Mocomi Kids http://mocomi.com Inspiring Curiosity! Thu, 18 Jan 2018 05:19:10 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.2.19 Floatation and Relative Density http://mocomi.com/floatation-and-relative-density/ http://mocomi.com/floatation-and-relative-density/#comments Wed, 17 Jan 2018 09:13:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97862 What is floatation? Floatation is the phenomenon of any substance or object resting on the surface of a liquid, without sinking. The following are some floatation examples : A plastic bottle floats on water. A piece of wood floats on water. Oil drops floating on water. Why does an object float? An object floats because […]

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Floatation and Relative Density

What is floatation?

Floatation is the phenomenon of any substance or object resting on the surface of a liquid, without sinking.

The following are some floatation examples :

  • A plastic bottle floats on water.
  • A piece of wood floats on water.
  • Oil drops floating on water.

Why does an object float?

An object floats because of the differences in density of the object and the medium which is mainly liquid.
If a substance is denser than a liquid, it will sink. If a substance is less dense than the liquid it is put into, it will float.

What is density of a substance?

Density is the weight of a substance per unit volume. You can define the density of water by saying how many kilograms a liter of water or kerosene or any other substance weighs.
Another way of calculating density is by looking at the Relative Density of a substance. Which defines how dense a substance is, compared to another substance.

For example :
Mercury is 13.6 times denser than water. So if one liter of water weighs roughly one kilogram, one liter of mercury would weigh 13.6 kilograms.

What is the formula for Relative Density?

The formula for Relative Density (RD) is :
RD = (Weight of any volume of a substance) / (Weight of an equal amount of water)

Example :
500 ml of citric acid (lemon juice) weighs 800 grams. If 500 ml of water weighs 500 grams. What is the relative density of citric acid?

Solution :
RD = Weight of 500 ml Citric Acid/Weight of 500 ml Water
RD = 800/500
RD = 1.6
The Relative Density of Citric Acid with respect to Water is 1.6

The Relative Densities of some common substances are given below :

Relative Density of Water 1
Relative Density of Soil 2
Relative Density of Mercury 13.6
Relative Density of Sand, 2.65
Relative Density of Silver 10

 

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Antarctica’s Shrinking Iceberg http://mocomi.com/antarcticas-shrinking-iceberg/ http://mocomi.com/antarcticas-shrinking-iceberg/#comments Tue, 16 Jan 2018 12:47:19 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97844 Thousands of years ago, most of Europe, Asia, North and South America was covered by huge sheets of ice, each several kilometres thick, but today, the only ice sheets on the Earth are found in Antarctica and Greenland. In this article, we will talk about Antarctica. It is a continent at the South Pole, located […]

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Antarctica's Shrinking Iceberg

Thousands of years ago, most of Europe, Asia, North and South America was covered by huge sheets of ice, each several kilometres thick, but today, the only ice sheets on the Earth are found in Antarctica and Greenland. In this article, we will talk about Antarctica. It is a continent at the South Pole, located at the bottom of the globe. The continent remains frozen throughout the year because of extremely cold weather. Scientists believe that more than 90% of the ice found on the whole planet is in Antarctica. Today, Antarctica is changing fast because of the ongoing climate change.

What is climate change?

Climate change is what happens when our actions affect the Earth’s atmosphere. Our indiscriminate usage of the earth’s resources have caused drastic changes in global temperatures and weather. You would have noticed that the summers are becoming warmer, with temperatures soaring as high as 50 degrees Celsius and winters too are becoming more unbearable than before. All of this is a result of climate change, and we are directly responsible for it.

What is global warming?

Global warming is the rise in the temperature of the Earth. The harmful gases that are released from the vehicles and factories go up into the air. These gases are known as greenhouse gases and some of these gases trap heat and make the whole planet warmer. Deforestation or removal of the green cover of the Earth also contributes to global warming. Global warming does not just mean one day of hot weather. It means a slow but steady rise in the temperature over many, many years. Deforestation also contributes to global warming.

Let us explain to you in a little more detail. The Sun naturally warms up the Earth through its atmosphere, and the excessive heat from the Earth is reflected into space. Generally, the temperature on the Earth remains perfectly regulated by its atmosphere, but the presence of too many greenhouse gases makes the atmosphere thick and causes a ‘green house’ effect. The excessive heat from the sunlight gets trapped within the Earth’s atmosphere, leading to a rise in temperature. The ice in Antarctica is not supposed to melt, but because of global warming, it is melting a little bit more every year.

What are icebergs and glaciers?

Glaciers are made up of a large chunk of snow and ice and are found in Antarctica. An iceberg is a piece of glacier that breaks off from it because of the rise in temperature. Icebergs are made of fresh water and can float on sea water.

Are icebergs breaking away from the glaciers in Antarctica?

According to a NASA satellite, a large iceberg broke off from the Antarctic glaciers in July 2017. If the icebergs keep breaking off from the glaciers and begin melting, this will lead to a noticeable and dangerous rise in the sea-levels across the globe.

What are the harmful effects of climate change?

Changes in climate lead to serious natural disasters such as cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis. This will lead to flooding of the low-lying areas and loss of vegetation and wildlife. Some of the major U.S. cities like Boston, Miami and New York are more likely to be flooded first. Many islands near the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean will be buried under the water. The number of people displaced could be well-imagined.

Icebergs also act like a mirror; they reflect the sunlight and thereby help in keeping the Earth’s temperature under control. If they disappear, the Earth will become warmer and many harmful climate changes would take place.

You CAN Help!

You would be thinking that since the problem is so big, there is hardly anything that you can do to help, but this is not the case. Each one of you who is reading this article can help in preventing this crisis.

Here is your list of do’s and don’ts to reduce climate change

  • Remember the three Rs-Reduce, reuse, recycle. Reduce the use of non-renewable fuels and things that consume more power. Try to reuse your old things. You can also give away your old clothes and toys to the needy children. Be creative, make an effort to come up with ideas to make new things out of the old. Try to put everything back into use.
  • Plant more trees.
  • Use energy saving CFLs in your house instead of bulbs and tube lights.
  • Use electrical appliances in your home wisely.
  • Turn off the lights and electrical appliances when not in use
  • Save water in the washroom.
  • Instead of going out in your car, prefer to use your cycle, or any means of public transport.
  • Let us prevent any further climate change, reduce our carbon footprint and adopt an eco-friendly lifestyle, starting TODAY!

Fact sheet on climate change

  1. As per the scientists, the global sea level rise has increased from 2.2mm each year in 1993, to 3.3mm each year in 2014.
  2. The average global temperature on the Earth has increased about 0.8° Celsius (1.4° Fahrenheit) since 1880.
  3. According to a research study, global warming will increase the Earth’s average temperature by 2-11 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100.
  4. Small icebergs weigh hundreds of tonnes and the big icebergs may weigh about billions of tonnes.
  5. Smaller icebergs are known as bergy bits and growlers. They are especially dangerous for ships because it is difficult to spot them.
  6. The famous ship Titanic sank after hitting an iceberg.
  7. Greenhouse gases mainly comprise of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (better known as CFCs).
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Discovery of Ink http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-ink/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-ink/#comments Thu, 11 Jan 2018 12:25:09 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97830 Human beings as they evolved from prehistoric ancestors, developed many forms of communication. One of the most important tools discovered by humans, has been written communication. He first wrote on cave walls and then stone and developed a pictorial vocabulary. As time progressed, shapes and sounds were incorporated in the written form. The earliest surviving […]

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Discovery of Ink

Human beings as they evolved from prehistoric ancestors, developed many forms of communication. One of the most important tools discovered by humans, has been written communication.

He first wrote on cave walls and then stone and developed a pictorial vocabulary. As time progressed, shapes and sounds were incorporated in the written form. The earliest surviving texts from Mesopotamia dating back from 2100 BC, were written with reeds or stylus on clay tablets. These show that by then, man had developed an evolved form of writing and communication.

History of ink

It was the Chinese who are credited with first discovering ink 5000 years ago. It is still being used in that form. The liquid India Ink we use today was also discovered by the Chinese. The ink was thus named because the carbon black that was used to make the ink was sourced from India. It was the Cao Wei Dynasty (220 AD – 265 AD), who established the manufacture of India Ink.

Ink and how it is used has evolved over the years, changing colours and composition to adapt it to different needs.

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History of Renaissance http://mocomi.com/history-of-renaissance/ http://mocomi.com/history-of-renaissance/#comments Wed, 10 Jan 2018 08:44:01 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97819 What does Renaissance mean? The Renaissance was a period in European history from the 14th century to the 17th century. The word Renaissance means rebirth. It was a rebirth in the sense that the period was a connecting period between the Middle Ages and Modern Ages in European history, though it is closely associated with […]

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History of Renaissance

What does Renaissance mean?

The Renaissance was a period in European history from the 14th century to the 17th century. The word Renaissance means rebirth. It was a rebirth in the sense that the period was a connecting period between the Middle Ages and Modern Ages in European history, though it is closely associated with Florence, Italy.

Why is the Renaissance important?

The Renaissance is important because it signalled the beginning of change in the thinking of European Christianity and so the perception of Man, Church and God changed too. This changed art, literature and architecture also.

The seeds of Renaissance were sowed post the Black Death, the plague which wiped out millions of people in Europe, between 1346 and 1353. This caused the economy to change as well.

Why did the Renaissance start?

The Rennaisance started with the decline in the powers of the Roman Catholic Church. The humanists emerged who believed that individuals had important contributions to make in the world, rather than that, the only ideas were of the Church.

How did Renaissance affect science, arts and literature?

  • During Renaissance, science, arts, architecture, philosophy and literature underwent a transformation in techniques and thought. Man became the measure of all things, as earlier stated by the Greek Philosopher Protagoras(490 BC to 420 BC). Some of the Renaissance thought patterns did reflect the early Greek and Roman philosophies. Renaissance art and philosophies brought human emotions into focus.
  • Renaissance art did not reject Christianity. However, there was a subtle shift in how intellectuals approached religion and other cultural areas of life. Printing was also discovered during this period.
  • During the Renaissance, art and money went hand in hand. The church was one the patrons apart from wealthy noblemen, who were businessmen.

Leonardo da Vinci’s contribution to the Renaissance period

Leonardo da Vinci’s brilliance crossed multiple disciplines, that he was referred to as the Renaissance man. Apart from the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, two works of art he is famous for, he also did extensive studies and invented various machines and also surgery.

Leonardo da Vinci also created the map of the anatomical proportions of the human body, a very important study based on the notes of the architect Vitruvius. The defining of man as the measure of all things, the essence of Renaissance is reflected in this.

The Renaissance Timeline

  1. 1346   Bubonic plague begins
  2. 1350   Renaissance begins
  3. 1413   Brunelleschi creates Linear Perspectives in Art
  4. 1429   Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orleans
  5. 1439   Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press
  6. 1464   Cosimo de Medici dies (Banker and Wealthy Florentine, also one of the most important patrons of Renaissance artists)
  7. 1478   The Spanish Inquisition
  8. 1486   Botticelli paints the Birth of Venus
  9. 1492   Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribbeans
  10. 1495   Leonardo da Vinci paints The Last Supper
  11. 1510   Raphael paints the School of Athens Fresco
  12. 1512   Michaelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel
  13. 1514   Machiavelli writes the Prince
  14. 1514   Thomas More writes The Utopia
  15. 1517   Martin Luther creates the theses for the birth of Protestantism
  16. 1559   Coronation of Queen Elizabeth the First.

Who were the important artists of the Renaissance?

Some of the important artists of the Renaissance are :

  1. Giotto di Bondone
  2. Leonardo da Vinci
  3. Michaelangelo Buonarroti
  4. Raphael Urbino
  5. Donatello
  6. Titian
  7. Sandro Botticelli
  8. Albrecht Dürer
  9. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
  10. Filippo Brunelleschi
  11. Hieronymus Bosch
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Helen Keller Biography http://mocomi.com/helen-keller-biography/ http://mocomi.com/helen-keller-biography/#comments Mon, 08 Jan 2018 09:12:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97807 Who was Helen Keller? Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist and lecturer. She was the first deaf – blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. After graduating from Radcliffe, she went on to become one of the most influential people in the 20th Century. She worked for the rights of […]

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Helen Keller Biography

Who was Helen Keller?

Helen Adams Keller was an American author, political activist and lecturer. She was the first deaf – blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. After graduating from Radcliffe, she went on to become one of the most influential people in the 20th Century. She worked for the rights of persons with disabilities, women and under privileged sections of society.

Early Life

Helen Keller was born a normal child in Tuscumbia, Alabama on June 27, 1880. She lost her hearing and sight at 19 months of age to what is now diagnosed as scarlet fever. Five years later, her parents, on Alexander Graham Bell’s advice, applied to hire a teacher from the Perkins Institute for the Blind, in Boston.

Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan

Anne Mansfield Sullivan was able to bring about an extraordinary transformation in Helen’s isolated world. She taught Helen to understand and communicate with the world around her. She went on to acquire an excellent education and become an important spokesperson for the blind and the deaf. Anne Sullivan taught Helen to read and write in Braille and hand signals of the deaf mute, which she could understand by touch. Her efforts to speak later on in life, were not as successful, when she went on to become a public figure, but she was able to make herself be understood.

Parents and Family

Helen Adams Keller’s father Arthur H Keller, was an editor for the Tuscumbia North Alabamian and had served as a captain for the Confederate Army. Her mother Kate Adam’s father was Charles W Adams, a Confederate general, in theAmerican Civil War.

Helen had two siblings, Mildred Campbell and Philip Brooks Keller, and two older half brothers from her father’s prior marriage, James and William Simpson Keller.

Education and Achievements

Helen Keller started attending the Perkins Institute for the Blind in May, 1888. Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller moved to New York to attend the Wright – Humason School for the Deaf, and to learn from Sarah Fuller at the Horace Mann School for the Deaf. In 1896, they returned to Massachusetts and Helen entered The Cambridge School for Young Ladies before gaining admittance to Radcliffe in 1900.

She became the first deaf blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree, at the age of 24 in 1904.

Helen Keller was determined to communicate with others and she learned to speak. She spent much of her life giving lectures and speeches. She learned to read lips with her finger tips, so she could ‘listen’ to other people’s speeches.

She is known for her strong support for people with disabilities. She travelled to over 25 countries, giving lectures and motivational speeches about deaf people’s conditions.

Political and Social Activism

Apart from this, she was a woman’s rights activist, a political activist, a social activist and a pacifist. She also helped set up several foundations for the various causes she believed in, like the Helen Keller International organisation, along with George A Kessler, and it is devoted to research in vision, health and nutrition.

She also helped to found the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

Writings and Literary Career

Helen Keller wrote a total of 12 published books and several articles.

Books by Helen Keller

  • The Frost King
  • The Story of My Life
  • The World I Live In
  • Out of the Dark
  • My Religion, later revised and published as Light in My Darkness
  • and many more

Later Years

Helen Keller suffered several strokes in 1961 and spent the last years of her life at home. She spent much of her time raising funds for the American Foundation for the Blind. She died in her sleep on June, 1968, at her home, ‘Arcan Ridge’, located in Easton, Connecticut, a few days short of her 88th birthday. She is buried at the Washington National Cathedral in Washington, DC.

6 Interesting facts about Helen Keller

  1. Helen Keller is Perkins School for the Blind’s most famous student
  2. She was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, in 1953
  3. Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan worked for 5 years in vaudeville to supplement their income. She was promoted as the 8th Wonder of the World and told her life’s story
  4. Although blind and deaf, Helen was very political and had very intelligent and strong opinions
  5. She was great friends with the writer Mark Twain and inventor Graham Bell
  6. Helen’s first word was ‘water’, when she understood the connection between the feeling of water running on her hand and Anne Sullivan described the word on her hand. She quickly demanded to learn as many words as possible. Anne Sullivan herself was visually impaired.

Awards and Honours

  • She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964
  • Ranked one of the 100 most influential person of the 20th Century, according to TIME magazine
  • A commemorative stamp was issues by the US Postal Service in 1980
  • The state of Alabama issued a quarter with Helen Keller on it, during the US Mint’s commemorative 50 State Quarters Program
  • She was inducted into the Alabama Women’s Hall of Fame

3 Famous quotes by Helen Keller

  1. ‘The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart.’
  2. ‘Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experience of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened, vision cleared, ambition inspired, and success achieved.’
  3. ‘Your success and happiness lies in you. Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties.’
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Tokyo Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/tokyo-facts/ http://mocomi.com/tokyo-facts/#comments Thu, 04 Jan 2018 09:38:16 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97783 Where is Tokyo? Tokyo is the capital of Japan. It is one of the most populous city in the world with a population of 13.5 million. It is situated in the Kanto region, on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. It is the seat of […]

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Tokyo Facts and Information

Where is Tokyo?

