomi.com/why-do-we-have-feelings/#comments Fri, 15 Dec 2017 15:02:35 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97631 Imagine you went home from school one day and there was a nice warm delicious pie waiting for you. It would make you happy, right? Now imagine you went home from a bad day at school knowing there was going to be a delicious hot pie waiting for you; only to find out there is […]

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# Why do we have feelings?

Imagine you went home from school one day and there was a nice warm delicious pie waiting for you. It would make you happy, right?

Now imagine you went home from a bad day at school knowing there was going to be a delicious hot pie waiting for you; only to find out there is no pie. How would you feel? Probably quite sad and disappointed, right?

Happiness, contentment, love, bitterness, worry are some of many feelings we have. To understand why we have feeling, we must first understand, ‘What are feeling.’

## What are feelings?

Feelings are mental associations and reactions to an emotion. They are coloured by our personal experiences and beliefs. Wait a minute. Aren’t feelings and emotions the same?

Well, they are many times used interchangeably so one might think they are the same, but the truth is that they are DIFFERENT.

## What are emotions?

Emotions are involuntary bodily responses like when you’re when you go to school and come to know there is a surprise test. Your pulse increases and you feel uneasy in your stomach.

### What is the difference between feelings and emotions?

On the other hand, feelings make of you aware of your emotions. So, feelings arise out of the narrative we give to the emotion. To understand this better, imagine you are sleeping peacefully at night and suddenly hear a loud knock on your bedroom door. You will instantly experience fear and your heart will beat faster. You might break into a sweat. While describing this incident to someone you will describe it as, “I felt terrified. It was really scary to imagine there might be an imposter in the house. I felt a sense of panic. ‘Terrified, scared, panic-stricken,’ are all feelings that are extension of the basic emotion of fear.

## Why do we have these feelings and emotions?

• So, one might wonder, WHY do we have these feelings? Isn’t life complicated enough with so many emotions.
• Well, feeling might sometimes seem like a burden when they grow intense, like the feeling of grief or distress when you lose or break your favourite toy or when your beloved pet gets hurt.
• But feelings are important as without them we would not have been able to build and accomplish our goals. Without care, wonder, expectation and a sense of pride; we wouldn’t have developed as a society.
• Even animals have emotion. Think about a deer caught in headlight. It does experience fear. But it stops there. There is no feeling of horror as animals don’t have the symbolism of language and the sense to rationalize to turn that emotion into a feeling.
• So, if we didn’t have feelings, we would be no different from animals. It is the ability to reason about the past and future and to have feelings that give way to action that has allowed us to dominate the food chain. It has helped us shape the world for our future through inventions and discoveries and the will to survive.
• So, the next time you feel distressed or perplexed, know that the feeling is what makes you human and it will eventually pass.

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Etruscan Shrew Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/etruscan-shrew-facts/ http://mocomi.com/etruscan-shrew-facts/#comments Thu, 14 Dec 2017 12:01:07 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97619 What is an Etruscan Shrew? The Etruscan shrew is the smallest mammal known by its body mass. It lives in the forests of Southern Asia and Southern Europe. It is also known as the etruscan pygmy shrew or the white – toothed pygmy shrew. It’s biological name is Suncus etruscus. The smallest living mammal The […]

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# Etruscan Shrew Facts and Information

## What is an Etruscan Shrew?

The Etruscan shrew is the smallest mammal known by its body mass. It lives in the forests of Southern Asia and Southern Europe. It is also known as the etruscan pygmy shrew or the white – toothed pygmy shrew. It’s biological name is Suncus etruscus.

### The smallest living mammal

The smallest mammal known by its size on the other hand, is the bumble bee bat, inhabitant of Thailand and Myanmar.

## What does the Etruscan Shrew look like?

Being the smallest mammal, its average body weight is about 1.8 grams(0.063 oz) and it measures about 4 cms(1.6 inches), excluding the tail. The head is relatively large with a long, mobile proboscis and its hind legs are comparatively small.

### Animal with the fastest heart rate

Because of their small size, the Etruscan shrew has a very high metabolic rate and the heart beats at very high rates per second. The heart is relatively large and is 1.2% of their body mass and beats at 1511 beats per minute. The shrews eat almost two times their weight in a day and eat every two hours or they will starve. They do not hibernate and because of this high metabolic rate, the shrews do not sleep and seldom rest for more than a few seconds.

## What is a typical Etruscan Shrew’s life like?

• The Etruscan shrew are insectivores. Although they prey on insects, they are themselves pryed on by birds like buzzards, owls cats and other small predators.
• The largest threat to shrews however comes from humans to their nesting grounds and living habitats, as a result of farming and agricultural practices.

## 3 Amazing facts about the Etruscan Shrew

1. Etruscan shrews generally live alone and can be very territorial, except during mating seasons.
2. Etruscan shrews are known as short – range, high speed hunters. In darkness, they can detect, overwhelm, and kill their fast moving insect prey, which can be almost their size.
3. They have a life span of one and half years.

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What is Flora and Fauna? http://mocomi.com/what-is-flora-and-fauna/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-flora-and-fauna/#comments Wed, 13 Dec 2017 12:00:27 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97604 What is the difference between flora and fauna? The words flora and fauna are used by the scientists to describe the plant and animal life in a region or area. What is flora? The word ‘flora’ comes from the Latin word ‘Flora’ who was believed to be the princess of flowers. Flora is a collective […]

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# What is Flora and Fauna?

## What is the difference between flora and fauna?

The words flora and fauna are used by the scientists to describe the plant and animal life in a region or area.

### What is flora?

The word ‘flora’ comes from the Latin word ‘Flora’ who was believed to be the princess of flowers. Flora is a collective noun used to describe all the plants, trees, fungi and bacteria that may be present in a particular region.

### What is fauna?

Fauna comes from two Greek words ‘Faunus’, the name of a Roman god and ‘Fauna’, the name of a mythical Roman goddess. It is a collective noun that is used to describe all the animal life in a particular region.

## Importance of flora and fauna

The flora and fauna present in the different corners of the Earth have made life possible on this planet. Both plants, as well as animals, help in maintaining the delicate ecological balance on Earth. The flora produces the oxygen which is taken in by the fauna. In turn, the fauna releases the carbon dioxide that the flora needs to live. So, one cannot live without the other, and we, humans, cannot live without either. The existence of one species depends upon the existence of the other. For example – Pandas eat only bamboo shoots. The destruction of the bamboo forests in China has driven Pandas on the brink of extinction due to food shortage and habitat loss.

### Why does India have a rich heritage of flora and fauna?

India is a country with different types of soils, climatic conditions and geographical features which is why it supports a broad spectrum of species of flora and fauna.

## What is so special about the flora and fauna of Australia?

Australia’s ecosystem is a unique one because of its unique location. As a result, many species of animals and plants that are found here are not found anywhere else in the world, such as the platypus, kangaroo, echidna, and koala. The small continent of Australia has more than 516 national parks to protect its unique plants and animals. There are several types of rainforests in Australia such as the tropical rain forests, subtropical rainforests and broadleaf rain forests.

## 2 Interesting facts about flora and fauna

1. Botanists, or plant scientists, mainly study flora, while zoologists study fauna. Ecologists are the scientists who study both flora and fauna together.
2. India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world and has about 47,000 plant species and 89,000 species of animals.

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Red Cross Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/red-cross-facts-and-information/ http://mocomi.com/red-cross-facts-and-information/#comments Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:20:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97592 What is the Red Cross? The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the world’s largest humanitarian network that helps needy people during the times of war and natural disasters. It comprises of: The International Committee of the Red Cross The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies National Red Cross and […]

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# Red Cross Facts and Information

## What is the Red Cross?

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the world’s largest humanitarian network that helps needy people during the times of war and natural disasters. It comprises of:

• The International Committee of the Red Cross
• The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
• National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies with 190 registered societies

## How was the Red Cross formed?

It was a horrific battle that gave birth to the idea for the Red Cross. In 1859, a Swiss entrepreneur Jean Henri Dunant went to meet the French Emperor Napoleon III, seeking his help for a business venture. Dunant did not get a chance to meet the French emperor. However, he happened to witness a gruesome battle – the Battle of Solferino, in which some 40,000 troops were killed or wounded in a single day. Realizing that neither of the warring armies had the medical corps, Dunant arranged for a group of volunteers to bring medical aid and food to the wounded.

### International Committee for Relief to the Wounded

In 1863, Dunant, with four other men in Geneva, established an organization called ‘International Committee for Relief to the Wounded’ which was later renamed as the Red Cross. After a year in 1864, under the leadership of Red Cross, 16 countries held a conference at Geneva and signed the Geneva Convention which is now a code of conduct for war for protecting wounded soldiers, Red Cross volunteers, prisoners of wars and civilian population. The same meeting adopted the white flag with a red cross which is the reverse of the Swiss flag, having a white cross in the background.

## What does the Red Cross do?

The mission of the Red Cross is to provide humanitarian service for victims of war and natural disasters. During wartime, it provides its services to the wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. It also provides medical aid to the victims of natural disasters such as tsunami, drought, earthquake and flood. During peacetime, it organises educational awareness campaigns to improve the health of the general public. Blood bank management, ambulance service, mobile health camps, health training, tree plantation and sanitation are some of the main activities of the Red Cross volunteers.