Tokyo is the capital of Japan. It is one of the most populous city in the world with a population of 13.5 million. It is situated in the Kanto region, on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese Government.

Who founded Tokyo?

Tokyo was formerly known as Edo. Edo means estuary in Japanese. It had been the de facto seat of the government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power. He was one of the three unifiers of Japan.

In 1868, with the arrival of Emperor Meiji, the name was changed to Tokyo. In 1943, the prefecture of Tokyo and Tokyo city were merged to form the Tokyo Metropolis.

What is Tokyo’s culture like?

Tokyo’s culture is a mix of the traditional and the new. The contemporary culture boasts of anime, fashion, design, high end robotic electronics and pop culture.

The traditional culture and rituals of Tokyo have been carried from the Edo period. The different districts in Tokyo have their own cultural backdrop. Performing arts such as Kabuki – za, Noh, Rakugo, the making of ukiyo-e prints, the writing of the short haiku poetry, tea ceremonies, all form a part of Tokyo’s cultural backdrop.

Tokyo also has beautifully landscaped gardens, streets lined with cherry blossoms, buddhist shrines and people enjoy dressing in the traditional kimono. The people of Tokyo honour omotenashi, the Japanese sincerity in showing hospitality to visitors.

Which are the famous heritage places to visit in Tokyo?

  1. The Imperial Palace, in the Marunouchi district, was built in the Edo period. It is still in use by Imperial family.
  2. Sensō-ji Temple, in the Asakusa district of Tokyo, is a shrine built for the Buddhist Goddess of Compassion, Kannon. It dates back to 645 AD.
  3. Ueno Park and Zoo, is the largets green space in Tokyo. The zoo was opened in 1882.
  4. The National Museum of Tokyo, has impotant Japanese and Chinese artworks and artefacts dating from 7th to 14th centuries.
  5. The Meiji Shrine, dedicated to the Emperor Meiji and his wife, Empress Shoken, was built in 1915. Destroyed in WW2, it was rebuilt in 1958.

12 Fun Tokyo facts you should know!

  1. Tokyo Metropolis has its own flag, which was adopted in 1964.
  2. It is the largest urban clustering of economy. It hosts 51 of the Fortune 500 companies.
  3. It is host to the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.
  4. Tokyo has capsule hotels, that are the size of a large refrigerator and have televisions, wifi and an electric console.
  5. Tokyo is made of 23 different wards or metropolitan areas or districts which are all distinct. And all districts are referred to as city!
  6. Tokyo is home to 14 Michelin three star restaurants.
  7. Tokyo’s Ritz Carlton has one of the most expensive rooms in the world, at USD 20,000.
  8. Shibuya Crossing is one of the busiest street crossings in the world. Around 2500 people cross at any given time.
  9. The Tokyo Tower is a communications and observation tower, in the Shiba-koen district of Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is inspired by the Eiffel Tower and built in 1958.
  10. The Tokyo Skytree is a 634 meter tall broadcasting and observation tower built in 2012 and is in the Sumida district.
  11. Tokyo is famous for it’s varied cuisine, which include Ramen, Okonomiyaki, Udon, Sushi, Yuba, Soba, Tempura, Gyoza, Yakiniku.
  12. The National Museum of Western Art, built by the Swiss architect, Le Corbusier has works by some of the finest European artists like Rodin, Paul Cezanne, Claude Monet, Edouard Manet and Degas from the collection of the Japanese businessman Kojiro Matsukata.

Note: Don’t forget to check out Interesting Facts about Japan.

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Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion http://mocomi.com/nuclear-fission-and-nuclear-fusion/ http://mocomi.com/nuclear-fission-and-nuclear-fusion/#comments Wed, 03 Jan 2018 08:10:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97773 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion are reactions which convert matter into energy. What is matter? The world you see around us has many things and all of this is made up of matter. Matter is anything and everything in the universe that occupies space. What is the relationship between matter and energy? The matter is […]

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Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion are reactions which convert matter into energy.

What is matter?

The world you see around us has many things and all of this is made up of matter. Matter is anything and everything in the universe that occupies space.

What is the relationship between matter and energy?

The matter is made up of energy. Energy is what makes us do work.

What is nuclear fusion?

  • When matter fuses together to release energy, that is nuclear fusion.
  • All matter is made up of molecules, molecules are made up of atoms and atoms have a nucleus and electrons.
  • The Sun produces sunlight through nuclear fusion.
  • Inside the sun- where it is very hot, the nucleus of one atom and the nucleus of another atom come together and become one. A little bit of matter is left out- that little bit of matter is converted into a lot of energy.

What is nuclear fission?

  • Nuclear Fission is the process through which energy is created in nuclear power plants. It is also how nuclear bombs work.
  • In nuclear fission, the nucleus of an atom breaks into two or more nuclei (plural for nucleus). When the nucleus breaks, some matter is lost, this small amount of matter is converted into a large amount of energy. These broken nuclei then go and bombard other nuclei , those nuclei then break into more nuclei and this process can go on and on releasing a tremendous amount of energy.
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Winter Olympics Facts http://mocomi.com/winter-olympics-facts/ http://mocomi.com/winter-olympics-facts/#comments Tue, 02 Jan 2018 06:42:36 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97762 What is the Winter Olympics? The Winter Olympics, officially known as the Olympic Winter Games, is a major international sporting event that takes place once every four years and is practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympics took place in 1924, in Chamonix, France. How did the idea for Winter Olympics come about? […]

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Winter Olympics Facts

What is the Winter Olympics?

The Winter Olympics, officially known as the Olympic Winter Games, is a major international sporting event that takes place once every four years and is practiced on snow and ice.

The first Winter Olympics took place in 1924, in Chamonix, France.

How did the idea for Winter Olympics come about?

The idea for the Winter Olympics first came about in 1901, when the Nordic Games were held in Sweden. This gave birth to the idea for the Winter Olympics. Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the Summer Olympics tried to add figure skating to the earlier Olympics, but had been unsuccessful, till 1908.

What are the official competitive categories of the Winter Olympics?

  • Alpine Skiing
  • Biathlon
  • Bobsleigh
  • Cross-country Skiing
  • Curling
  • Figure Skating
  • Freestyle Skiing
  • Ice Hockey
  • Luge
  • Nordic Combined
  • Skeleton
  • Ski Jumping
  • Snowboarding
  • Speed Skating

How are venues for the Winter Olympics decided?

The National Olympics Committees, created in 1894, selects from within their national territory cities to put forward bids to host the Olympics.

Which country has the most gold medals in the Winter Olympics?

Norway has the most gold medals.

Where is the 2018 Winter Olympics taking place?

The 2018 Winter Olympics, known as the PyeongChang 2018, is taking place in Pyeongchang County, South Korea, between 9th February, 2018 to 25th February, 2018.

4 Fun facts about the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics

  1. The mascot for the PyeongChang 2018 is a white tiger named Soohorang and Bandabi, an Asiatic black bear.
  2. Pyeongchang is the smallest city to host the Olympics since 1994.
  3. The slogan for the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics is ‘Passion. Connected’.
  4. A pentagonal, 35,000 seat Olympic stadium has been created in Pyeongchang. It will only be used for the opening and closing ceremonies and will be torn down after the games.

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Don’t Litter, Make The World Better! http://mocomi.com/dont-litter/ http://mocomi.com/dont-litter/#comments Fri, 29 Dec 2017 11:07:16 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97740 Imagine it’s a beautiful summer day, and you’re out with your friends for milkshakes in the park. You finish your milkshake and look around, but there’s no trash can for your empty cup. It’s okay to just leave it underneath the park bench, right? Nobody can even see it under there, and you want to […]

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Don't Litter, Make The World Better!

Imagine it’s a beautiful summer day, and you’re out with your friends for milkshakes in the park. You finish your milkshake and look around, but there’s no trash can for your empty cup. It’s okay to just leave it underneath the park bench, right? Nobody can even see it under there, and you want to go play baseball. You don’t want to carry around this gross, sticky milkshake cup.

You might think it’s okay, but it’s not. Leaving your empty milkshake cup under the bench is littering.

What is littering?

All of you must have seen the bits of wrappers, packets, plastic bags lying all around when you go for a walk, or step outside your home. That is litter. Sometimes in small quantities it is just simply annoying. But when you have huge quantities of it, it becomes garbage and causes landfills.

Landfills, not only become eye sores but also places which become breeding places for disease causing animals and pollute the environment.

What are the effects of litter on the environment?

The litter often finds its way into drain holes and waterways, choking them. It is also carried away into our water resources, in the rainy season. Our rivers and oceans become polluted causing animals and plants to die in the water.

You must have also seen animals unknowingly eating bits of paper, or plastic thinking it is food. This harms them.

Why cleaning up our litter is expensive?

  • Sometimes when we knowingly or unknowingly throw litter, we don’t realise it might become inconvenient for someone to clean it up later. Although in cities, there are people who do go about cleaning, sometimes it is delayed. It is also expensive.
  • Every year, a city’s administration spends lots of money to clean up the city on a daily basis and dispose it off. Some of our litter is biodegradable and some of it is not. And lots of people spend time and energy to make sure our cities and town are clean and healthy for us to live.
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What is Antarctic Circle? http://mocomi.com/antarctic-circle-facts/ http://mocomi.com/antarctic-circle-facts/#comments Thu, 28 Dec 2017 12:21:34 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97729 The Antarctic circle is depicted as a red line at the bottom of the globe. It is actually an imaginary line placed to the south of the Equator. Where is the Antarctic Circle located? This special line of latitude is approximately 66¹/₂ degrees south of the equator and outlines the chilly southern zone of the […]

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What is Antarctic Circle?

The Antarctic circle is depicted as a red line at the bottom of the globe. It is actually an imaginary line placed to the south of the Equator.

Where is the Antarctic Circle located?

This special line of latitude is approximately 66¹/₂ degrees south of the equator and outlines the chilly southern zone of the world.

What’s inside the Antarctic Circle?

The continent of Antarctica lies within the Antarctic Circle. Antarctica is bigger than Europe and almost double the size of the continent of Australia. It remains covered in 99% ice almost throughout the year and because it experiences hardly any rain, scientists often refer to it as a desert. Antarctica has very little flora and fauna to boast of because of the harsh climatic conditions, but you would find some interesting animals such as penguins, whales seals, albatrosses, skua, snow petrel and krill.

Why is the Antarctic Circle important?

It helps the scientists in the study of the seasonal behaviour of the sunlight. It shows direct and indirect angles of sunlight.

What countries are in the Antarctic Circle?

There are no cities or villages in Antarctica. However, the countries nearest to the Antarctic circle are South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina.

What oceans does the Antarctic Circle touch?

Only the Southern Ocean passes through the Antarctic circle.

6 Interesting facts about Antarctic Circle

  1. The name ‘Antarctica’ comes from a Greek word meaning ‘opposite to the north’.
  2. The coldest temperature ever recorded on the Earth was in Antarctica on July 21, 1983, when it dipped 128 degrees below zero!
  3. All areas in the Antarctic Circle have twenty-four hours of daylight on the Summer Solstice in December.
  4. All areas in the Antarctic Circle have twenty-four hours of night in June on the Winter Solstice.
  5. The South Pole is in the center of the Antarctic Circle.
  6. There is no permanent population on the Antarctic Circle. Different countries have their research centres based in Antarctica where their team of scientists stay for some time of the year and conduct research.
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Ratio and Proportion http://mocomi.com/ratio-and-proportion/ http://mocomi.com/ratio-and-proportion/#comments Wed, 27 Dec 2017 13:28:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97714 What is a ratio? Ratio is a relationship between two numerical values. It shows how many times one value contains another value. Examples of ratio When we make mango crush, we are told to add one part crush to four parts water. Which means if I take one cup of crush, I need to add […]

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Ratio and Proportion

What is a ratio?

Ratio is a relationship between two numerical values. It shows how many times one value contains another value.

Examples of ratio

When we make mango crush, we are told to add one part crush to four parts water. Which means if I take one cup of crush, I need to add four cups of water. This is a relation that can be written as 1:4.

How to solve ratios?

Sam wants to make tea with the ratio of milk to water to be 2 : 3. If he needs to make 5 cups of tea, how much milk and water will Sam need?

Answer – Sam needs a ratio of 2 : 3, thus the total parts of his mixture are 2 + 3 = 5. Since he is making 5 cups of tea, 1 cup can be said to be equal to one part.

Milk has to be 2 parts out of 5 so Sam will need 2 cups of milk.
Water has to be 3 parts out of 5 so Sam will need 3 cups of water.

What is a proportion?

Proportion is used to describe how much of a certain component is there in something. Like our mango crush will always be one part of crush and four parts of water. Thus there is a total of 5 parts in our crush. So mango crush will always be one part out of five and thus ⅕.

Types of proportion

1. Direct proportion

In the case of our crush, if we take one cup crush, we need to add four cups water. If we take two cups of crush, we will have to add eight cups of water. Thus if the quantity of one proportion increases, the quantity of the other also increases. This is called Direct Proportion.

2. Indirect proportion

If the quantity of one value increases, the other goes down, and vice-versa. This relationship is called Indirect Proportion.

Examples of proportion

In some cases like in a race, the relation between speed and time taken to cover a specific distance is proportional but not directly.

If we are travelling at 20 km per hour, we will cover 20 kilometer in one hour.
If we are travelling at 40 km per hour, we will cover 20 kilometer in half an hour.

As you can see, if the quantity of one value increases, the other goes down.

Proportion formula

If a:b::c:d then a/b=c/d

How to solve a proportion

If a car travels 30 km in one hour, then how far will it travel in two hours?
Answer – Let us assume the car travels Z km in two hours.

By the formula of proportion-
30km : 1 hour = Z km : 2 hours

So 30/1= Z/2

Z= 30/1 x 2

Z = 60

Thus the car will travel 60 km in two hours.

Ratio worksheet with answers

1) Rachel needs to make lemonade from the lemonade syrup, she has to add syrup to water in the ratio of 1:6. How will Rachel make 14 cups of lemonade?

Options
A) 12 cups water to 2 cups syrup
B) 6 cups water to one cup syrup
C) 4 cups water to 10 cups syrup
D) 2 cups water to 12 cups syrup

Answer: A

2) Emma is told to make mix fruit juice with a 1:1 ratio of orange juice to pineapple juice. To make 1 liter of juice how much orange juice will she need

Options
A) 1.5 liter of orange juice
B) 1 liter of orange juice
C) 0.5 liter of orange juice
D) 0.3 liter of orange juice

Answer: C

Proportion worksheet with answers

1) If a car goes 20 km in two hours, how far will it go in one hour?

Options
A) 40 km
B) 30 km
C) 10 km
D) 5 km

Answer: C

2) Casper walks 5 km in one hour. The shop is half an hour away, how far is the shop in terms of km?

Options
A) 2.5 km
B) 3 km
C) 1 km
D) 4 km

Answer: B

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The Battle of Plassey http://mocomi.com/the-battle-of-plassey/ http://mocomi.com/the-battle-of-plassey/#comments Tue, 26 Dec 2017 09:22:04 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97703 Why is the Battle of Plassey important to Indian colonial history? The Battle of Plassey is considered a crucial event in Indian colonial history. The British East India Company was able to gain control after winning the battle against the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj – ud – Daulah. After this battle, the East India Company […]

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The Battle of Plassey

Why is the Battle of Plassey important to Indian colonial history?

The Battle of Plassey is considered a crucial event in Indian colonial history. The British East India Company was able to gain control after winning the battle against the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj – ud – Daulah. After this battle, the East India Company consolidated British presence in Bengal and then India, leading to nearly 200 years of British rule in India.

What led to the Battle of Plassey?

The British trading company, East India Company, had been given a royal charter by Queen Elizabeth on 31st December, 1600 to pursue trade in the East Indies. It included the right to form an army.

Although territorial conquest was not a priority in the first century of the company’s operations, it soon became the agenda to maintain trade in South Asia. The company faced competition from the rival companies, French East India Company and the Dutch and Portuguese counterparts. The different companies formed allies with various rulers to extend support against rebels and usurpers in exchange for trading support.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire and several independent rulers during the three Carnatic Wars, the British gained a stronger foothold in India.

The British forces became dominant, as a result of which, the British East India Company was able to extend and establish its powers and became the British Raj.

How did the Battle of Plassey take place?