## 8 Interesting facts about the Red Cross

1. World Red Cross Day is celebrated on May 8 every year, to commemorate the birth anniversary of the movement’s founder, Jean Henri Dunant.
2. For coming up with the idea of Red Cross and his contribution towards its activities, Jean Henri Dunant was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Peace in 1901.
3. The Red Cross network had raised more than $3 billion for relief for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami victims. 4. In the year 2008, the IFRC responded to 623 disasters worldwide. 5. The network has more than 97 million staff, volunteers, and supporters. 6. Red Cross known as Red Crescent in the Muslim countries and Red Star in Israel. 7. The Red Cross organisation has won three Nobel Peace Prizes-in 1917, 1944 and 1963. 8. The writer Hemingway was an ambulance driver in World War 1. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/red-cross-facts-and-information/feed/ 0 Great Blue Hole of Belize Facts http://mocomi.com/great-blue-hole-of-belize/ http://mocomi.com/great-blue-hole-of-belize/#comments Mon, 11 Dec 2017 12:04:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97556 What is the Great Blue Hole of Belize? The Great Blue Hole is a huge submarine sinkhole. It is located near the center of the Lighthouse Reef, a small island 100 kilometres from the Belize City. How deep is the Great Blue Hole of belize? The hole is circular in shape, and is over 300 […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # Great Blue Hole of Belize Facts ## What is the Great Blue Hole of Belize? The Great Blue Hole is a huge submarine sinkhole. It is located near the center of the Lighthouse Reef, a small island 100 kilometres from the Belize City. ## How deep is the Great Blue Hole of belize? The hole is circular in shape, and is over 300 meters across and 125 meters deep. It is the world’s largest natural formation of its kind and is an integral part of the larger Barrier Reef Reserve System, which is a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). ## How was the Great Blue Hole Belize formed? The Great Blue Hole formed in stages, starting about 153,000 years ago as a sinkhole. The sinkhole originally formed as a limestone cave during the last glacial period. This was a time when the sea levels were much lower. As the ocean started to rise, the cave got flooded and finally collapsed, resulting in a ‘vertical cave’ in the ocean. This research was done by French Naval Officer and pioneer marine biologist, Jacques Cousteau, in the year 1971. ### Who named the Great Blue Hole Belize? The name ‘Great Blue Hole’ was given to this spectacular natural geographic feature by the British diver and author Ned Middleton, in his book Ten Years Underwater. ## What type of animals and plants are found in the Great Blue Hole of Belize? There are over 500 rare forms of animal and plant life found in the Great Blue Hole of Belize. Here, you would be able to meet several unique species of fish, including Midnight Parrotfish, Caribbean Reef Shark, and other rare fishes. ### What kind of sharks are in the Blue Hole Belize? Sharks such as the Bull Shark and Hammerheads, have also been reported here. ## 3 Interesting facts about Great Blue Hole of Belize 1. Each year, more than 200,000 people come to visit the Great Blue Hole of Belize from all over the world. 2. The Blue Hole Monument is one of the seven wonders of the Belize’s World Heritage site. 3. The Discovery Channel placed the Great Blue Hole Belize at number one on its list of ‘The 10 Most Amazing Places on Earth’. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/great-blue-hole-of-belize/feed/ 0 Discovery of Magnets http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-magnets/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-magnets/#comments Fri, 08 Dec 2017 13:00:21 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97572 Who discovered magnets? Legend has it that magnets were discovered accidentally by a Greek shepherd named Magnes. While tending his sheep in a region of northern Greece called Magnesia, the shepherd took a step and suddenly found that the metal tip of his shoe was stuck on a rock he was standing on. Puzzled, he […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # Discovery of Magnets ## Who discovered magnets? Legend has it that magnets were discovered accidentally by a Greek shepherd named Magnes. While tending his sheep in a region of northern Greece called Magnesia, the shepherd took a step and suddenly found that the metal tip of his shoe was stuck on a rock he was standing on. Puzzled, he began digging and discovered the first recorded lodestone. It is said that since then Lodestone started getting known as “magnetite”, probably named after Magnes or Magnesia. Although the term lodestone comes from the Anglo-Saxon meaning “leading stone” ## How were magnets first used? The first documented use of magnets has been for a compass. Between the years 1405 and 1433, Zheng He of Yunnan province mentioned the use of a compass with a magnetic needle as he recorded his voyages across seven oceans. Although it is argued that the earliest understanding of magnet as a guide in a compass for seamen was recorded in 1180 by an Englishman Alexander Neckam. And by 1820, the Dutch scientist Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnets which a year later French physicist Andre Ampere expanded it further. Electromagnetism is used in all kind of electronic devices we use today, e.g. Hard disk drives, speakers, motors and generators. They are also used for MRI machines to take pictures of your body parts to detect any health issue! This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-magnets/feed/ 0 How is the American President elected? http://mocomi.com/how-is-the-american-president-elected/ http://mocomi.com/how-is-the-american-president-elected/#comments Wed, 06 Dec 2017 11:55:33 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97558 Requirements to become President of the United States The American constitution states that the presidential candidate should be – 35 years of age A United States of America resident for 14 years A ‘natural born citizen’ of the United States of America Voting rights in the United States The government of the United States of […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # How is the American President elected? ## Requirements to become President of the United States The American constitution states that the presidential candidate should be – • 35 years of age • A United States of America resident for 14 years • A ‘natural born citizen’ of the United States of America ## Voting rights in the United States The government of the United States of America, gives the right to every person over the age of 18 to vote. Voting is considered not just a right, but also a privilege and a big responsibility. ## Political parties in the United States The two main political parties in the United States are the Republican and Democratic Parties. Members of both the parties have different views on different issues related to the country. It is a good thing as different sides of important issues get discussed and voted on. ## How do candidates take part in the elections? A presidential candidate first makes an official announcement that he or she is running for president. Then, he/she files papers with the federal elections commission, which controls the election process. Candidates usually make these announcements atleast a year before the presidential election. This is done to ensure enough time for the election campaigns. ### Canvassing of votes for President Once the candidates file their names for the election, they make an endeavour to remain in the public eye. This process is known as election campaigns or canvassing. The candidates try to convince voters to vote for them. They give elaborate public speeches and tell people about their agendas and what reforms will they introduce upon getting elected. They also run advertisements on TV, distribute buttons, and have debates to let the citizens know why they are the best candidate for the job. ## How is the President elected? The American President is elected by the Electoral College. The American President is elected according to the process of the Electoral College. The citizens of the US do not directly elect the President. People actually vote for an elector from their state, and these electors then vote for President. Each