  • In 1755, Siraj – ud – Daulah, became the Nawab of Bengal and allied with the French East India company. He then proceeded to overrun British trading posts, including the ones in Calcutta, because he felt the British were overriding his power and position as Nawab. He captured Fort William in Calcutta, in the Bengal Presidency, in 1756.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Robert Clive was sent from Madras to retake Calcutta. One of Siraj – ud – Daulah’s discontented followers, Mir Jafar was instrumental in betraying him to the British.
  • The Battle started with the French troops supporting the Nawab. Mir Jafar failed to join in the fighting, despite pleas from the Nawab. The battle was heading for a stalement, when it started to rain. The British troops were prepared with tarpaulins to keep the gun powder dry, but the Bengali troops were unprepared.
  • Unaware, the Nawab underestimated the British and open charged. The British open fired at the charging Bengali cavalry. They lost their commander, panicked and started moving back, exposing their artillery.
  • The British captured the Nawab’s artillery. The Nawab fled the battlefield and Mir Jafar was installed as a puppet ruler by the British.
  • This was the beginning of the rise of the British Raj in India.
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A new word is added to the dictionary every two hours! http://mocomi.com/a-new-word-is-added-to-the-dictionary-every-two-hours/ http://mocomi.com/a-new-word-is-added-to-the-dictionary-every-two-hours/#comments Fri, 22 Dec 2017 14:21:49 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97682 Em: Emma, I need to finish my English homework. Can you help me? I need to borrow your Oxford dictionary. Emma: Sure I will help you Em, but do remind me to buy the new version of the dictionary tomorrow. Em: New version? Isn’t a dictionary like, forever? Emma: No it isn’t. Do you know […]

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A new word is added to the dictionary every two hours!

Em: Emma, I need to finish my English homework. Can you help me? I need to borrow your Oxford dictionary.
Emma: Sure I will help you Em, but do remind me to buy the new version of the dictionary tomorrow.
Em: New version? Isn’t a dictionary like, forever?
Emma: No it isn’t. Do you know that a new word is added to the dictionary every two hours? So if that happens every day, imagine how many words will be added to the dictionary in a year!
Em: Wow! Is that so… but where do they get hold of so many new words from?

How are new words born?

Reason: Everywhere. There can be old words or phrases which have been used and the meanings not known or new phrases or words or even slang words used today to communicate.
Emma: Oh right, I came to know that the word ‘Oompa Loompa’ from Charlie and the Chocolate factory has been added to the Oxford dictionary.
Em: ‘Oompa Loompa’? Really? Hahahaha. That’s silly!
Emma: You are silly!
Reason: She is right Em. These are not just any silly words that are added. They are added because they have a meaning or refer to something unique.
Em: That is interesting. I can’t imagine how much people who make dictionaries read!
Reason: They do read a lot! Today Oxford Dictionary is one of the largest and longest running research projects. Changes in language reflect in the day to day world… and so does in the dictionaries.
Em: Well, then let’s go get the new version of the Dictionary and then get on with the homework. Maybe we can fit in some new words too!
Emma: Oh sure! That’s likely, nincompoop.
Em: Huh?
Emma: Go get a dictionary.

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Aung San Suu Kyi Biography http://mocomi.com/aung-san-suu-kyi-biography/ http://mocomi.com/aung-san-suu-kyi-biography/#comments Thu, 21 Dec 2017 11:39:44 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97617 Early life Aung San Suu Kyi was born on June 19, 1945, was born to a Burmese General Aung San and his wife, Daw Khin Kyi. Her father had helped Burma in gaining independence from the United Kingdom in the year 1947. He was assassinated the same year. After her father’s demise, her mother looked […]

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Aung San Suu Kyi Biography

Early life

Aung San Suu Kyi was born on June 19, 1945, was born to a Burmese General Aung San and his wife, Daw Khin Kyi. Her father had helped Burma in gaining independence from the United Kingdom in the year 1947. He was assassinated the same year. After her father’s demise, her mother looked after her solely.

Education and career

Suu Kyi received her early education in Rangoon, Burma (now known as Myanmar) until she was 15 years old. In 1960, she came to India with her mother when she came as the Burmese ambassador to India and Nepal. Suu Kyi studied politics at the Delhi University. She earned a bachelor’s degree in philosophy, politics and economics from St. Hugh’s College, Oxford University. Thereafter, she started working for the UN. In 1972, she got married to Dr. Michael Aris, a professor of Tibetan culture who lived in Bhutan, and had two children.

Entry into active politics

In 1988, she returned to Burma to take care of her sick mother. She noticed that the Burmese people desired to break free from the military rule and wanted democracy. She decided to help her countrymen in establishing the democratic order in the country. Towards this purpose, she formed the National League for Democracy on 27 September, 1988.

Arrest and elections

Aung San Suu Kyi was arrested in 1989 and put behind bars in 1990. This happened just after an election in which her party, then National League for Democracy, had won by a considerable majority. The military, however, still did not allow her to take charge of her country. Between 1990 to 2010, she was either kept in the prison or in the house arrest. During the periods of confinement, Kyi engaged herself in studying languages such as French and Japanese, meditation and exercising.

Myanmar’s first free general election

In November 2010, Myanmar held its first general elections in 20 years. The army-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party won by a large majority. The new government released Suu Kyi from house arrest. In April 2012, Suu Kyi stood in the elections and won a seat for herself in the parliament. Moving on, she led her party to a majority win in Myanmar’s first openly contested election in November 2015. Today, she is the state counsellor of Myanmar and a close confidant of the President, Htin Kyaw.

Awards and accomplishments

Aung San Suu Kyi has played a vital role in establishing democracy in Myanmar. Her outstanding contribution is that Myanmar politics is recognized by the world.
Suu Kyi received the Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize and the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought in 1990.

Nobel Peace Prize

In 1991, she received the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize, and in 1992, she was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding by India. The US House of Representatives awarded her the Congressional Gold Medal in 2007. At that time, she was still in the prison. She was made an honorary citizen of Canada. In 2014, she was listed as the 61st most powerful woman in the world by Forbes.

4 Interesting facts about Aung San Suu Kyi

  1. Aung San Suu Kyi’s name is made up from the names of three of her family members- ‘Kyi’ from her mother, ‘Aung San’ from her father and ‘Suu’ from her grandmother’s name.
  2. Aung San Suu Kyi has been in the prison or under house arrest for more than 15 years
  3. She is deeply influenced by the ideologies of Mahatma Gandhi and Buddhism.
  4. Aung San Suu Kyi has also authored a number of books. Her most popular works are – Freedom from Fear, The Voice Of Hope, Let’s Visit Burma and Letters from Burma
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Structure of An Atom http://mocomi.com/structure-of-an-atom/ http://mocomi.com/structure-of-an-atom/#comments Wed, 20 Dec 2017 09:21:14 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97668 What is an atom? Everything in our universe is made of matter and matter is made of atoms. An atom maybe described as the smallest particle that matter is made with and has the properties of a chemical element. An atom is minute in size and typical sizes are in picometers, a ten billionth of […]

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Structure of An Atom

What is an atom?

Everything in our universe is made of matter and matter is made of atoms. An atom maybe described as the smallest particle that matter is made with and has the properties of a chemical element. An atom is minute in size and typical sizes are in picometers, a ten billionth of a meter.

What are atoms made of?

An atom is made of three parts – protons, neutrons and electrons.

Each of these parts has an associated charge. The protons carry a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge and neutron possess no charge. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom and electrons orbit the nucleus at different energy levels.

What is atomic number?

Atomic number of an atom is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

What is atomic mass?

Atomic mass of an atom is equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom.

Parts of an atom

What is a proton?

A proton is a positively charged particle found within the atom’s nucleus. Rutherford discovered them in his experiments with cathode ray tubes.

The number of protons in an atom define what the element is. This is what is referred to as the atomic number of that element. The number of protons also determine the chemical behaviour of that element.

What is a neutron?

A neutron is the neutral part of the atom’s nucleus, with no electric charge, and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. It was discovered by the English physicist, James Chadwick.
Neutrons and protons combined make up the mass of the atom. We can find the number of neutrons if we know the atomic mass and the atomic number of an element, using this simple equation.

Atomic Mass – Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons

Atoms of the same element may have different number of neutrons. Adding neutrons changes the radioactivity of the element, without changing the charge of the atom. This is important in nuclear physics.

What is an electron?

An electron is a negatively charged part of the atom found outside the nucleus in orbits and are attached to the protons in the atom with electromagnetic force. Closer the electron to the nucleus, the stronger the electromagnetic force between them.

Electrons can escape from their orbit in response to an external energy being applied. It can also change its state to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with sufficient energy to boost it to a new quantum state. It can also drop down to lower energy state emitting the excessive energy as a photon.

Atoms are neutral if the number of protons and electrons are equal. Atoms that have an excess or deficit of electrons are called ions. Electrons have no internal structure, though protons and neutrons on the other hand are made of quarks.

Thomson’s model of an atom

The Thomson Model of an atom was proposed by JJ Thomson, in 1897. He discovered electrons while experimenting with cathode ray tube. The cathode ray tube was negatively charged. He also studied positively charged particles in neon gas. Although his theory explained somethings about atoms and electrons, it failed to provide sufficient information about the positively charged particles and the nucleus of the atom.

Rutherford model of an atom

After the model of an atom, by Thomson, was unable to explain the positively charged particles in an atom, Ernest Rutherford proved the presence of positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom through the gold foil experiment. This theory proved that the nucleus of an atom contains positively charged particles.

Bohr’s model of an atom

Bohr’s model of an atom was proposed by Neil Bohr in 1915. He specified that electrons move in fixed orbits/shells, which have fixed energy levels.

What is valency?

Valency is a measure of the reactivity of an atom. It is defined by the capacity of the atom to lose or gain valence electrons in the valence shell.
Every atom wants to have 8 electrons in the valence shell and this is known as the octet rule.

What are isotopes?

Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but that have a different number of neutrons. Since the atomic number is equal to the number of protons and neutrons, isotopes have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers.

Carbon 14, used in carbon dating to find out the age of really old archeological and biological remains, is an isotope of carbon.
Tritium, an isotope of hydrogen, is used to make glow in the dark faces on clocks and wrist watches.

What are isobars?

Isobars are defined as atoms of different elements that have the same atomic mass number, but different atomic number.
Carbon 14 and Nitrogen have the same mass number, which is 14, hence they are isobars.

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How to write an essay? http://mocomi.com/how-to-write-an-essay/ http://mocomi.com/how-to-write-an-essay/#comments Tue, 19 Dec 2017 12:37:58 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97657 What is an essay? Essays are brief, non – fiction compositions that describe, clarify, argue or analyse a subject. An essay is composed of an introduction, body and conclusion. An essay will teach you to communicate with specific readers as it is a shorter form of communication with a clear beginning, middle and end. Basics […]

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How to write an essay?

What is an essay?

Essays are brief, non – fiction compositions that describe, clarify, argue or analyse a subject. An essay is composed of an introduction, body and conclusion. An essay will teach you to communicate with specific readers as it is a shorter form of communication with a clear beginning, middle and end.

Basics of essay writing

The purpose of your essay is determined by your goal. Some essays will be to either inform, to persuade, to explain or to entertain.

To write a good essay, it is very important to first understand the purpose and the title. A good title will make sure you :

  1. Understand the precise task set by the title.
  2. Identify the right research or reference material.
  3. Divide the content of your essay before you begin to write it, which is introduction, body and conclusion and are able to have a clear thesis statement.
  4. Are able to construct informative content in the body text and have an effective conclusion for it.

Importance of research in an essay

A well researched essay is interesting to read as well as makes sure, the reader can understand what you are trying to say, without too much trouble. Research makes sure you have understood and can prove what you are communicating.

How to organize your essay?

A well written essay makes interesting reading, irrespective of the subject. Some of these points help you to write it better.

  1. After you finish, read it again and see if it has covered the points you want to communicate.
  2. Is the language kept clear, without the use of words you do not understand?
  3. Made sure your body text essay is divided into paragraphs to separate or breakdown the points or topic you are discussing.
  4. Make sure your essay has enough examples if it is explaining something.

So, how to write a good essay?

Here is a simple way to write a good essay.

Step 1. Title of the Essay

  • Decide the title of your essay.

Step 2. Introduction of the Essay

  • When writing the introduction, remember, the introduction should have two important parts. A sentence outlining what your essay will be about and a sentence outlining what your point of view on the subject of your essay is. It should be interesting enough to attract the attention of the reader.

Step 3. Text Body or Content Text Body of the Essay

  • Writing the body of the essay requires that you organise the subject of your essay into parts.
  • Divide each point into paragraphs. Illustrate and support the points with research, diagrams, illustrations and comparisons to explain it well.

Step 4. Conclusion or Ending to the Essay

  • Writing the conclusion will help you put together the points you have discussed in the essay into a simple and logical way. Make sure it is brief and presents your point of view well.

Quick writing tips

  1. Practice writing simple sentences every day.
  2. Learn a new word every day, with its meaning.
  3. Practice punctuations and grammar.
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Difference between elements and compounds http://mocomi.com/difference-between-elements-and-compounds/ http://mocomi.com/difference-between-elements-and-compounds/#comments Mon, 18 Dec 2017 12:48:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97646 What is an element? An element maybe defined as any substance that : Contains only one kind of atom. It cannot be broken down into a simpler form due to either a chemical or physical means (Copper or Sulphur) Can exist as either atoms or molecules (Oxygen or Nitrogen) Elements are arranged in the periodic […]

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Difference between elements and compounds

What is an element?

An element maybe defined as any substance that :

  • Contains only one kind of atom.
  • It cannot be broken down into a simpler form due to either a chemical or physical means (Copper or Sulphur)
  • Can exist as either atoms or molecules (Oxygen or Nitrogen)
  • Elements are arranged in the periodic table and are assigned a unique symbol based on their name.
  • Elements are divided into three categories that have characteristic properties: metals, non metals and semi – metals.

What is a compound?

A compound consists of two or more elements bonded together through a chemical reaction. A compound can be separated into its constituting elements only through a chemical reaction.

Types of compounds

These are divided into ionic compounds and covalent compounds.

1. Ionic compounds

They are made of electrically charged atoms or molecules, as a result of gaining or losing electrons. Ions of opposite charges form ionic compounds and usually a metal reacting with a non – metal.

  • NaCl
  • CO
  • KI

2. Covalent compounds

Also known as molecular compounds, these are formed when two non metals react with each other. The elements form a compound by sharing electrons, resulting in an electrically neutral molecule.

  1. C6H6
  2. CH3COOH
  3. C2H5OH

How do we write a compound formula?

The names of compounds are their chemical formula. These are generally descriptions of their composition and the valency of the elements. An element can form a compound with another element, only if the outer shell has electrons to either give or space to take electrons to form the electron octet.

The naming is done by :

  • Writing the symbol for the composition of the compound with the cation first and the anion after.
  • Determine the valance or charge of each element and place it in brackets above the symbol.
  • Balance the total positive and total negative charge on the cation and anion. The total of cation and anion must be zero.

Most compounds are named by the elements’ position on the periodic table.

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Why do we have feelings? http://mocomi.com/why-do-we-have-feelings/ http://mocomi.com/why-do-we-have-feelings/#comments Fri, 15 Dec 2017 15:02:35 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97631 Imagine you went home from school one day and there was a nice warm delicious pie waiting for you. It would make you happy, right? Now imagine you went home from a bad day at school knowing there was going to be a delicious hot pie waiting for you; only to find out there is […]

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Why do we have feelings?

Imagine you went home from school one day and there was a nice warm delicious pie waiting for you. It would make you happy, right?

Now imagine you went home from a bad day at school knowing there was going to be a delicious hot pie waiting for you; only to find out there is no pie. How would you feel? Probably quite sad and disappointed, right?

Happiness, contentment, love, bitterness, worry are some of many feelings we have. To understand why we have feeling, we must first understand, ‘What are feeling.’

What are feelings?

Feelings are mental associations and reactions to an emotion. They are coloured by our personal experiences and beliefs. Wait a minute. Aren’t feelings and emotions the same?

Well, they are many times used interchangeably so one might think they are the same, but the truth is that they are DIFFERENT.

What are emotions?

Emotions are involuntary bodily responses like when you’re when you go to school and come to know there is a surprise test. Your pulse increases and you feel uneasy in your stomach.

What is the difference between feelings and emotions?

On the other hand, feelings make of you aware of your emotions. So, feelings arise out of the narrative we give to the emotion. To understand this better, imagine you are sleeping peacefully at night and suddenly hear a loud knock on your bedroom door. You will instantly experience fear and your heart will beat faster. You might break into a sweat. While describing this incident to someone you will describe it as, “I felt terrified. It was really scary to imagine there might be an imposter in the house. I felt a sense of panic. ‘Terrified, scared, panic-stricken,’ are all feelings that are extension of the basic emotion of fear.

Why do we have these feelings and emotions?

  • So, one might wonder, WHY do we have these feelings? Isn’t life complicated enough with so many emotions.
  • Well, feeling might sometimes seem like a burden when they grow intense, like the feeling of grief or distress when you lose or break your favourite toy or when your beloved pet gets hurt.
  • But feelings are important as without them we would not have been able to build and accomplish our goals. Without care, wonder, expectation and a sense of pride; we wouldn’t have developed as a society.
  • Even animals have emotion. Think about a deer caught in headlight. It does experience fear. But it stops there. There is no feeling of horror as animals don’t have the symbolism of language and the sense to rationalize to turn that emotion into a feeling.
  • So, if we didn’t have feelings, we would be no different from animals. It is the ability to reason about the past and future and to have feelings that give way to action that has allowed us to dominate the food chain. It has helped us shape the world for our future through inventions and discoveries and the will to survive.
  • So, the next time you feel distressed or perplexed, know that the feeling is what makes you human and it will eventually pass.
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Etruscan Shrew Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/etruscan-shrew-facts/ http://mocomi.com/etruscan-shrew-facts/#comments Thu, 14 Dec 2017 12:01:07 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97619 What is an Etruscan Shrew? The Etruscan shrew is the smallest mammal known by its body mass. It lives in the forests of Southern Asia and Southern Europe. It is also known as the etruscan pygmy shrew or the white – toothed pygmy shrew. It’s biological name is Suncus etruscus. The smallest living mammal The […]

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Etruscan Shrew Facts and Information

What is an Etruscan Shrew?

The Etruscan shrew is the smallest mammal known by its body mass. It lives in the forests of Southern Asia and Southern Europe. It is also known as the etruscan pygmy shrew or the white – toothed pygmy shrew. It’s biological name is Suncus etruscus.

The smallest living mammal

The smallest mammal known by its size on the other hand, is the bumble bee bat, inhabitant of Thailand and Myanmar.

What does the Etruscan Shrew look like?

Being the smallest mammal, its average body weight is about 1.8 grams(0.063 oz) and it measures about 4 cms(1.6 inches), excluding the tail. The head is relatively large with a long, mobile proboscis and its hind legs are comparatively small.

Animal with the fastest heart rate

Because of their small size, the Etruscan shrew has a very high metabolic rate and the heart beats at very high rates per second. The heart is relatively large and is 1.2% of their body mass and beats at 1511 beats per minute. The shrews eat almost two times their weight in a day and eat every two hours or they will starve. They do not hibernate and because of this high metabolic rate, the shrews do not sleep and seldom rest for more than a few seconds.

What is a typical Etruscan Shrew’s life like?

  • The Etruscan shrew are insectivores. Although they prey on insects, they are themselves pryed on by birds like buzzards, owls cats and other small predators.
  • The largest threat to shrews however comes from humans to their nesting grounds and living habitats, as a result of farming and agricultural practices.

3 Amazing facts about the Etruscan Shrew

  1. Etruscan shrews generally live alone and can be very territorial, except during mating seasons.
  2. Etruscan shrews are known as short – range, high speed hunters. In darkness, they can detect, overwhelm, and kill their fast moving insect prey, which can be almost their size.
  3. They have a life span of one and half years.
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What is Flora and Fauna? http://mocomi.com/what-is-flora-and-fauna/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-flora-and-fauna/#comments Wed, 13 Dec 2017 12:00:27 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97604 What is the difference between flora and fauna? The words flora and fauna are used by the scientists to describe the plant and animal life in a region or area. What is flora? The word ‘flora’ comes from the Latin word ‘Flora’ who was believed to be the princess of flowers. Flora is a collective […]

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What is Flora and Fauna?

What is the difference between flora and fauna?

The words flora and fauna are used by the scientists to describe the plant and animal life in a region or area.

What is flora?

The word ‘flora’ comes from the Latin word ‘Flora’ who was believed to be the princess of flowers. Flora is a collective noun used to describe all the plants, trees, fungi and bacteria that may be present in a particular region.

What is fauna?

Fauna comes from two Greek words ‘Faunus’, the name of a Roman god and ‘Fauna’, the name of a mythical Roman goddess. It is a collective noun that is used to describe all the animal life in a particular region.

Importance of flora and fauna

The flora and fauna present in the different corners of the Earth have made life possible on this planet. Both plants, as well as animals, help in maintaining the delicate ecological balance on Earth. The flora produces the oxygen which is taken in by the fauna. In turn, the fauna releases the carbon dioxide that the flora needs to live. So, one cannot live without the other, and we, humans, cannot live without either. The existence of one species depends upon the existence of the other. For example – Pandas eat only bamboo shoots. The destruction of the bamboo forests in China has driven Pandas on the brink of extinction due to food shortage and habitat loss.

Why does India have a rich heritage of flora and fauna?

India is a country with different types of soils, climatic conditions and geographical features which is why it supports a broad spectrum of species of flora and fauna.

What is so special about the flora and fauna of Australia?

Australia’s ecosystem is a unique one because of its unique location. As a result, many species of animals and plants that are found here are not found anywhere else in the world, such as the platypus, kangaroo, echidna, and koala. The small continent of Australia has more than 516 national parks to protect its unique plants and animals. There are several types of rainforests in Australia such as the tropical rain forests, subtropical rainforests and broadleaf rain forests.

2 Interesting facts about flora and fauna

  1. Botanists, or plant scientists, mainly study flora, while zoologists study fauna. Ecologists are the scientists who study both flora and fauna together.
  2. India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world and has about 47,000 plant species and 89,000 species of animals.
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Red Cross Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/red-cross-facts-and-information/ http://mocomi.com/red-cross-facts-and-information/#comments Tue, 12 Dec 2017 11:20:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97592 What is the Red Cross? The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the world’s largest humanitarian network that helps needy people during the times of war and natural disasters. It comprises of: The International Committee of the Red Cross The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies National Red Cross and […]

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Red Cross Facts and Information

What is the Red Cross?

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the world’s largest humanitarian network that helps needy people during the times of war and natural disasters. It comprises of:

  • The International Committee of the Red Cross
  • The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
  • National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies with 190 registered societies

How was the Red Cross formed?

It was a horrific battle that gave birth to the idea for the Red Cross. In 1859, a Swiss entrepreneur Jean Henri Dunant went to meet the French Emperor Napoleon III, seeking his help for a business venture. Dunant did not get a chance to meet the French emperor. However, he happened to witness a gruesome battle – the Battle of Solferino, in which some 40,000 troops were killed or wounded in a single day. Realizing that neither of the warring armies had the medical corps, Dunant arranged for a group of volunteers to bring medical aid and food to the wounded.

International Committee for Relief to the Wounded

In 1863, Dunant, with four other men in Geneva, established an organization called ‘International Committee for Relief to the Wounded’ which was later renamed as the Red Cross. After a year in 1864, under the leadership of Red Cross, 16 countries held a conference at Geneva and signed the Geneva Convention which is now a code of conduct for war for protecting wounded soldiers, Red Cross volunteers, prisoners of wars and civilian population. The same meeting adopted the white flag with a red cross which is the reverse of the Swiss flag, having a white cross in the background.

What does the Red Cross do?

The mission of the Red Cross is to provide humanitarian service for victims of war and natural disasters. During wartime, it provides its services to the wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. It also provides medical aid to the victims of natural disasters such as tsunami, drought, earthquake and flood. During peacetime, it organises educational awareness campaigns to improve the health of the general public. Blood bank management, ambulance service, mobile health camps, health training, tree plantation and sanitation are some of the main activities of the Red Cross volunteers.

8 Interesting facts about the Red Cross

  1. World Red Cross Day is celebrated on May 8 every year, to commemorate the birth anniversary of the movement’s founder, Jean Henri Dunant.
  2. For coming up with the idea of Red Cross and his contribution towards its activities, Jean Henri Dunant was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Peace in 1901.
  3. The Red Cross network had raised more than $3 billion for relief for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami victims.
  4. In the year 2008, the IFRC responded to 623 disasters worldwide.
  5. The network has more than 97 million staff, volunteers, and supporters.
  6. Red Cross known as Red Crescent in the Muslim countries and Red Star in Israel.
  7. The Red Cross organisation has won three Nobel Peace Prizes-in 1917, 1944 and 1963.
  8. The writer Hemingway was an ambulance driver in World War 1.
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Great Blue Hole of Belize Facts http://mocomi.com/great-blue-hole-of-belize/ http://mocomi.com/great-blue-hole-of-belize/#comments Mon, 11 Dec 2017 12:04:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97556 What is the Great Blue Hole of Belize? The Great Blue Hole is a huge submarine sinkhole. It is located near the center of the Lighthouse Reef, a small island 100 kilometres from the Belize City. How deep is the Great Blue Hole of belize? The hole is circular in shape, and is over 300 […]

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Great Blue Hole of Belize Facts

What is the Great Blue Hole of Belize?

The Great Blue Hole is a huge submarine sinkhole. It is located near the center of the Lighthouse Reef, a small island 100 kilometres from the Belize City.

How deep is the Great Blue Hole of belize?

The hole is circular in shape, and is over 300 meters across and 125 meters deep. It is the world’s largest natural formation of its kind and is an integral part of the larger Barrier Reef Reserve System, which is a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

How was the Great Blue Hole Belize formed?

The Great Blue Hole formed in stages, starting about 153,000 years ago as a sinkhole. The sinkhole originally formed as a limestone cave during the last glacial period. This was a time when the sea levels were much lower. As the ocean started to rise, the cave got flooded and finally collapsed, resulting in a ‘vertical cave’ in the ocean. This research was done by French Naval Officer and pioneer marine biologist, Jacques Cousteau, in the year 1971.

Who named the Great Blue Hole Belize?

The name ‘Great Blue Hole’ was given to this spectacular natural geographic feature by the British diver and author Ned Middleton, in his book Ten Years Underwater.

What type of animals and plants are found in the Great Blue Hole of Belize?

There are over 500 rare forms of animal and plant life found in the Great Blue Hole of Belize. Here, you would be able to meet several unique species of fish, including Midnight Parrotfish, Caribbean Reef Shark, and other rare fishes.

What kind of sharks are in the Blue Hole Belize?

Sharks such as the Bull Shark and Hammerheads, have also been reported here.

3 Interesting facts about Great Blue Hole of Belize

  1. Each year, more than 200,000 people come to visit the Great Blue Hole of Belize from all over the world.
  2. The Blue Hole Monument is one of the seven wonders of the Belize’s World Heritage site.
  3. The Discovery Channel placed the Great Blue Hole Belize at number one on its list of ‘The 10 Most Amazing Places on Earth’.
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Discovery of Magnets http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-magnets/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-magnets/#comments Fri, 08 Dec 2017 13:00:21 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97572 Who discovered magnets? Legend has it that magnets were discovered accidentally by a Greek shepherd named Magnes. While tending his sheep in a region of northern Greece called Magnesia, the shepherd took a step and suddenly found that the metal tip of his shoe was stuck on a rock he was standing on. Puzzled, he […]

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Discovery of Magnets

Who discovered magnets?

Legend has it that magnets were discovered accidentally by a Greek shepherd named Magnes. While tending his sheep in a region of northern Greece called Magnesia, the shepherd took a step and suddenly found that the metal tip of his shoe was stuck on a rock he was standing on. Puzzled, he began digging and discovered the first recorded lodestone. It is said that since then Lodestone started getting known as “magnetite”, probably named after Magnes or Magnesia.

Although the term lodestone comes from the Anglo-Saxon meaning “leading stone”

How were magnets first used?

The first documented use of magnets has been for a compass. Between the years 1405 and 1433, Zheng He of Yunnan province mentioned the use of a compass with a magnetic needle as he recorded his voyages across seven oceans.

Although it is argued that the earliest understanding of magnet as a guide in a compass for seamen was recorded in 1180 by an Englishman Alexander Neckam.

And by 1820, the Dutch scientist Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnets which a year later French physicist Andre Ampere expanded it further.

Electromagnetism is used in all kind of electronic devices we use today, e.g. Hard disk drives, speakers, motors and generators. They are also used for MRI machines to take pictures of your body parts to detect any health issue!

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How is the American President elected? http://mocomi.com/how-is-the-american-president-elected/ http://mocomi.com/how-is-the-american-president-elected/#comments Wed, 06 Dec 2017 11:55:33 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97558 Requirements to become President of the United States The American constitution states that the presidential candidate should be – 35 years of age A United States of America resident for 14 years A ‘natural born citizen’ of the United States of America Voting rights in the United States The government of the United States of […]

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How is the American President elected?

Requirements to become President of the United States

The American constitution states that the presidential candidate should be –

  • 35 years of age
  • A United States of America resident for 14 years
  • A ‘natural born citizen’ of the United States of America

Voting rights in the United States

The government of the United States of America, gives the right to every person over the age of 18 to vote. Voting is considered not just a right, but also a privilege and a big responsibility.

Political parties in the United States

The two main political parties in the United States are the Republican and Democratic Parties. Members of both the parties have different views on different issues related to the country. It is a good thing as different sides of important issues get discussed and voted on.

How do candidates take part in the elections?

A presidential candidate first makes an official announcement that he or she is running for president. Then, he/she files papers with the federal elections commission, which controls the election process. Candidates usually make these announcements atleast a year before the presidential election. This is done to ensure enough time for the election campaigns.

Canvassing of votes for President

Once the candidates file their names for the election, they make an endeavour to remain in the public eye. This process is known as election campaigns or canvassing. The candidates try to convince voters to vote for them. They give elaborate public speeches and tell people about their agendas and what reforms will they introduce upon getting elected. They also run advertisements on TV, distribute buttons, and have debates to let the citizens know why they are the best candidate for the job.

How is the President elected?

The American President is elected by the Electoral College. The American President is elected according to the process of the Electoral College. The citizens of the US do not directly elect the President. People actually vote for an elector from their state, and these electors then vote for President.

Each state has a specific number of delegates in the Electoral College based on the population of the state. Once all the votes are in, the candidate who wins the majority of electoral votes, becomes the President. There are 538 total electors in the United States and a total of 270 electoral votes is required to win the presidential election.

How are votes counted?

After the polls close on the day of the election, the process of counting the votes begins. Each state has a different method to collect and tabulate ballots. Some are electronic, while others are paper-based. The votes are counted in a joint session of Congress.

What are primary elections or caucuses?

When the elections are on, the people in the United States gather to show their support for different candidates. Such gatherings are known as the primary elections or caucuses. During the primary elections, the voters get ballots having a list of the names of the candidates running for president. They go to a polling booth and vote for their favourite candidate.

What is a swing state?

In American politics, the term swing state implies to any state that could be easily won by either the Democratic or Republican presidential candidate. These states are usually targeted by both the major fighting political parties.

5 Interesting facts about the United States Presidential Elections

  1. Earlier only white men over the age of 21 were allowed to vote in the United States of America, but it was changed later on and now everyone over 18 years of age can vote regardless of race or gender.
  2. The process of voting is extremely important for the democratic countries as by way of voting people get to have their say in the government.
  3. The first automatic voting machine was invented in 1898.
  4. Other political parties in the USA are Reform, Green, Natural Law, and Libertarian.
  5. The major swing states in the United States are Florida, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
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What is a region? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-region/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-region/#comments Tue, 05 Dec 2017 12:53:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97545 Definition of Region A region is a specific area that has common features. A region may have common natural or artificial features. A region can be based on language, government, religion, type of flora and fauna or climate. Regions are the basic units of geography. Why do Geographers use regions to study the Earth? It […]

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What is a region?

Definition of Region

A region is a specific area that has common features. A region may have common natural or artificial features. A region can be based on language, government, religion, type of flora and fauna or climate. Regions are the basic units of geography.

Why do Geographers use regions to study the Earth?

It is impossible to study our planet Earth as one unit or region as there is so much of information to be incorporated. Regions are one way to arrange and simplify this huge amount of information.

What is Regional Geography?

Regional geography is the branch of Geography that deals with the division and study of the Earth into different regions. The famous geographer, Paul Vidal de la Blanche is regarded as the father of Regional Geography.

Types of regions

1. Physical or Land region

Physical or land region is an area with geographic boundaries. For example- in the United States, there is a major physical region known as the Great Plains. This specific region has a lot of grass, is flat, and is home to animals like bison and antelope. Similarly, the Amazon River region in South America is characterized by warm temperatures, heavy rainfall, and similar diversity of plant and animal species.