state has a specific number of delegates in the Electoral College based on the population of the state. Once all the votes are in, the candidate who wins the majority of electoral votes, becomes the President. There are 538 total electors in the United States and a total of 270 electoral votes is required to win the presidential election. ## How are votes counted? After the polls close on the day of the election, the process of counting the votes begins. Each state has a different method to collect and tabulate ballots. Some are electronic, while others are paper-based. The votes are counted in a joint session of Congress. ### What are primary elections or caucuses? When the elections are on, the people in the United States gather to show their support for different candidates. Such gatherings are known as the primary elections or caucuses. During the primary elections, the voters get ballots having a list of the names of the candidates running for president. They go to a polling booth and vote for their favourite candidate. ## What is a swing state? In American politics, the term swing state implies to any state that could be easily won by either the Democratic or Republican presidential candidate. These states are usually targeted by both the major fighting political parties. ## 5 Interesting facts about the United States Presidential Elections 1. Earlier only white men over the age of 21 were allowed to vote in the United States of America, but it was changed later on and now everyone over 18 years of age can vote regardless of race or gender. 2. The process of voting is extremely important for the democratic countries as by way of voting people get to have their say in the government. 3. The first automatic voting machine was invented in 1898. 4. Other political parties in the USA are Reform, Green, Natural Law, and Libertarian. 5. The major swing states in the United States are Florida, Ohio and Pennsylvania. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/how-is-the-american-president-elected/feed/ 0 What is a region? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-region/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-region/#comments Tue, 05 Dec 2017 12:53:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97545 Definition of Region A region is a specific area that has common features. A region may have common natural or artificial features. A region can be based on language, government, religion, type of flora and fauna or climate. Regions are the basic units of geography. Why do Geographers use regions to study the Earth? It […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # What is a region? ## Definition of Region A region is a specific area that has common features. A region may have common natural or artificial features. A region can be based on language, government, religion, type of flora and fauna or climate. Regions are the basic units of geography. ### Why do Geographers use regions to study the Earth? It is impossible to study our planet Earth as one unit or region as there is so much of information to be incorporated. Regions are one way to arrange and simplify this huge amount of information. ## What is Regional Geography? Regional geography is the branch of Geography that deals with the division and study of the Earth into different regions. The famous geographer, Paul Vidal de la Blanche is regarded as the father of Regional Geography. ## Types of regions ### 1. Physical or Land region Physical or land region is an area with geographic boundaries. For example- in the United States, there is a major physical region known as the Great Plains. This specific region has a lot of grass, is flat, and is home to animals like bison and antelope. Similarly, the Amazon River region in South America is characterized by warm temperatures, heavy rainfall, and similar diversity of plant and animal species. ### 2. Cultural region People in one cultural region have same beliefs, speak the same language, eat the same food and have same cultural practices. ### 3. Political region Political regions are decided on the basis of the political party ruling over that particular area. States are an example of the political regions. ## What are the different regions of the world? According to the United Nations, the world is composed of 10 major geographic regions: Africa, Asia, North America, South America, Central America, Eastern Europe, the European Union, the Middle East, the Caribbean and Oceania. ## Different regions of the United States of America The United States is divided into five major regions – 1. Northeast region that includes Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland Climate. The Northeast region has a humid continental climate with cool summers. The temperatures in these areas remain mostly below freezing. Major geographical features include the Appalachian Mountains, Atlantic Ocean, Great Lakes. 2. Southeast region that includes West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida. The climate in this region is humid subtropical with hot summers. This region is hurricane prone. Major geographical features include the Appalachian Mountains, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Mississippi River. 3. Midwest region including Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota. The climate is humid continental throughout most of the region. Major geographical features comprise of Great Lakes, Great Plains, and Mississippi River. 4. Southwest region including Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona. The climate is Semiarid Steppe in the western area and humid towards the east. Major geographical features are Rocky Mountains, Colorado River, Grand Canyon, and the Gulf of Mexico. 5. West region including Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Utah, Nevada, California, Alaska. This region has a range of climates including semiarid to alpine and Mediterranean to Desert as well. Major geographical features include Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada Mountains, Mohave Desert and the Pacific Ocean. ## 2 Interesting facts about region 1. Due to plate tectonics, or the movement of the Earth’s crust, geographic regions are constantly being created and destroyed over time. 2. Regional geography specifically started getting popularity in the United States and Europe during the period between World Wars I and II. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-region/feed/ 0 Napoleon Bonaparte Biography http://mocomi.com/napoleon-bonaparte/ http://mocomi.com/napoleon-bonaparte/#comments Mon, 04 Dec 2017 06:25:47 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97533 Who was Napoleon? Napoleon was a great military leader and the emperor of France. He was born on August 15, 1769 at Ajaccio, Corsica. His father was Carlo Buonaparte was a lawyer at the court of the French King. Since Napoleon came from a wealthy family, he was able to go to the best of […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # Napoleon Bonaparte Biography ## Who was Napoleon? Napoleon was a great military leader and the emperor of France. He was born on August 15, 1769 at Ajaccio, Corsica. His father was Carlo Buonaparte was a lawyer at the court of the French King. Since Napoleon came from a wealthy family, he was able to go to the best of the schools and get a good education. He went to a military academy in France and became an officer in the army. After his father’s demise, Napoleon returned to Corsica to help in handling the family’s affairs. While in Corsica, Napoleon joined hands with a local revolutionary – Pasquale Paoli and helped him in fighting against the French. Soon after, he changed sides and returned to France. Napoleon married his first wife, Josephine, in 1796 but divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie-Louise of Austria. ### How did Napoleon become the ruler of France? At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians. With his amazing leadership and warfare skills, he won over the Italian Peninsula and became a national hero. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt which was extremely successful. In 1799, the ruling government in France called the Directory, started to lose its control over the country. Together with his supporters, in 1804, Napoleon formed a new government called the Consulate and gave himself the title of First Consul. ## How was Napoleon as a ruler? As the Consul of France, Napoleon established a number of government reforms. One of these reforms was the famous Napoleonic Code which stated that government positions would not be appointed based on a person’s birth or religion, but on their qualifications and ability. Before the French Revolution and the implementation of the Napoleonic Code, all high positions were bagged by those from the royal families or to those whom the kings favoured. Napoleon gave a boost to the French economy by building new roads and promoting business. He re-established Christianity as the official state religion, but at the same time allowed for freedom of religion to his citizens. Napoleon also set up non-religious schools, so children could get education. Napoleon’s power and control continued to grow with his reforms. In 1804, he crowned himself the Emperor of France. ## Napoleon’s military timeline Napoleon defeated the Austrian and Russian armies at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. • 1811 – France controlled most of Europe. • 1812 – Napoleon decided to invade Russia. • 1813 – Most of Europe had turned against France. Prussia and Spain declare war on France. • 1814 – Napoleon was forced into exile on the island of Elba. • 1815 – Napoleon escaped from Elba and gathered his army and took control of Paris for a period also known as the Hundred Days. • 1815 – In June, the armies of English and Prussia, led by Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. This time Napoleon was once again forced into exile on the island of Saint Helena. ### When did Napoleon Bonaparte died? • Napoleon died on May 5, 1821 ## 5 Interesting facts about Napoleon Bonaparte 1. Napoleon’s nickname was Little Corporal. 2. Napoleon is famous for being fairly short, probably 5 feet 6 inches tall. 3. His birth name was Napoleone di Buonaparte. 4. He wrote a romance novel called Clisson et Eugenie. 5. In 1804, he was crowned the Emperor France. At the coronation, he did not allow the Pope to place the crown on his head, but instead crowned himself. ## 5 Famous Quotes by Napoleon Bonaparte 1. A soldier will fight long and hard for a bit of coloured ribbon 2. If you want a thing done well, do it yourself 3. Death is nothing, but to live defeated and inglorious is to die daily 4. Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake 5. A leader is a dealer in hope. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/napoleon-bonaparte/feed/ 0 Say please and thank you! – Social Etiquette http://mocomi.com/say-please-and-thank-you-social-etiquette/ http://mocomi.com/say-please-and-thank-you-social-etiquette/#comments Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:49:33 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97515 Do you get upset if someone takes something from you and doesn’t bother to say a ‘thank you’ to you? Or do you have friends who constantly expect you to do something, without requesting or even using the word ‘please’? What is a social etiquette? So what is a social etiquette? It is important that […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # Say please and thank you! - Social Etiquette Do you get upset if someone takes something from you and doesn’t bother to say a ‘thank you’ to you? Or do you have friends who constantly expect you to do something, without requesting or even using the word ‘please’? ## What is a social etiquette? So what is a social etiquette? It is important that when we interact with other people, that we follow basic manners and courtesy, so as not to cause discomfort. This is known as social etiquette. ## Why is it important to have social etiquettes? By saying Please and Thank yous when asking and receiving something from some one, we make positive impressions. 1. Manners and courtesy allow us to be nice to people. 2. We develop respect and trust people who display social etiquettes. 3. We let the people we interact with, know we respect the time and effort they give to us. 4. When we are kind and courteous, we are not only being nice to others but also to ourselves. 5. Through good manners, we can create a happy environment for others and ourselves. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/say-please-and-thank-you-social-etiquette/feed/ 0 Nutrition in Plants http://mocomi.com/nutrition-in-plants/ http://mocomi.com/nutrition-in-plants/#comments Fri, 01 Dec 2017 07:30:50 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97503 How do plants get their food? Plants can manufacture their own food, but animals including human beings cannot and rely on plants for their food. All living organisms need food for the following : Cell regeneration Energy for cellular functions Immunity against diseases Plants make their foods using either the Autotrophic nutrition and Heterotrophic nutrition. […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # Nutrition in Plants ## How do plants get their food? Plants can manufacture their own food, but animals including human beings cannot and rely on plants for their food. ### All living organisms need food for the following : • Cell regeneration • Energy for cellular functions • Immunity against diseases • Plants make their foods using either the Autotrophic nutrition and Heterotrophic nutrition. ## What is Autotrophic nutrition? When green plants make their food using simple substances like sun light, water, carbon dioxide and minerals, the process is known as Autotrophic nutrition. This type of nutrition is also known as Holophytic nutrition. These types of plants are known as autotrophs. The words, ‘auto’ means self and ‘trophos’ means nourishment. Autotrophs are the producers in a food chain. ## What is Heterotrophic nutrition? A heterotroph is an organism that cannot manufacture its own food by carbon fixation and therefore derives its intake of nutrition from other sources of organic carbon, mainly plant or animal matter. In a food chain, heterotrophs are secondary and tertiary consumers. This is also known as Holozoic nutrition, as the food is ingested and goes through a digestive process. ### What are the types of Heterotrophs? The types of heterotroph are : 1. The animals that are directly dependent on plants are called herbivores. For example – Deer, Cow, Goat and Rabbit. 2. The animals that eat the flesh of other animals are called carnivores. For example – Lion, Tiger, Wolf and Snake. 3. The animals that feed on both plants and animals are called omnivores. For example – Man, Bear and Crow. 4. The animals that feed on the flesh of dead animals are called scavengers. For example – Kites and Vultures. ## Photosynthesis in plants Plants manufacture their food in their leaves. The leaves, are therefore, also known as the kitchen or food factories of the plants. Photosynthesis is the combination of two words – Photo and synthesis. ‘Photo’ means light and ‘synthesis’ means to make. The reaction that takes place in the process of photosynthesis can be written as : 6CO2 + 6H2O ——> C6H12O6 + 6O2 ### Plants require the following things to carry out the process of photosynthesis – • Sunlight • Water • Carbon – dioxide • A green pigment known as the Chlorophyll Leaves have numerous small pores like structures on their lower surface. These pores are surrounded by ‘guard cells’. These pores are called stomata. The stomata are guarded by two bean-shaped cells known as the guard cells. Leaves absorb carbon dioxide from air through stomata. Water is transported to the leaves through the Xylem tissue. ### What is chlorophyll? Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the leaves. It gives the leaves their characteristic green colour. The job of chlorophyll is to absorb sunlight, carbon dioxide and water and convert them into carbohydrate and oxygen. ### Importance of photosynthesis The process of photosynthesis is very useful for our environment. It maintains a balance between the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Plants release oxygen that is essential for our survival and that is why it is said that we must plant more trees. ## What are the modes of nutrition in non-green plants? There are some plants that lack chlorophyll. Such plants are also known as non-green plants and they cannot synthesise their own food. They depend on other organisms for food. Let us learn about some of the important non – green plants. ### 1. Parasitic plants A parasite is an organism which lives on or inside the body of another organism and takes shelter and food from that organism. An organism which provides shelter and nutrition to another organism is called a host. The host in this case is always at loss. Plants that get their food from other plants by living on them are called parasitic plants. For example – Cuscuta or Amarbel and Mistletoe. Cuscuta is a vine-like plant with a yellow coloured stem. It coils around big trees, like the Banyan tree and gets nutrition from it. In this case, Banyan tree is the host and Cuscuta is the parasite. ### 2. Insectivorous plants The plants that eat insects are called insectivorous plants. They trap and digest the insects. For example – Pitcher plant is an insectivorous plant in which the leaves are modified into pitcher – shaped structures. The insects get attracted to the bright colour and sweet-smelling nectar of the pitcher plant. When an unsuspecting insect sits on the pitcher of the plant to take a sip of the nectar, the lid of the pitcher closes and the insect gets trapped inside. The insect is then digested by the enzymes released by the cells of the plants. Venus flytrap, Utricularia and Drosera are some other examples of insectivorous plants which trap and kill small flies and spiders in different ways. ### 3. Saprotrophs The non-green plants that feed on the dead and decaying matter like animal wastes are called Saprotrophs or Saprophytes. For example – Fungi like Agaricus, Yeast and Bacteria. ### 4. Symbiotic plants Symbiosis is the combination of two Greek words ‘Sym’ means ‘with’ and ‘biosis’ means ‘living’. In other words, symbiosis means ‘living together’. Symbiosis is the type of nutrition in which two different kinds of living organisms depend on each other for survival. They share shelter and nutrients. For example – Lichen. Lichen is a composite organism made up of fungus and alga. Fungus is a saproptroph and alga is an autotroph. The fungus provides water and minerals to the alga and in return the alga supplies food prepared by photosynthesis to the fungus. ## 3 Interesting facts about plants 1. Insectivorous plants generally grow in swamps or marshy areas because the soil in such areas is deficient in nitrogen. To fulfill their nitrogen need, the plants trap and kill the insects. 2. There are roughly 600 species of carnivorous plants which have different strategies to capture their prey. 3. Charles Darwin was very fond of the carnivorous plant – Sundews, or Drosera. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/nutrition-in-plants/feed/ 0 What is Heron’s Formula? http://mocomi.com/what-is-herons-formula/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-herons-formula/#comments Thu, 30 Nov 2017 13:11:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97486 Heron’s formula, sometimes known as Hero’s formula is named after Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician, and engineer in 10 AD. Definition for Heron’s formula Heron’s formula gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulas that calculate the area of a […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # What is Heron’s Formula? Heron’s formula, sometimes known as Hero’s formula is named after Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician, and engineer in 10 AD. ## Definition for Heron’s formula Heron’s formula gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulas that calculate the area of a triangle. The area can be calculated using all the three sides, especially in scalene triangle, where none of the sides are equal. Most formulas use the height of a triangle to calculate the area. ## What are the steps for Heron’s formula? According to this formula, Area of the triangle – where the semi – perimeter of the triangle, a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of the triangle. ### Heron’s Formula Worksheet 1. Calculate the semiperimeter of a triangle, s, where a = 23, b = 40, c = 35. a. 35 b. 48 c. 25 d. 49 Right Answer- d. 49 2. Calculate the area of a triangle using Heron’s formula, if the three sides of the triangle are, a = 5, b = 9, c = 6 a. 12.34 b. 10.6 c. 14.14 d. 13.26 Right Answer- 14.14 3. Calculate the side of a triangle b, if side a = 12 and side c = 6 and the semi – perimeter equals 13. a. 9 b. 8 c. 6 d. 7 Right Answer- b. 8 ## 3 Interesting facts about Heron’s Formula 1. Heron’s formula has been known to mathematicians for nearly 2000 years. 2. Proof of this formula can be found in Hero of Alexandria’s book “Metrica”. 3. Many mathematicians believe that Archimedes already knew the formula before Heron. Some also believe that this formula has Vedic roots and the credit should be given to the ancient Hindus. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/what-is-herons-formula/feed/ 0 A = \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}, s=\frac{a+b+c}{2}. What was the French Revolution? http://mocomi.com/the-french-revolution/ http://mocomi.com/the-french-revolution/#comments Wed, 29 Nov 2017 11:34:45 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97475 A revolution means a revolt, mutiny or a powerful change. Origins of the French Revolution In the years between 1789 until 1799, France experienced the most violent political turmoil, overthrowing the monarchy of Louis XVI and establishing the French republic, only to end in the dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was involved in the later […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # What was the French Revolution? A revolution means a revolt, mutiny or a powerful change. ## Origins of the French Revolution In the years between 1789 until 1799, France experienced the most violent political turmoil, overthrowing the monarchy of Louis XVI and establishing the French republic, only to end in the dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was involved in the later years of the revolution. ## Causes of the French Revolution For years, in France, there was a vast difference between the poor and the rich. The rich became wealthier and made merry while the poor struggled for day to day living and became poorer. The poor saw the rich grow; while they got nothing. This angered them and finally a group of poor people rebelled against a few rich in the French society. ## Who were involved in the French Revolution? • The French society prior to the French Revolution, was ruled by King Louis XVI. For years, in France, there was a vast difference between the poor and the rich. The rich became wealthier and made merry while the poor struggled for day to day living and became poorer. • The rich of the French society were called the Nobles who they lived in palaces and were gifted large lands by the King. • Then there was another class of people called the Church who owned most of the land in France and they levied heavy taxes on crops which were paid by the common man. • The Common Man was the third category of people who not only had to work extremely hard but also had to pay heavy taxes, leaving nothing for their savings or family. • The French Revolution was fought between the Common men on one side and the Nobles and Church of the French society on the other. ## What led to the French Revolution? The British colonies of America had declared Independence. France’s costly involvement in the American War of Independence had left France bankrupt. Two decades of poverty and difficulties had left the common man absolutely disillusioned and struggling with inflation due to heavy taxation. This was the beginning of a revolt. A revolution started in 1789 when the common men created a group called the National Assembly. The representatives of the National Assembly had taken an oath that they would not leave until a new constitution has been written for France. The members then attacked the Bastille prison, a symbol of power for the nobles and the King, on 14th July, 1789. ## Ten Year Long Revolution (1789 – 1799) Several other regions of France followed this event and a revolutionary movement was started. There was chaos all over. Peasants burned down castles of the nobles; some wealthy people left their privileges and ran away. There was a wave of violence across Europe known as the Great Fear. The violence kept spreading wherein the members of the third class wanted equal rights for themselves, but the members of the first class did not want to give full rights. ### Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen It was in August 1789, the National Assembly approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This was the document that stated that all people are born free and have equal rights. The National Assembly also said that peasants will no longer farm for the nobles without pay. They took away the property from the Roman Catholic Church. Most male citizens also got the right to vote. ### The Reign of Terror The French Republic had a group called the National Convention which was later taken over by the Jacobins, an extremist group. The Jacobins began a period called the Reign of Terror. They arrested anyone who was against the revolution and killed many, including King Louis XVI in 1793. It was only in 1795 that a less extremist government called the Directory took over. A new constitution declined the right to vote for all those who could not pay taxes. ## What was Napoleon Bonaparte’s involvement in the French Revolution? During the Revolution, a General named Napoleon Bonaparte became famous. He was a skilled leader and helped expand the territories of France, including a victory over the powerful Austrian Army. It was in 1799 that Napoleon Bonaparte did away with the Directory and the Revolution came to an end. He made himself the leader of a new government called the Consulate. Napoleon brought peace back to France. He rewrote the old French Feudal laws and created a new Napoleonic Code of laws, which remains in France even to this day. Napoleon declared himself the Emperor of France in 1804. France became a republic in 1871. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/the-french-revolution/feed/ 0 What are synthetic fibres? http://mocomi.com/what-are-synthetic-fibres/ http://mocomi.com/what-are-synthetic-fibres/#comments Tue, 28 Nov 2017 12:52:27 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97464 Definition of synthetic fibre Synthetic fibers are man – made from chemicals. They are generally based on polymers and are stronger than natural and regenerated fibers. Difference between natural and synthetic fibres Synthetic or man – made fibres can easily be distinguished from natural fibres, such as silk, cotton and wool. Although natural fibres may […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # What are synthetic fibres? ## Definition of synthetic fibre Synthetic fibers are man – made from chemicals. They are generally based on polymers and are stronger than natural and regenerated fibers. ## Difference between natural and synthetic fibres Synthetic or man – made fibres can easily be distinguished from natural fibres, such as silk, cotton and wool. Although natural fibres may also be made of polymers like cellulose and proteins, they don’t undergo any chemical changes during the manufacturing process and are used in their original form. ## What are synthetic fibres made of? Synthetic fibres, on the other hand, undergo changes in their chemical structure and composition, during the manufacturing process. Polymers such as regenerated cellulose, polycaprolactam, and polyethylene terephthalate, which have become familiar household materials under the trade names, Rayon, Nylon, and Dacron, respectively, are also made into numerous nonfibre products, ranging from cellophane envelope windows to clear plastic soft-drink bottles. As fibres, these materials are prized for their strength, toughness, resistance to heat and mildew, and ability to hold a pressed form. ## Types of synthetic fibres 1. Polyester is made from esters of dihydric alcohol and terpthalic acid. 2. Acrylic fabrics are polycrylonitriles. 3. Rayon is recycled wood pulp that is treated with chemicals like caustic soda, ammonia, acetone and sulphuric acid to survive regular washing and wearing. 4. Acetate and Triacetate are made from wood fibers called cellulose and undergo extensive chemical processing to produce the finished product. 5. Nylon is made from petroleum and is often given a permanent chemical finish that can be harmful. ## Uses of synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres play an important role in today’s world and are used either on their own or mixed with other synthetic or natural fibres to create fabrics or products for everyday use. Some uses are : 1. Ropes 2. Parachutes 3. Fish Nets 4. Carpets 5. Tents 6. Fillers in pillows 7. Fabrics for everyday wear like lycra and spandex 8. Blankets 9. Warm and protective clothing for extreme climates 10. Synthetic hair wigs ## Advantages of synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are used because of their durable nature. Some of the advantages are : • They have good elasticity. • They do not wrinkle easily. • They are comparatively less expensive, more durable, require less maintenance and are easily available. • They are stronger and can handle heavy loads. ## Disadvantages of synthetic fibres • Most are not heat resistant making them dangerous to wear near fire. • They do not allow air circulation, making them sticky, sweaty and uncomfortable to wear, during hot and humid climates. • They are non – biodegradable. This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> http://mocomi.com/what-are-synthetic-fibres/feed/ 0 The Grand Central Station Facts http://mocomi.com/the-grand-central-station/ http://mocomi.com/the-grand-central-station/#comments Mon, 27 Nov 2017 12:22:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97448 Why is the Grand Central Station famous? The Grand Central Station/Terminal is an iconic American train station in New York City, located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Manhattan. It is the largest train station in the world that covers an area of over 48 acres and has 44 platforms and 67 tracks! What […] This post belongs to Mocomi.com ]]> # The Grand Central Station Facts ## Why is the Grand Central Station famous? The Grand Central Station/Terminal is an iconic American train station in New York City, located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Manhattan. It is the largest train station in the world that covers an area of over 48 acres and has 44 platforms and 67 tracks! ### What is it like being at the Grand Central Terminal? As you would enter the grand main concourse, you would find at its centre a circular Information Booth, on top of which is placed the Grand Central’s famous clock which is a four-sided timepiece and is one of the most iconic attractions in New York. This clock has been a popular meeting point for over a century. This iconic timepiece is made up of expensive Tiffany glass and opal, and is valued somewhere between$10 and $20 million! ## Who has painted the iconic ceiling mural at the Grand Central? About 125 feet up, on the Grand Central Station ceiling, you would see a spectacular mural showing the Mediterranean sky. It comprises of 2,500 stars. This marvellous ceiling was designed by artist Paul Helleu and painted in gold leaf. There are 60 large stars that symbolize different constellations and are illuminated with fibre optics. ## 11 Interesting facts the Grand Central Station 1. There is a unique gallery, ‘Whispering Gallery’, where you can whisper a secret to your partner. All you have to do is to stand at one corner of the wall and whisper into; your partner will be able to hear you way across on the other side. 2. If you are a foodie, there is a series of restaurants and a large gourmet culinary market wherein you will find a wide choice of food items to satiate your taste buds. 3. For the shopaholics, there are more than 65 stores spread throughout the terminal. 4. For those who are fond of reading, it even has a spacious and well-equipped library. 5. The Grand Central Terminal is owned by a private company known as Midtown TDR Ventures. 6. Grand Central Terminal became functional at midnight on February 2, 1913. It was built on the spot that housed Cornelius Vanderbilt’s railroad network, The New York Central. Acorns and oak leaves are used throughout decorations in the terminal, representing the Vanderbilt family motto: “Great oaks from little acorns grow.” 7. The estimated construction cost of the Grand Central Terminal is approximately$2 billion.
8. More than 750,000 visitors pass through the Grand Central Terminal daily.
9. The Grand Central Terminal is also known as the first ‘stair – less station’ as all levels and platforms within it can be reached by lifts or ramps.
10. One of the most latest Hollywood movie to feature Grand Central was Men in Black III. A race of tiny aliens was shown being kept inside a Grand Central locker.
11. It was preceded by Grand Central Depot (1871) and Grand Central Station (1900), both of which were demolished.