2. Cultural region

People in one cultural region have same beliefs, speak the same language, eat the same food and have same cultural practices.

3. Political region

Political regions are decided on the basis of the political party ruling over that particular area. States are an example of the political regions.

What are the different regions of the world?

According to the United Nations, the world is composed of 10 major geographic regions: Africa, Asia, North America, South America, Central America, Eastern Europe, the European Union, the Middle East, the Caribbean and Oceania.

Different regions of the United States of America

The United States is divided into five major regions –

  1. Northeast region that includes Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland Climate. The Northeast region has a humid continental climate with cool summers. The temperatures in these areas remain mostly below freezing. Major geographical features include the Appalachian Mountains, Atlantic Ocean, Great Lakes.
  2. Southeast region that includes West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida. The climate in this region is humid subtropical with hot summers. This region is hurricane prone. Major geographical features include the Appalachian Mountains, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Mississippi River.
  3. Midwest region including Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota. The climate is humid continental throughout most of the region. Major geographical features comprise of Great Lakes, Great Plains, and Mississippi River.
  4. Southwest region including Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona. The climate is Semiarid Steppe in the western area and humid towards the east. Major geographical features are Rocky Mountains, Colorado River, Grand Canyon, and the Gulf of Mexico.
  5. West region including Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Utah, Nevada, California, Alaska. This region has a range of climates including semiarid to alpine and Mediterranean to Desert as well. Major geographical features include Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada Mountains, Mohave Desert and the Pacific Ocean.

2 Interesting facts about region

  1. Due to plate tectonics, or the movement of the Earth’s crust, geographic regions are constantly being created and destroyed over time.
  2. Regional geography specifically started getting popularity in the United States and Europe during the period between World Wars I and II.
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Napoleon Bonaparte Biography http://mocomi.com/napoleon-bonaparte/ http://mocomi.com/napoleon-bonaparte/#comments Mon, 04 Dec 2017 06:25:47 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97533 Who was Napoleon? Napoleon was a great military leader and the emperor of France. He was born on August 15, 1769 at Ajaccio, Corsica. His father was Carlo Buonaparte was a lawyer at the court of the French King. Since Napoleon came from a wealthy family, he was able to go to the best of […]

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Napoleon Bonaparte Biography

Who was Napoleon?

Napoleon was a great military leader and the emperor of France. He was born on August 15, 1769 at Ajaccio, Corsica. His father was Carlo Buonaparte was a lawyer at the court of the French King. Since Napoleon came from a wealthy family, he was able to go to the best of the schools and get a good education. He went to a military academy in France and became an officer in the army. After his father’s demise, Napoleon returned to Corsica to help in handling the family’s affairs. While in Corsica, Napoleon joined hands with a local revolutionary – Pasquale Paoli and helped him in fighting against the French. Soon after, he changed sides and returned to France. Napoleon married his first wife, Josephine, in 1796 but divorced her in 1810 to marry Marie-Louise of Austria.

How did Napoleon become the ruler of France?

At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians. With his amazing leadership and warfare skills, he won over the Italian Peninsula and became a national hero. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt which was extremely successful. In 1799, the ruling government in France called the Directory, started to lose its control over the country. Together with his supporters, in 1804, Napoleon formed a new government called the Consulate and gave himself the title of First Consul.

How was Napoleon as a ruler?

As the Consul of France, Napoleon established a number of government reforms. One of these reforms was the famous Napoleonic Code which stated that government positions would not be appointed based on a person’s birth or religion, but on their qualifications and ability. Before the French Revolution and the implementation of the Napoleonic Code, all high positions were bagged by those from the royal families or to those whom the kings favoured. Napoleon gave a boost to the French economy by building new roads and promoting business. He re-established Christianity as the official state religion, but at the same time allowed for freedom of religion to his citizens. Napoleon also set up non-religious schools, so children could get education. Napoleon’s power and control continued to grow with his reforms. In 1804, he crowned himself the Emperor of France.

Napoleon’s military timeline

Napoleon defeated the Austrian and Russian armies at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805.

  • 1811 – France controlled most of Europe.
  • 1812 – Napoleon decided to invade Russia.
  • 1813 – Most of Europe had turned against France. Prussia and Spain declare war on France.
  • 1814 – Napoleon was forced into exile on the island of Elba.
  • 1815 – Napoleon escaped from Elba and gathered his army and took control of Paris for a period also known as the Hundred Days.
  • 1815 – In June, the armies of English and Prussia, led by Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. This time Napoleon was once again forced into exile on the island of Saint Helena.

When did Napoleon Bonaparte died?

  • Napoleon died on May 5, 1821

5 Interesting facts about Napoleon Bonaparte

  1. Napoleon’s nickname was Little Corporal.
  2. Napoleon is famous for being fairly short, probably 5 feet 6 inches tall.
  3. His birth name was Napoleone di Buonaparte.
  4. He wrote a romance novel called Clisson et Eugenie.
  5. In 1804, he was crowned the Emperor France. At the coronation, he did not allow the Pope to place the crown on his head, but instead crowned himself.

5 Famous Quotes by Napoleon Bonaparte

  1. A soldier will fight long and hard for a bit of coloured ribbon
  2. If you want a thing done well, do it yourself
  3. Death is nothing, but to live defeated and inglorious is to die daily
  4. Never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake
  5. A leader is a dealer in hope.
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Say please and thank you! – Social Etiquette http://mocomi.com/say-please-and-thank-you-social-etiquette/ http://mocomi.com/say-please-and-thank-you-social-etiquette/#comments Fri, 01 Dec 2017 12:49:33 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97515 Do you get upset if someone takes something from you and doesn’t bother to say a ‘thank you’ to you? Or do you have friends who constantly expect you to do something, without requesting or even using the word ‘please’? What is a social etiquette? So what is a social etiquette? It is important that […]

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Say please and thank you! - Social Etiquette

Do you get upset if someone takes something from you and doesn’t bother to say a ‘thank you’ to you? Or do you have friends who constantly expect you to do something, without requesting or even using the word ‘please’?

What is a social etiquette?

So what is a social etiquette? It is important that when we interact with other people, that we follow basic manners and courtesy, so as not to cause discomfort. This is known as social etiquette.

Why is it important to have social etiquettes?

By saying Please and Thank yous when asking and receiving something from some one, we make positive impressions.

  1. Manners and courtesy allow us to be nice to people.
  2. We develop respect and trust people who display social etiquettes.
  3. We let the people we interact with, know we respect the time and effort they give to us.
  4. When we are kind and courteous, we are not only being nice to others but also to ourselves.
  5. Through good manners, we can create a happy environment for others and ourselves.
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Nutrition in Plants http://mocomi.com/nutrition-in-plants/ http://mocomi.com/nutrition-in-plants/#comments Fri, 01 Dec 2017 07:30:50 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97503 How do plants get their food? Plants can manufacture their own food, but animals including human beings cannot and rely on plants for their food. All living organisms need food for the following : Cell regeneration Energy for cellular functions Immunity against diseases Plants make their foods using either the Autotrophic nutrition and Heterotrophic nutrition. […]

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Nutrition in Plants

How do plants get their food?

Plants can manufacture their own food, but animals including human beings cannot and rely on plants for their food.

All living organisms need food for the following :

  • Cell regeneration
  • Energy for cellular functions
  • Immunity against diseases
  • Plants make their foods using either the Autotrophic nutrition and Heterotrophic nutrition.

What is Autotrophic nutrition?

When green plants make their food using simple substances like sun light, water, carbon dioxide and minerals, the process is known as Autotrophic nutrition. This type of nutrition is also known as Holophytic nutrition. These types of plants are known as autotrophs. The words, ‘auto’ means self and ‘trophos’ means nourishment. Autotrophs are the producers in a food chain.

What is Heterotrophic nutrition?

A heterotroph is an organism that cannot manufacture its own food by carbon fixation and therefore derives its intake of nutrition from other sources of organic carbon, mainly plant or animal matter. In a food chain, heterotrophs are secondary and tertiary consumers. This is also known as Holozoic nutrition, as the food is ingested and goes through a digestive process.

What are the types of Heterotrophs?

The types of heterotroph are :

  1. The animals that are directly dependent on plants are called herbivores. For example – Deer, Cow, Goat and Rabbit.
  2. The animals that eat the flesh of other animals are called carnivores. For example – Lion, Tiger, Wolf and Snake.
  3. The animals that feed on both plants and animals are called omnivores. For example – Man, Bear and Crow.
  4. The animals that feed on the flesh of dead animals are called scavengers. For example – Kites and Vultures.

Photosynthesis in plants

Plants manufacture their food in their leaves. The leaves, are therefore, also known as the kitchen or food factories of the plants. Photosynthesis is the combination of two words – Photo and synthesis. ‘Photo’ means light and ‘synthesis’ means to make.

The reaction that takes place in the process of photosynthesis can be written as :

6CO2 + 6H2O ——> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Plants require the following things to carry out the process of photosynthesis –

  • Sunlight
  • Water
  • Carbon – dioxide
  • A green pigment known as the Chlorophyll

Leaves have numerous small pores like structures on their lower surface. These pores are surrounded by ‘guard cells’. These pores are called stomata. The stomata are guarded by two bean-shaped cells known as the guard cells. Leaves absorb carbon dioxide from air through stomata. Water is transported to the leaves through the Xylem tissue.

What is chlorophyll?

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the leaves. It gives the leaves their characteristic green colour. The job of chlorophyll is to absorb sunlight, carbon dioxide and water and convert them into carbohydrate and oxygen.

Importance of photosynthesis

The process of photosynthesis is very useful for our environment. It maintains a balance between the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Plants release oxygen that is essential for our survival and that is why it is said that we must plant more trees.

What are the modes of nutrition in non-green plants?

There are some plants that lack chlorophyll. Such plants are also known as non-green plants and they cannot synthesise their own food. They depend on other organisms for food. Let us learn about some of the important non – green plants.

1. Parasitic plants

A parasite is an organism which lives on or inside the body of another organism and takes shelter and food from that organism. An organism which provides shelter and nutrition to another organism is called a host. The host in this case is always at loss.

Plants that get their food from other plants by living on them are called parasitic plants. For example – Cuscuta or Amarbel and Mistletoe. Cuscuta is a vine-like plant with a yellow coloured stem. It coils around big trees, like the Banyan tree and gets nutrition from it. In this case, Banyan tree is the host and Cuscuta is the parasite.

2. Insectivorous plants

The plants that eat insects are called insectivorous plants. They trap and digest the insects. For example – Pitcher plant is an insectivorous plant in which the leaves are modified into pitcher – shaped structures. The insects get attracted to the bright colour and sweet-smelling nectar of the pitcher plant. When an unsuspecting insect sits on the pitcher of the plant to take a sip of the nectar, the lid of the pitcher closes and the insect gets trapped inside. The insect is then digested by the enzymes released by the cells of the plants. Venus flytrap, Utricularia and Drosera are some other examples of insectivorous plants which trap and kill small flies and spiders in different ways.

3. Saprotrophs

The non-green plants that feed on the dead and decaying matter like animal wastes are called Saprotrophs or Saprophytes. For example – Fungi like Agaricus, Yeast and Bacteria.

4. Symbiotic plants

Symbiosis is the combination of two Greek words ‘Sym’ means ‘with’ and ‘biosis’ means ‘living’. In other words, symbiosis means ‘living together’. Symbiosis is the type of nutrition in which two different kinds of living organisms depend on each other for survival. They share shelter and nutrients. For example – Lichen. Lichen is a composite organism made up of fungus and alga. Fungus is a saproptroph and alga is an autotroph. The fungus provides water and minerals to the alga and in return the alga supplies food prepared by photosynthesis to the fungus.

3 Interesting facts about plants

  1. Insectivorous plants generally grow in swamps or marshy areas because the soil in such areas is deficient in nitrogen. To fulfill their nitrogen need, the plants trap and kill the insects.
  2. There are roughly 600 species of carnivorous plants which have different strategies to capture their prey.
  3. Charles Darwin was very fond of the carnivorous plant – Sundews, or Drosera.
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What is Heron’s Formula? http://mocomi.com/what-is-herons-formula/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-herons-formula/#comments Thu, 30 Nov 2017 13:11:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97486 Heron’s formula, sometimes known as Hero’s formula is named after Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician, and engineer in 10 AD. Definition for Heron’s formula Heron’s formula gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulas that calculate the area of a […]

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What is Heron’s Formula?

Heron’s formula, sometimes known as Hero’s formula is named after Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician, and engineer in 10 AD.

Definition for Heron’s formula

Heron’s formula gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulas that calculate the area of a triangle. The area can be calculated using all the three sides, especially in scalene triangle, where none of the sides are equal. Most formulas use the height of a triangle to calculate the area.

What are the steps for Heron’s formula?

According to this formula,

Area of the triangle –

A = \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)},

where the semi – perimeter of the triangle,

s=\frac{a+b+c}{2}.

a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of the triangle.

Heron’s Formula Worksheet

1. Calculate the semiperimeter of a triangle, s, where a = 23, b = 40, c = 35.

a. 35
b. 48
c. 25
d. 49
Right Answer- d. 49

2. Calculate the area of a triangle using Heron’s formula, if the three sides of the triangle are, a = 5, b = 9, c = 6

a. 12.34
b. 10.6
c. 14.14
d. 13.26
Right Answer- 14.14

3. Calculate the side of a triangle b, if side a = 12 and side c = 6 and the semi – perimeter equals 13.
a. 9
b. 8
c. 6
d. 7
Right Answer- b. 8

3 Interesting facts about Heron’s Formula

  1. Heron’s formula has been known to mathematicians for nearly 2000 years.
  2. Proof of this formula can be found in Hero of Alexandria’s book “Metrica”.
  3. Many mathematicians believe that Archimedes already knew the formula before Heron. Some also believe that this formula has Vedic roots and the credit should be given to the ancient Hindus.
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What was the French Revolution? http://mocomi.com/the-french-revolution/ http://mocomi.com/the-french-revolution/#comments Wed, 29 Nov 2017 11:34:45 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97475 A revolution means a revolt, mutiny or a powerful change. Origins of the French Revolution In the years between 1789 until 1799, France experienced the most violent political turmoil, overthrowing the monarchy of Louis XVI and establishing the French republic, only to end in the dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was involved in the later […]

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What was the French Revolution?

A revolution means a revolt, mutiny or a powerful change.

Origins of the French Revolution

In the years between 1789 until 1799, France experienced the most violent political turmoil, overthrowing the monarchy of Louis XVI and establishing the French republic, only to end in the dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was involved in the later years of the revolution.

Causes of the French Revolution

For years, in France, there was a vast difference between the poor and the rich. The rich became wealthier and made merry while the poor struggled for day to day living and became poorer. The poor saw the rich grow; while they got nothing. This angered them and finally a group of poor people rebelled against a few rich in the French society.

Who were involved in the French Revolution?

  • The French society prior to the French Revolution, was ruled by King Louis XVI. For years, in France, there was a vast difference between the poor and the rich. The rich became wealthier and made merry while the poor struggled for day to day living and became poorer.
  • The rich of the French society were called the Nobles who they lived in palaces and were gifted large lands by the King.
  • Then there was another class of people called the Church who owned most of the land in France and they levied heavy taxes on crops which were paid by the common man.
  • The Common Man was the third category of people who not only had to work extremely hard but also had to pay heavy taxes, leaving nothing for their savings or family.
  • The French Revolution was fought between the Common men on one side and the Nobles and Church of the French society on the other.

What led to the French Revolution?

The British colonies of America had declared Independence. France’s costly involvement in the American War of Independence had left France bankrupt. Two decades of poverty and difficulties had left the common man absolutely disillusioned and struggling with inflation due to heavy taxation. This was the beginning of a revolt. A revolution started in 1789 when the common men created a group called the National Assembly. The representatives of the National Assembly had taken an oath that they would not leave until a new constitution has been written for France. The members then attacked the Bastille prison, a symbol of power for the nobles and the King, on 14th July, 1789.

Ten Year Long Revolution (1789 – 1799)

Several other regions of France followed this event and a revolutionary movement was started. There was chaos all over. Peasants burned down castles of the nobles; some wealthy people left their privileges and ran away. There was a wave of violence across Europe known as the Great Fear. The violence kept spreading wherein the members of the third class wanted equal rights for themselves, but the members of the first class did not want to give full rights.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

It was in August 1789, the National Assembly approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This was the document that stated that all people are born free and have equal rights. The National Assembly also said that peasants will no longer farm for the nobles without pay. They took away the property from the Roman Catholic Church. Most male citizens also got the right to vote.