## Famous quotes about the Grand Central Terminal

1. There’s something so soothing about the hum of Grand Central Station – Rachel Nichols
2. Better to get off the train at this station. Than to do it later, when it’s too late. Remember Time doesn’t wait! – Deyth Banger
3. If you are happy in the station, then the station becomes your train! In other words, if you are happy where you are, it means that you are already travelling! Happiness is a great journey! – Mehmet Murat ildan

## ‘Grand Central’ Poem by Billy Collins

A poem by Billy Collins (Poet Laureate of the United States from 2001 to 2003), an ode to the 750,000 people that move about daily at The Grand Central Station for the centenary celebrations

The city orbits around eight million
centers of the universe

and turns around the golden clock
at the still point of this place.

Lift up your eyes from the moving hive
and you will see time circling

under a vault of stars and know
just when and where you are.”

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What Rhymes with Orange, Silver, Purple, and Month? http://mocomi.com/what-rhymes-with-orange-silver-purple-and-month/ http://mocomi.com/what-rhymes-with-orange-silver-purple-and-month/#comments Fri, 24 Nov 2017 10:06:51 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97431 There is no word in the English language that rhymes with orange, month, silver or purple Emma: Yummy! This orange is so sweet…it makes such a delightful treat! Try one Em. Em: Hey! You just made two words rhyme! Sweet and treat…can you see it or are you in dilemma Emma? Emma: Happy to make […]

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# What Rhymes with Orange, Silver, Purple, and Month?

## There is no word in the English language that rhymes with orange, month, silver or purple

Emma: Yummy! This orange is so sweet…it makes such a delightful treat! Try one Em.

Em: Hey! You just made two words rhyme! Sweet and treat…can you see it or are you in dilemma Emma?

Emma: Happy to make my name rhyme? By the way, do you know any words in English that do not rhyme at all?

Em: Are there any such words? I always thought every word has some rhyming word in English language.

## Words with no rhyming words

Emma: Yes but only four have none. No word in the English language rhymes with orange, month, silver, and purple.

Em: really? Let me think… Orange!!!!!! Hmmmm….Gorange….Florange….torange!!

Reason: Hahaha… those are not even words. A perfect rhyme demands the exact match of the way the word sounds from the stretched vowel to the last alphabet. Example: hat/cat, plate/eight, later/alligator.

Em: Come to think of it. Did you notice that 3 of the words that do not rhyme are the names of colours?

Reason: Yes and the fourth word that does not have a rhyme is ‘month’. You can’t even fake rhyme for this word. Dunth? Hunth? Bonth? Nothing rhymes with it!

Em: Hmm..Let’s write a poem with these four words. We can make up our own words which rhyme with them!

Emma: Oh sounds like fun to me!

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