The Reign of Terror

The French Republic had a group called the National Convention which was later taken over by the Jacobins, an extremist group. The Jacobins began a period called the Reign of Terror. They arrested anyone who was against the revolution and killed many, including King Louis XVI in 1793. It was only in 1795 that a less extremist government called the Directory took over. A new constitution declined the right to vote for all those who could not pay taxes.

What was Napoleon Bonaparte’s involvement in the French Revolution?

During the Revolution, a General named Napoleon Bonaparte became famous. He was a skilled leader and helped expand the territories of France, including a victory over the powerful Austrian Army.

It was in 1799 that Napoleon Bonaparte did away with the Directory and the Revolution came to an end. He made himself the leader of a new government called the Consulate. Napoleon brought peace back to France. He rewrote the old French Feudal laws and created a new Napoleonic Code of laws, which remains in France even to this day.

Napoleon declared himself the Emperor of France in 1804. France became a republic in 1871.

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What are synthetic fibres? http://mocomi.com/what-are-synthetic-fibres/ http://mocomi.com/what-are-synthetic-fibres/#comments Tue, 28 Nov 2017 12:52:27 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97464 Definition of synthetic fibre Synthetic fibers are man – made from chemicals. They are generally based on polymers and are stronger than natural and regenerated fibers. Difference between natural and synthetic fibres Synthetic or man – made fibres can easily be distinguished from natural fibres, such as silk, cotton and wool. Although natural fibres may […]

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What are synthetic fibres?

Definition of synthetic fibre

Synthetic fibers are man – made from chemicals. They are generally based on polymers and are stronger than natural and regenerated fibers.

Difference between natural and synthetic fibres

Synthetic or man – made fibres can easily be distinguished from natural fibres, such as silk, cotton and wool. Although natural fibres may also be made of polymers like cellulose and proteins, they don’t undergo any chemical changes during the manufacturing process and are used in their original form.

What are synthetic fibres made of?

Synthetic fibres, on the other hand, undergo changes in their chemical structure and composition, during the manufacturing process. Polymers such as regenerated cellulose, polycaprolactam, and polyethylene terephthalate, which have become familiar household materials under the trade names, Rayon, Nylon, and Dacron, respectively, are also made into numerous nonfibre products, ranging from cellophane envelope windows to clear plastic soft-drink bottles. As fibres, these materials are prized for their strength, toughness, resistance to heat and mildew, and ability to hold a pressed form.

Types of synthetic fibres

  1. Polyester is made from esters of dihydric alcohol and terpthalic acid.
  2. Acrylic fabrics are polycrylonitriles.
  3. Rayon is recycled wood pulp that is treated with chemicals like caustic soda, ammonia, acetone and sulphuric acid to survive regular washing and wearing.
  4. Acetate and Triacetate are made from wood fibers called cellulose and undergo extensive chemical processing to produce the finished product.
  5. Nylon is made from petroleum and is often given a permanent chemical finish that can be harmful.

Uses of synthetic fibres

Synthetic fibres play an important role in today’s world and are used either on their own or mixed with other synthetic or natural fibres to create fabrics or products for everyday use. Some uses are :

  1. Ropes
  2. Parachutes
  3. Fish Nets
  4. Carpets
  5. Tents
  6. Fillers in pillows
  7. Fabrics for everyday wear like lycra and spandex
  8. Blankets
  9. Warm and protective clothing for extreme climates
  10. Synthetic hair wigs

Advantages of synthetic fibres

Synthetic fibres are used because of their durable nature. Some of the advantages are :

  • They have good elasticity.
  • They do not wrinkle easily.
  • They are comparatively less expensive, more durable, require less maintenance and are easily available.
  • They are stronger and can handle heavy loads.

Disadvantages of synthetic fibres

  • Most are not heat resistant making them dangerous to wear near fire.
  • They do not allow air circulation, making them sticky, sweaty and uncomfortable to wear, during hot and humid climates.
  • They are non – biodegradable.
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The Grand Central Station Facts http://mocomi.com/the-grand-central-station/ http://mocomi.com/the-grand-central-station/#comments Mon, 27 Nov 2017 12:22:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97448 Why is the Grand Central Station famous? The Grand Central Station/Terminal is an iconic American train station in New York City, located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Manhattan. It is the largest train station in the world that covers an area of over 48 acres and has 44 platforms and 67 tracks! What […]

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The Grand Central Station Facts

Why is the Grand Central Station famous?

The Grand Central Station/Terminal is an iconic American train station in New York City, located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Manhattan. It is the largest train station in the world that covers an area of over 48 acres and has 44 platforms and 67 tracks!

What is it like being at the Grand Central Terminal?

As you would enter the grand main concourse, you would find at its centre a circular Information Booth, on top of which is placed the Grand Central’s famous clock which is a four-sided timepiece and is one of the most iconic attractions in New York.

This clock has been a popular meeting point for over a century. This iconic timepiece is made up of expensive Tiffany glass and opal, and is valued somewhere between $10 and $20 million!

Who has painted the iconic ceiling mural at the Grand Central?

About 125 feet up, on the Grand Central Station ceiling, you would see a spectacular mural showing the Mediterranean sky. It comprises of 2,500 stars. This marvellous ceiling was designed by artist Paul Helleu and painted in gold leaf. There are 60 large stars that symbolize different constellations and are illuminated with fibre optics.

11 Interesting facts the Grand Central Station

  1. There is a unique gallery, ‘Whispering Gallery’, where you can whisper a secret to your partner. All you have to do is to stand at one corner of the wall and whisper into; your partner will be able to hear you way across on the other side.
  2. If you are a foodie, there is a series of restaurants and a large gourmet culinary market wherein you will find a wide choice of food items to satiate your taste buds.
  3. For the shopaholics, there are more than 65 stores spread throughout the terminal.
  4. For those who are fond of reading, it even has a spacious and well-equipped library.
  5. The Grand Central Terminal is owned by a private company known as Midtown TDR Ventures.
  6. Grand Central Terminal became functional at midnight on February 2, 1913. It was built on the spot that housed Cornelius Vanderbilt’s railroad network, The New York Central. Acorns and oak leaves are used throughout decorations in the terminal, representing the Vanderbilt family motto: “Great oaks from little acorns grow.”
  7. The estimated construction cost of the Grand Central Terminal is approximately $2 billion.
  8. More than 750,000 visitors pass through the Grand Central Terminal daily.
  9. The Grand Central Terminal is also known as the first ‘stair – less station’ as all levels and platforms within it can be reached by lifts or ramps.
  10. One of the most latest Hollywood movie to feature Grand Central was Men in Black III. A race of tiny aliens was shown being kept inside a Grand Central locker.
  11. It was preceded by Grand Central Depot (1871) and Grand Central Station (1900), both of which were demolished.

Famous quotes about the Grand Central Terminal

  1. There’s something so soothing about the hum of Grand Central Station – Rachel Nichols
  2. Better to get off the train at this station. Than to do it later, when it’s too late. Remember Time doesn’t wait! – Deyth Banger
  3. If you are happy in the station, then the station becomes your train! In other words, if you are happy where you are, it means that you are already travelling! Happiness is a great journey! – Mehmet Murat ildan

‘Grand Central’ Poem by Billy Collins

A poem by Billy Collins (Poet Laureate of the United States from 2001 to 2003), an ode to the 750,000 people that move about daily at The Grand Central Station for the centenary celebrations

The city orbits around eight million
centers of the universe

and turns around the golden clock
at the still point of this place.

Lift up your eyes from the moving hive
and you will see time circling

under a vault of stars and know
just when and where you are.”

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What Rhymes with Orange, Silver, Purple, and Month? http://mocomi.com/what-rhymes-with-orange-silver-purple-and-month/ http://mocomi.com/what-rhymes-with-orange-silver-purple-and-month/#comments Fri, 24 Nov 2017 10:06:51 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97431 There is no word in the English language that rhymes with orange, month, silver or purple Emma: Yummy! This orange is so sweet…it makes such a delightful treat! Try one Em. Em: Hey! You just made two words rhyme! Sweet and treat…can you see it or are you in dilemma Emma? Emma: Happy to make […]

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What Rhymes with Orange, Silver, Purple, and Month?

There is no word in the English language that rhymes with orange, month, silver or purple

Emma: Yummy! This orange is so sweet…it makes such a delightful treat! Try one Em.

Em: Hey! You just made two words rhyme! Sweet and treat…can you see it or are you in dilemma Emma?

Emma: Happy to make my name rhyme? By the way, do you know any words in English that do not rhyme at all?

Em: Are there any such words? I always thought every word has some rhyming word in English language.

Words with no rhyming words

Emma: Yes but only four have none. No word in the English language rhymes with orange, month, silver, and purple.

Em: really? Let me think… Orange!!!!!! Hmmmm….Gorange….Florange….torange!!

Reason: Hahaha… those are not even words. A perfect rhyme demands the exact match of the way the word sounds from the stretched vowel to the last alphabet. Example: hat/cat, plate/eight, later/alligator.

Em: Come to think of it. Did you notice that 3 of the words that do not rhyme are the names of colours?

Reason: Yes and the fourth word that does not have a rhyme is ‘month’. You can’t even fake rhyme for this word. Dunth? Hunth? Bonth? Nothing rhymes with it!

Em: Hmm..Let’s write a poem with these four words. We can make up our own words which rhyme with them!

Emma: Oh sounds like fun to me!

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John Herschel Glenn Jr Biography http://mocomi.com/john-herschel-glenn-jr-biography/ http://mocomi.com/john-herschel-glenn-jr-biography/#comments Fri, 24 Nov 2017 09:37:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97423 Who is John Herschel Glenn Jr? John Herschel Glenn Jr, was a military test pilot, selected by NASA for its maiden manned space flight. Part of the Mercury Seven Project, he was a back up to the first two Americans, Alan Shepard and Virgil ‘Gus’ Grissom in space. John Glenn is remembered as the first […]

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John Herschel Glenn Jr Biography

Who is John Herschel Glenn Jr?

John Herschel Glenn Jr, was a military test pilot, selected by NASA for its maiden manned space flight. Part of the Mercury Seven Project, he was a back up to the first two Americans, Alan Shepard and Virgil ‘Gus’ Grissom in space.

John Glenn is remembered as the first American to orbit the earth, circling it three times. At this time, the United States and the USSR were in a race with space programs and Yuri Gagarin from Russia was the first man to orbit the earth.

Early Years – John Herschel Glenn Jr

He was born on 18th July, 1921, in Cambridge, Ohio, to John Glenn, Sr. and Clara Teresa. Glenn studied Science at the Muskingum College, Ohio, and soon after that received his private pilot license in 1941.

In 1942, Glenn joined the United States Navy as a pilot. Thereafter, he switched to the United States Marine Corps. He also served as a fighter pilot in World War II and flew many missions over the Pacific Ocean. In 1943, Glenn married his childhood lady love, Anna Margaret Castor. The couple had two children, Carolyn and John David.

Career in the US Marines

Glenn stayed in the Marines after the war. On July 16, 1957, Glenn set an amazing transcontinental air speed record. He flew a F8U-1 Crusader from NAS Los Alamitos to Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, in 3 hours, 23 minutes, and 8.4 seconds. Glenn was awarded his fifth Distinguished Flying Cross for this mission.

First Man to Orbit Earth Three Times!

In 1958, Glenn joined Project Mercury of NASA. He was the oldest of the seven pilots selected. His task was to fly a Mercury spacecraft called ‘Friendship-7′. His first words when reaching orbit were ‘Zero G and I feel fine.’ He retired from NASA after his flight, and decided to try his luck in politics. He won his first general election in 1974. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1980. Glenn was a popular senator and was re-elected several more times.

Oldest Space Traveller!

In 1998, Glenn went into space again onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery at the age of 77, making him the oldest man to go into space!

Accolades

He retired from the Senate in 1999. In 2012, Glenn was given the Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama.

Death

He died at a medical centre after suffering from a ‘serious medical condition’ in Columbus in December 8th, 2016. He was 95 years old at the time of his death.

But he will always be remembered as the first American to orbit space!

3 Interesting facts about John Herschel Glenn Jr

  1. In the Korean War, John Glenn shot down three enemy planes and flew in 63 combat missions.
  2. The only US Senator to have gone into space.
  3. The nickname Friendship-7 was given to the Mercury spacecraft by John Glenn.

Famous quotes by John Herschel Glenn Jr

  • ‘I don’t know what you can say about a day when you see four beautiful sunsets. This is a little unusual, I think’, Glenn said this during his first orbit.
  • ‘To look out at this kind of creation out here and not believe in God is to me impossible.’
  • ‘To me, there is no greater calling, if I can inspire young people to dedicate themselves to the good of mankind, I’ve accomplished something.’
  • ‘We are more fulfilled when we are involved in something bigger than ourselves.’
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What is a star? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-star/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-star/#comments Thu, 23 Nov 2017 09:04:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97410 A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth, during the night. If a star has a planetary system, it maybe referred to as a sun. There are millions of stars […]

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What is a star?

A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth, during the night.

If a star has a planetary system, it maybe referred to as a sun.

There are millions of stars in the universe and astronomers are constantly discovering new heavenly bodies, including new stars and planets.

How are stars formed?

  • Stars are formed in the densest regions of the interstellar medium, called molecular clouds. Molecular clouds are perfect star forming regions because the combination of these atoms into molecules is much more likely in dense regions. Stars are born as clumps within gigantic gas clouds that collapse in on themselves!
  • When a molecular cloud collapses under its own gravity, it forms a denser core which is sustained by nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion reactions, which take place in the star’s core, support the star against gravity and also produces photons and heat, as well as small amounts of heavier elements.
  • As the cloud’s material heats up, it falls inward under the force of its own gravity. This process goes on for millions of years. As the gases within the star get exhausted, the star starts to cool down slowly and dies eventually.

How do stars die?

Due to its high temperature and intensity, a star is constantly creating materials including helium, silicon, oxygen. As it continues creating, it will eventually start creating iron. When the core turns to iron, it will start to die, as iron is not combustible. It will slowly collapse on itself.

What is the biggest star in the Universe?

R136a1 is the biggest(heaviest) star in the Universe right now! The facts keep changing because of the changing mass of a star or a new discovery!

The R136a1 is a huge star. It’s a member of a star cluster within the Tarantula Nebula, an immense star formation factory located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It’s believed that the R136a1 contains anything from 265 – 320 solar masses, making it the biggest star known. But it is believed that R136a1 is a star that will probably collapse into itself in a million years.

The other stars that are also big are the Eta Carinae, UY Scuti and NML Cygni.

What is the smallest star in the Universe?

EBLM J0555–57Ab, has been discovered to be the smallest star ever found. Its size is slightly larger than Saturn and it’s about 600 light years away from Earth. It is a part of a binary star system.

The gravity pull of EBLM J0555–57Ab, is 300 times of Earth with a radius of 49,000 kms, 80 percent the size of Jupiter and 85 times the mass of Jupiter. The temperature is lesser than exoplanets discovered. If its size were smaller, it wouldn’t be possible for it to have nuclear fusion reaction required for it to be a star.

What do stars look like?

  • Looking at stars, from earth, it’s impossible to judge what stars look like. Because of a star’s distance and earth’s dense atmosphere, stars appear to twinkle.
  • A star’s colour is based on their age and heat intensity. The hottest stars are blue, and the next hottest are white. Yellow stars are next in heat intensity and red stars are the coolest. Our sun is a green star.
  • Blackholes are stars who have finished being stars and they trap light, instead of emitting it.
  • Sometimes a star shines brighter, simply because it is closer to earth than the other stars.

What are the well known stars and constellations?

  • Polaris, also known as North Star has been a guide for navigation for centuries.
  • Sirius, also known as the Dog Star, has been used by different early civilisations to herald changes in seasons and navigation.
  • Alpha Centauri System is the closest star system to earth.
  • Betelgeuse is 650 light years from Earth. It is also known as the Alpha Orionis and is part of the Orion constellation. It’s a star that is expected to go supernova soon, althought its exact date is not known. And we might be able to see this spectacular event!

9 Interesting facts about stars

  1. Did you know there are runaway stars? Stars that encounter one or two heavier siblings in a massive, dense cluster are pushed out from the cluster by the larger ones. Sometimes, a star may experience being pushed away due to a stellar explosion.
  2. Total number of stars visible to the naked eye are only about 6000.
  3. The Sun is the closest star to us.
  4. Most stars come in multiples and form constellations.
  5. There are between 200-400 stars in our galaxy and that there maybe 500 billion galaxies in the Universe. That’s a lot of stars!
  6. 99 percent of our Solar System is the mass of the sun.
  7. The most massive stars are short lived.
  8. In 185 AD Chinese astronomers were the first to record a supernova, this is now classified as SN 185.
  9. Most stars travel the galaxy with companions or in clusters. But not all stars do that; our Sun, for example, moves through the galaxy without a stellar companion.
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Combustion and Flame http://mocomi.com/combustion-and-flame/ http://mocomi.com/combustion-and-flame/#comments Wed, 22 Nov 2017 11:32:22 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97384 What is combustion? Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidised, often gaseous mixture termed as smoke. In some reactions, water is also produced along with smoke and other chemicals. Types of combustion Combustion is categorised as the following […]

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Combustion and Flame

What is combustion?

Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidised, often gaseous mixture termed as smoke. In some reactions, water is also produced along with smoke and other chemicals.

Types of combustion

Combustion is categorised as the following :

1. Complete and Incomplete Combustion

Complete Combustion –

  • In complete combustion, the reactant burns in oxygen, producing a limited number of products.
  • When a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen, the reaction will yield carbon dioxide and water.
  • When elements are burned, the products are primarily the most common oxides. Carbon will give carbon dioxide, sulphur will give sulphur dioxide.
  • Nitrogen is not a combustible substance when oxygen is the oxidant, but small amounts of various nitrogen oxides form when air is the oxidant.

Incomplete Combustion –

  • Incomplete combustion will occur when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely, to produce carbon dioxide and water.
  • It also occurs if external devices or sources does not allow the combustion to take place completely. Carbon and carbon monoxide are the by products and not carbon dioxide.
  • Certain substances like diesel, oil, plastic, tyres, coal or wood, pyrolysis occurs before combustion. Pyrolysis is the process where complex molecules or polymers are broken down into simpler molecules. Pyrolysis generally occurs without oxygen. It is used in waste management to alter the waste generated into a more usable material.
  • Incomplete combustion adds harmful compounds to the environment, in the form of smog and other contaminants.

2. Smouldering

This type of combustion, though categorised by the presence of incandescence and smoke, produces no flame.

A relatively slow process, smouldering occurs between the oxygen in air and the surfaces of solid fuels such as coal, peat, wood, tobacco and synthetic foams. These solid fuels glow when smouldering, indicating temperatures in excess of one thousand degrees celcius. Sometimes it occurs for some time in a hot environment, despite lack of oxygen. Although under such conditions, it produces high amounts of carbon monoxide.

3. Diffusion Combustion

Diffusion combustion results from the transfer of fuel vapours and oxygen across a concentration gradient into a reaction area that is characterised by high temperatures and correct proportion of reactants. Vapours may come initially from a solid fuel such as candle wax, a liquid fuel like alcohol or kerosene or a gaseous fuel like methane, or even the ordinary LPG cylinders we use in our homes.

The flames produced from diffusion combustion begins as smooth, laminar flame, increasing in turbulence as it grows and consumes more fuel and oxygen.

4. Rapid Combustion

Rapid combustion releases massive amounts of energy in the form of heat and light as is the case with fire. In some cases, combustion occurs so fast that large amounts of gases are released, along with heat and light, causing a significant pressure shift in the surrounding atmosphere. This pressure shift, often accompanied by a very loud noise, is called an explosion.

Internal combustion engines convert the energy produced by rapid combustion into usable kinetic energy.

5. Spontaneous Heating and Combustion

Spontaneous heating and combustion differs from most other types of combustion in that no external ignition source is required for it to proceed. An extremely slow process, spontaneous can take upto a few weeks. It consists of a gradual oxidation of certain material. As heat builds up, the rate of reaction increases, eventually causing smoldering or flaming combustion when the temperature rises. It may occur with petrochemicals, hydrocarbons, hay, cotton, etc.

What is a flame?

A flame is the visible gaseous part of a fire. It is caused by a highly exothermic reaction taking place in a thin zone.

Very hot flames are hot enough to have ionised gases as components, which may be considered plasma.

Structure of a candle flame

A candle flame consists of three zones.

  1. The innermost zone of a flame is dark or black and is the coldest part of the flame and is made of unburnt vapours of combustible material.
  2. The middle zone of a flame is yellow, bright and luminous. The fuel vapours burn partially in the middle zone, because there is not enough air for burning in this zone. The partial burning of fuel in the middle zone produces carbon particles. These carbon particles then leave the flame as smoke and soot. It has moderate temperature.
  3. The outer zone of the flame is blue. It is a non luminous zone. In this zone, complete combustion takes place, as it has enough supply of oxygen.

What is fuel?

Fuel maybe defined as any material that can be made to react with other substances, so that it releases chemical energy as heat.

Classification of fuels

1. Solid Fuel: Coal, wood, charcoal, peat and agricultural waste
2. Liquid Fuel: Kerosene, gasoline
3. Gaseous Fuel: Liquified Petroleum Gas, natural gas
4. Biofuels: Biofuel is defined as derived from biomass
5. Fossil Fuel: Fossils fuels are hydrocarbons, coal, petroleum, natural gas, coal. Fossils fuels are formed from plants dead and fossilised millions of years ago. They are non-renewable sources of energy

What are the characteristics of a good fuel?

The characteristics of a good fuel are :

  • High calorific value
  • Moderate ignition temperature
  • Low moisture content
  • Low noncombustible matter
  • Moderate velocity of combustion
  • Products of combustion not harmful
  • Low cost
  • Easy to transport
  • Combustion should be controllable
  • No spontaneous combustion
  • Low storage cost
  • Should burn in air with efficiency

Uses of combustion chemistry

The study of combustion chemistry helps us to design and monitor better and more efficient machines and engines. It also helps us to avoid using fuels that irreversibly damage our environment.

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Urban Administration Facts http://mocomi.com/urban-administration/ http://mocomi.com/urban-administration/#comments Tue, 21 Nov 2017 10:27:54 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97381 What is urban? An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure. They are categorised as cities and towns. For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is as follows: 1. All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. 2. All other […]

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Urban Administration Facts

What is urban?

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure. They are categorised as cities and towns.

For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is as follows:

1. All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
2. All other places which satisfied the following criteria:

a) A minimum population of 5,000
b) At least 75% of the male, main working population is engaged in non-agricultural pursuits
c) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km

What is urban administration in India?

Municipal governance in India has been in existence since 1687, first with the formation of the Madras Municipal Corporation and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726.

By the early 19th century, almost all towns had municipal governance of some type or the other.

With rapid urbanisation, and cities and town contributing to 60% GDP, it becomes very important to develop an efficient urban or municipal governance.

What are the main features of municipal governance?

The main features of municipal governance are :
To create an effective, responsive, democratic, transparent, accountable local governance.
To provide a responsive policy guidance and assistance to sub-national entities.
To strengthen the legal, fiscal, economic and service delivery functions of municipalities.
To foster greater citizen participation in the governance of local bodies.

What is the Nagar Palika Act or the Municipal Act?

The Nagar Palika Act or the Municipalities Act, 1992 set up through the 74th Amendment Act, also provides for a three-tier municipal system in the urban centres. It is similar to the Panchayati Raj system in rural areas.

The Twelfth Schedule of Constitution (Article 243 w) provides an illustrative list of eighteen functions, that may be entrusted to the municipalities. Reservation of seats for ST, SC, OBC & women are similarly provided as in the Panchayati Raj system.

The Nagar Palikas/Municipals are to work as instruments of development and planning and also to handle funds for local activities.

What is the structure of municipal governance of a metropolis?

The structure of municipal governance of a metropolis is as follows :

1. Municipal Corporation

It is the topmost urban local body with a population more than 3,00,000. It is set up under the special statute passed by the respective state’s legislature. Except Delhi, which is the National Capital, the power to set up a Municipal Corporation, lies with the Union Parliament.

2. Councillors

Members of the Municipal Corporation are elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage for a period of five years and they are called Councillors.
These Councillors, collectively called the Municipal Council, exercise deliberative functions and the executive functions are performed by the Municipal Commissioner.

3. Municipal Commissioner and Mayor

The Municipal Commissioner is an Indian Administrative Services(IAS) official appointed by the state government and has executive powers of the government of Municipal Corporations.The other executives known as the Mayor and Deputy Mayor are political executives elected for a period of one year by the members of the Corporation. The Mayor is an honorary head of the corporation and presides over the meetings of the corporation.

What are the functions of municipal corporations?

  1. The Municipal Corporations of cities are involved in providing amenities to the citizens of the city.
  2. Obligatory Basic Amenities
  3. Clean water and construction, and maintenance of water works
  4. Supply of electricity
  5. Road transport services
  6. Construction
  7. City maintenance
  8. Health and life services like crematorium, burial facilities, birth and death registrations
  9. Law and order
  10. Waste and sewage management

Discretionary

  1. Construction of garden, parks, libraries, museums, theatres, and stadiums
  2. Providing affordable, public housing
  3. Planting roadside trees and plants
  4. Providing relief shelters to destitutes and disabled persons
  5. Civil reception VIPS
  6. Registration of marriages, organisation and management of fairs and exhibitions
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Rural Administration Facts http://mocomi.com/rural-administration/ http://mocomi.com/rural-administration/#comments Mon, 20 Nov 2017 09:51:30 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97366 What is rural? The word rural denotes an area that is undeveloped, or under developed. It refers to small settlements which is outside the boundaries of a city, commercial or industrial area and may include countryside areas and villages, where there is natural vegetation. The primary source of income is agriculture and animal husbandry. Cottage […]

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Rural Administration Facts

What is rural?

The word rural denotes an area that is undeveloped, or under developed. It refers to small settlements which is outside the boundaries of a city, commercial or industrial area and may include countryside areas and villages, where there is natural vegetation. The primary source of income is agriculture and animal husbandry. Cottage and small-scale industries also form a source of income.

In India, a town whose population is below 15000 is considered rural, as per the planning commission.

What is rural administration?

India is made of many states. The states are further divided into districts. The districts are further divided into tehsils(sub-districts) and talukas. Gram panchayat is responsible for looking after such areas, as further they have no municipal board.

Agriculture is the main occupation and lands are sometimes leased on long-term basis for cultivation, by poor farmers. Sometimes land grabbing by people who are powerful also takes place. To settle land disputes or discourage this practice, it is very important to maintain proper land records. Records of the land are maintained by the patwari.

What is a Patwari’s function in rural administration?

A patwari is a person appointed by the local government or land authority to maintain and update land ownership records for a specific area as well as to undertake collection of land taxes. The records maintained by the patwari are used for calculating land revenues.

What is a Tehsildar’s function?

  • Tehsildars are appointed by the Financial Commissioner, and Revenue and Naib Tehsildars by the Commissioner of the Division.
  • The duties of the tehsil office (Panchayat Samiti) exercises certain fiscal and administrative power over the villages and municipalities within its jurisdiction.

The duties of the tehsildar are :

  • They enjoy the powers of Executive Magistrate, Assistant Collector and Sub Registrar/Joint Sub – Registrar.
  • Is Incharge of tehsil Revenue Agency and is responsible for proper preparation and maintenance of tehsil Revenue Record and Revenue Accounts.

What is the function of the District Magistrate?

A district magistrate, also known as district collector, is an officer of the Indian Administrative Services (IAS). They have been empowered as executive magistrates and are also incharge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.

As an IAS officer, the duties of the district magistrate or collector are very extensive. They are:

As District Magistrate:

  1. Maintenance of law and order.
  2. Supervision of the police and jails.
  3. Supervision of subordinate Executive magistracy.
  4. Hearing cases under the preventive section of the Criminal Procedure Code.
  5. Supervision of jails and certification of execution of capital sentences.
  6. Arbitrator of land acquisition.
  7. Disaster management during natural calamities such as floods, famines or epidemics.
  8. Crisis management during riots or external aggression.

As Collector:

  1. Land assessment
  2. Land acquisition
  3. Collection
  4. Collection of income tax dues, excise duties, irrigation dues etc.
  5. Distribution of agricultural loans
  6. Chairman of the District Bankers Coordination Committee
  7. Head of the District Industries Centre

As Deputy Commissioner/District Commissioner:

  • Reports to Divisional Commissioner on all matters.

As District Election Officer:

  • Conducts Elections in the district, be it General, Assembly or Municipal.
  • Acts as the Returning Officer for the Lok Sabha constituency in the district.

What is the role of a Police Station?

The police have to ensure enforcement of law and order in the area of their charge. In rural areas, sometimes a police station will cover several villages.

Station House Officer (SHO)

A police station is headed by the Station House Officer. In other words, the SHO is the in-charge of the police station. The SHO registers complaints. Complaints are usually registered in the form of an FIR(first information report) and after an investigation by a constable, the SHO may take the help of the Gram Panchayat or village elders in finding a solution. The SHO can also go to the court to reach a solution.

The Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005

According to the Hindu Succession Act 1956, daughters did not have any right to ancestral property. This act was amended in the year 2005, to grant daughters the same rights, duties, liabilities, and disabilities that were earlier limited to sons.

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Do Dragons exist? http://mocomi.com/do-dragons-exist/ http://mocomi.com/do-dragons-exist/#comments Fri, 17 Nov 2017 16:13:05 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97337 What exactly are dragons? Stories of Dragons have existed since the time stories were told. Dragons generally are said to have wings, scales, and claws and breathe fire. They are also thought be majestic creatures of mystery and Magic. Different cultures have varying stories about dragons The Greek called them serpents of the sea and […]

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Do Dragons exist?

What exactly are dragons?

Stories of Dragons have existed since the time stories were told. Dragons generally are said to have wings, scales, and claws and breathe fire. They are also thought be majestic creatures of mystery and Magic.

Different cultures have varying stories about dragons

  • The Greek called them serpents of the sea and the first mention of the word Greek word δράκων pronounced drakon is from the Iliad by Homer.
  • The Europeans early on thought of them as sea creatures and had maps depicting them waiting to eat unsuspecting sailors at the edge of the earth
  • Generally, the dragons were thought of as bringers of destruction and terror often depicting them as hoarders of treasure or maidens or both
  • At the other side of the planet the Japanese, Koreans and Chinese revered and worshipped them as mythical creatures who brought wisdom, prosperity and good luck.
  • Japanese ones are water deities and celestial beings associated with rainfall and bodies of water and are typically depicted as large, wingless, serpentine creatures with clawed feet.
  • Chinese dragons traditionally symbolize potent and auspicious powers, particularly control over water, rainfall, typhoons, and floods. The dragon is also a symbol of power, strength, and good luck for people who are worthy of it. With this, the Emperor of China usually used the dragon as a symbol of his imperial power and strength.

Has there been proof that dragons existed?

  1. Well, ancient people may have discovered dinosaur fossils and understandably misinterpreted them as the remains of dragons. Chang Qu, a Chinese historian from the 4th century B.C., mislabeled such a fossil and gave credibility to the myth of dragons.
  2. A Stegosaurus, was a giant beasts 30 feet in length and typically 14 feet tall and were covered in armored plates and spikes for defense.
  3. Even in a small town of Austria they mistook the skeleton of the ancient Rino and called it Dragons, A Statue of a Dragon still stands in the Middle of the town square
  4. Humans usually try to find meaning in things they can’t explain.
  5. The closest thing we can call to actual Dragons is the KOMODO Dragon, not entirely a dragon but fearsome anyway.
  6. So we know now that Dragons are fictional but as they say, there is no smoke without fire.
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What is a natural disaster? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-natural-disaster/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-natural-disaster/#comments Fri, 17 Nov 2017 10:51:44 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97317 A natural disaster maybe defined as a major adverse occurrence resulting from natural processes of the Earth. The severity of the disasters is measured in lives lost, economic loss, loss to the environment, like in the case of forest fires and the ability of the population for rebuilding or reconstruction. Effects of natural disasters Sometimes […]

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What is a natural disaster?

A natural disaster maybe defined as a major adverse occurrence resulting from natural processes of the Earth. The severity of the disasters is measured in lives lost, economic loss, loss to the environment, like in the case of forest fires and the ability of the population for rebuilding or reconstruction.

Effects of natural disasters

Sometimes the loss of property affects the living spaces of people, their transportation, livelihood, and means to live, which is agriculture, communication, irrigation, power projects in both rural and urban settlements.

Sometimes the natural disasters are of such huge scales, that the cost and time involved in reconstructing the infrastructure can affect the economy of the geographical region.

Difference between natural and man made disasters

Man-made disasters are caused due to human error or negligence. Some man-made disasters are so severe, they also set off natural disasters, like loss of the marine ecosystem, animal life, affecting or polluting water resources, destruction of natural resources.

Man Made Disasters

Natural Disasters

Causes

Negligence of humans

Natural forces

Types of Disaster

Oil Spilling, Nuclear bombing and testing, Terrorism, Pollution

Tsunami, Floods, Droughts, Wild Fires, Earthquakes, Cyclones etc.

Prevention

Proper intervention, inspection

education, ensuring safety measures

Regular surveillance, cautionary measures like evacuation, setting up counter-disaster systems, search and rescue, provision of emergency food, shelter, medical assistance etc.

Types of natural disasters

Natural disasters can be classified under the following categories.

1. Earthquakes:

Earthquakes are usually brief but maybe repetitive. They are caused by the sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust, creating seismic waves, which can cause a lot of damage both on the surface and under the surface, sometimes causing landslides. When earthquakes occur in the ocean, they cause tsunamis.

2. Avalanches and landslides:

Avalanches and landslides occur in high altitudes, avalanches specifically in snowy areas and landslides on mountain and hillsides.

They can be triggered by overloading of snow or surface weight, the slope angle, melting snow, rains, or water cascades, and vibrations. Sometimes, they are caused by noise as well, like thunder, or explosions, even shouting or screaming.

3. Sinkholes:

  • Sinkholes are caused by the collapse of large amounts of the earth’s surface into itself, becoming a huge gaping hole in the surface, due to the dissolution of salts, which cause the surface to become weak in places. It is a natural erosion process. It may be caused by torrential rains as well.
  • Sinkholes in the sea offer scuba divers exciting places to explore.
  • Sinkholes are also used as garbage dumping grounds, causing severe damage to groundwater.

4. Floods:

Flooding is the submerging of land not generally submerged, by the overflowing of water. The overflow may occur from a water catchment/reservoir, or from a lake or sea or any other water body.

5. Volcanic eruptions:

Volcanic eruptions occur when a volcano erupts and throws out hot materials like molten rocks(lava), rocks, ash, and dust. Because lava flowing from volcanoes is so hot, it destroys as it flows.

6. Tsunami:

A tsunami or a tidal wave is caused by a large displacement of water, in the ocean. They are seismic waves and do not resemble any other kind of sea wave or currents or tides, which are caused by wind or the lunar cycles. They reach dangerous heights and destroy the coastlines. Japan is prone to tsunamis.

7. Cyclonic storms:

Cyclones are large masses of air, that rotate, spiral around a very strong center with a low atmospheric pressure. It is called a typhoon in Northwest Pacific, a hurricane in Central America. Cyclones can cause severe destruction if they are moving at very high speed, uprooting trees and destroying buildings. They also carry storms and bring in torrential rains, which may cause flooding.

8. Droughts:

Droughts are caused by lack of rainfalls and can cause severe losses to agricultural industry and communities that are dependent on rain and agriculture. Over centuries, droughts have caused several severe famines, causing thousands to die of starvation and suicides.

9. Tornadoes:

A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the Earth’s surface and a cumulonimbus cloud or in some rare cases cumulus cloud. Tornadoes cause severe damage uprooting as they move along at really high speed. They are also known as twisters.

10. Wildfire:

Wildfires or forest fires are uncontrolled fires burning in wildland areas. They can be caused by lightning or volcanic eruptions, or even human carelessness or arson. Wildfires can destroy acres of precious forests which has taken years to grow resulting in loss of both flora and fauna.

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What is an Ice Age? http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-ice-age/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-ice-age/#comments Thu, 16 Nov 2017 09:45:46 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97323 Our planet Earth has experienced several periods of warming and cooling episodes throughout its history. The Ice Age is a period in the Earth’s history that began around 70,000 years ago. As the name suggests, it was a period when the climate was way colder than it is today. In fact, it was the time […]

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What is an Ice Age?

Our planet Earth has experienced several periods of warming and cooling episodes throughout its history. The Ice Age is a period in the Earth’s history that began around 70,000 years ago. As the name suggests, it was a period when the climate was way colder than it is today. In fact, it was the time when most of the Earth’s surface was buried under sheets of ice.

Causes of Ice Age

The geologists believe that the ice age was not caused by one event but a series of factors resulted in the cooling of the Earth, including the planet’s position to the sun, its tilt, and certain changes in the Earth’s atmosphere. Small changes over a very long period of time resulted in such a dramatic change in the climate.

Discovery of the Ice Age

Swiss scientist Louis Aggasiz was one of the first few scientists to study the evidence of the Ice Age. In the mid 1800’s, he told the other scientists that the boulders they saw randomly placed on the Earth’s surface out of nowhere had been left by glaciers. No one believed him and discarded his theory, calling it foolish. They were of the opinion that those boulders were placed there by the Noah’s flood or witchcraft.

Life during the Ice Age

During the Ice Age, the Earth’s surface was completely frozen. This type of barren and cold biome is known as the tundra. Only a few plants, including the evergreen trees, could grow in the frozen soil. The main occupation of men during that period was hunting. Every part of the hunted animals was used for something or the other. Their flesh was used for eating, skins were used as clothing, blankets and shelters and bones were used for making tools and weapons.

Some of the important animals of those times were the woolly mammoth, woolly rhinos, bears, and reindeer. People used to make the pictures of these animals on the walls of their caves. Scientists have also found the frozen fossils of these animals.

Are we living in an Ice Age?

Yes, you would be surprised to learn that we are currently living in an ice age called the Quaternary Ice Age. The Earth is in a warmer stage of the ice age known as the interglacial period. In other words, an interglacial period is a warm period between the cold periods of the Earth where the glaciers are receding.

How many Ice Ages has the Earth experienced?

According to the scientists, the Earth has experienced five major ice ages which are as follows-

  • Huronian – The Huronian Ice Age lasted from about 2400 to 2100 million years ago and was one of the longest ice ages. Scientists believe that the lack of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere caused it.
  • Cryogenian – The Cryogenian Ice Age lasted from 850 to 635 million years ago. Scientists sometimes call the Earth during this phase as the ‘Snowball Earth’ also.
  • Andean-Saharan – The Andean-Saharan Ice Age took place between 460 to 430 million years ago.
  • Karoo – The Karoo Ice Age lasted around 100 million years between 360 to 260 million years ago. It is named after glacial tills in Karoo, South Africa.
  • Quaternary – The most recent ice age is the Quaternary Ice Age. It started about 2.5 million years ago and is still going on.

3 Interesting fun facts about Ice Age

  1. Ice Age is not an event that happens quickly. It is actually a very long-term natural phenomenon that lasts for several million years.
  2. The animals that lived during the Ice Ages were generally quite large and fully covered with fur. Scientists also call them ‘Megafauna’.
  3. The famous Disney movie ‘Ice Age’ is based on this period.
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What is a landslide and how does it happen? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-landslide-and-how-does-it-happen/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-landslide-and-how-does-it-happen/#comments Tue, 14 Nov 2017 09:04:07 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97291 What is a landslide? A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, mud or debris down a slope due to gravity. Landslides cause massive damage to human lives and property while also causing disruption in the movement of traffic and communication network. Landslides block the riverways which may further result in […]

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What is a landslide and how does it happen?

What is a landslide?

A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, mud or debris down a slope due to gravity. Landslides cause massive damage to human lives and property while also causing disruption in the movement of traffic and communication network. Landslides block the riverways which may further result in floods also. The productive farm fields that are affected by the landslides may lose their fertility and this causes a massive loss to the farmers.

What causes a landslide?

Landslides are induced by climatic conditions such as heavy rainfalls, snowfalls or natural phenomena such as volcanic activity or earthquakes. Human activities such as deforestation, mining, constructions, vibrations from big machines, etc. may also cause a landslide. Deforestation also is an important cause of landslides. The roots of trees hold the soil in place. Without trees, the stability of a slope is decreased greatly and with a large or even a small change, a landslide can be caused.

Types of landslides

  1. Falls – Falls are sudden movements of huge amount of soil, debris, and rock that breaks away from slopes and cliffs. Such landslides occur as a result of weathering, earthquakes, and force of gravity.
  2. Slides – In this type of a slide, the unstable sliding material breakaways from underlying stable material.
  3. Topples – Topple landslides occur when a block of rock tilts or rotates. It leads to formation of a debris cone below the slope known as a Talus cone.
  4. Spreads – This phenomenon is symbolised by the gradual horizontal displacement of large volumes of distributed material over very gentle or flat terrain.
  5. Flows – This is the most destructive and dangerous form of landslide. Flows have a high water content which loosens the slope material and turns it into a slurry.

Prevention of landslides

Though we cannot prevent natural disasters, we can always make an effort to mitigate their effect. We must encourage people to protect nature, plant more trees and curb deforestation. In addition, detailed geologic investigations, advanced engineering practices and wise use of land can help in reducing landslide hazards.

Landslides in India

Every year, landslides in the Himalayan region kill hundreds of people and cause severe damage to several small villages, leaving them unsuitable for habitation. The main reasons for landslides in India are indiscriminate cutting down of trees, slash and burn cultivation practices in the hills, road construction and mining activities, increased grazing activities, and rapid urbanization. According to data of the Defence Terrain Research Laboratory, “Landslides rank third in terms of the number of deaths due to natural disasters. While Himalayan Landslides kill one person per 100km. The estimated average losses due to landslides in the Himalayas cost 200 lives and Rs 550 crore every year.”

Some of the major landslides that have taken place in India in the last few years are as follows:

  • June 16, 2013 – Kedarnath, Uttarakhand –More than 5,700 casualties were recorded because of this dreadful natural disaster.
  • September 24, 2012 – Northern Sikkim – Over 27 people died in this sad incident, including members of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
  • July 27, 2007 – Dasalgaon-Maharashtra – The official records suggest 50+ casualties.
  • July 26, 2005 – Raigad – More than 50 people were believed to be dead in this tragedy.
  • July 26, 2005 – Sakinaka, Mumbai – Over 74 people lost their precious lives in this landslide.

3 Interesting facts about landslides

  1. Landslides can move slowly, just a few millimeters per year or can move swiftly with speeds up to 200 miles per hour.
  2. The world’s biggest landslide occurred in 1980 when Mount St. Helens, a volcano in the USA erupted.
  3. The scientists have found out that planets such as Mars and Venus also experience occasional landslides.
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Jawaharlal Nehru Biography http://mocomi.com/jawaharlal-nehru-biography/ http://mocomi.com/jawaharlal-nehru-biography/#comments Mon, 13 Nov 2017 10:31:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97271 Early Life Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of India. He was born on 14th November,1889 in Allahabad. He was born to Shrimati Swarup Rani Thussu and Shri Moti Lal Nehru, a prominent lawyer in Allahabad. He received his early education at home, and later, at the age of 15, he went to […]

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Jawaharlal Nehru Biography

Early Life

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of India. He was born on 14th November,1889 in Allahabad. He was born to Shrimati Swarup Rani Thussu and Shri Moti Lal Nehru, a prominent lawyer in Allahabad. He received his early education at home, and later, at the age of 15, he went to England to pursue his higher studies in law. He came back to India in 1912 and started his practice as a lawyer.

Nehru’s role in the freedom of India

Jawaharlal Nehru got married to Shrimati Kamla Nehru in the year 1916, and in 1917, he became the father of a baby girl whom he named “Indira”. Later on, this little girl went on to become India’s first woman Prime Minister. Jawaharlal Nehru was deeply perturbed by the kind of harsh treatment Britishers were giving to his fellow Indians and decided to join the freedom movement. His patriotic heart did not permit him to sit comfortably at home. He joined the Non-cooperation Movement of Mahatma Gandhi and also went to jail several times for flouting the rules of the Britishers. He underwent all the pain and suffering happily for the sake of his country.

Achievements of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as a Prime Minister

When India gained freedom in 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of India. As the Prime Minister of India, he took India on the path of progress under his guidance. During his tenure, he brought some changes in domestic, international, economic, agricultural and social policies.

Under his administration, he established several industries, so as to boost our country’s economy and direct it towards development and modernization. He believed that educating the youth of the country was vital for the country’s future growth. Towards this effect, he established numerous institutions of higher learning, including All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) as well as the National Institutes of Technology. He also included free and compulsory primary education for all children in his five-year plan. Despite being an advocate of peace and non-violence, he understood the importance of having a strong defense. He arranged the best modern equipment for the Indian army to safeguard the borders.

Children’s Day

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was extremely fond of children and loved them very much. Children also used to fondly address him as ‘Chacha Nehru’. It is because of his love for the children, his birthday- 14th November is still celebrated as Children’s Day in India. Jawaharlal Nehru always emphasized on the importance of giving love and affection to children, and the main purpose of celebrating his birthday as the Children’s Day is to encourage the welfare of children all over the country.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the most popular national and international figures. He is considered as the maker of modern India because of the remarkable changes that he brought in as the first Prime Minister of India. Serving his country, he left for his heavenly abode on 27th of May in 1964.

6 Interesting facts about Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru was the longest serving Prime Minister of the country from the year 1947 till 1964.
  2. Nehru was awarded with the Bharat Ratna award in 1955, India’s highest civilian honor for his outstanding contribution during the freedom struggle and as the first Prime Minister of India.
  3. He wrote many books, including ‘The Discovery of India’, ‘Glimpses of World History’, and his autobiography, ‘Towards Freedom’.
  4. He was also known as ‘Panditji’.
  5. He invented the fashion trend of wearing the “Nehru jacket”
  6. He was extremely fond of roses and always used to clip a bud in his jacket.

Famous quotes by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

  1. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new; when an age ends; and when the soul of a nation long suppressed finds utterance.
  2. Time is not measured by the passing of years, but by what one does, what one feels, and what one achieves.
  3. There is perhaps nothing so bad and so dangerous in life as fear.
  4. Action itself, so long as I am convinced that it is right action, gives me satisfaction.
  5. I like being with children and talking to them and, even more, playing with them. For the moment I forget that I am terribly old and it is very long ago since I was a child.
  6. Grown-ups have a strange way of putting themselves in compartments and groups. They build barriers… of religion, caste, colour, party, nation, province, language, customs and of rich and poor. Fortunately, children do not know much about these barriers, which separate. They play and work with each other and it is only when they grow up that they begin to learn about these barriers from their elders.

Read more –
Here’s a full transcript of Jawaharlal Nehru Speech – A Tryst With Destiny

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Major Domains of the Earth – Biosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-biosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-biosphere/#comments Fri, 10 Nov 2017 12:58:17 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97229 The earth is made of four main spheres or domains which play an important part in sustaining life on earth. The spheres combine and interact with each other, to form a complex and intricately balanced system of land, air, water and living creatures’ relationships with each other. What are the four major domains of the […]

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Major Domains of the Earth – Biosphere

The earth is made of four main spheres or domains which play an important part in sustaining life on earth. The spheres combine and interact with each other, to form a complex and intricately balanced system of land, air, water and living creatures’ relationships with each other.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

  1. Lithosphere : The lithosphere is the solid, exterior part of the earth. It is the most rigid of earth’s layers.
  2. Atmosphere : The atmosphere is a complex 500 – 700 km of mixture of gases, including oxygen that we breathe and other elements. These are bound to earth through gravity and so do not disappear into space.
  3. Hydrosphere : The hydrosphere consists of all the water sources on the planet and is interconnected through the water cycle.
  4. Biosphere : The biosphere connects all the existing ecosystem into a network with the other spheres. It is the sphere where all life dwells.

What is biosphere?

The biosphere is a life supporting global ecosystem and is one of the major domains on the planet. In the biosphere, all living things depend on each other, and the existing, surrounding environment, which maybe living or may consist of abiotic factors.

The biosphere is also known as the ecosphere.

When did the biosphere originate?

The biosphere is said to have originated maybe around 3.5 billion years ago and has originated from the abiogenesis process which eventually led to the biogenesis process. The term biosphere was coined by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875. Consequently, Charles Darwin, Matthew F Maury, Vladimir I Vernadsky and Arthur Tansley have contributed towards considerable research to the study of the biosphere. Sir Arthur Tansley introduced the term ‘ecosystem’, in 1935.

How does life sustain itself in the biosphere?

  • Scientists believe that the increase of atmospheric oxygen led to the evolution of the first forms of life.
  • Energy is needed for the function that organisms perform, such as growth, movement, waste removal and reproduction. It is the only requirement that living organisms in the biosphere need apart from what is there in the four major domains.
  • The source of this energy comes from the sun. Plants convert the sun’s energy into food and are very important to the biosphere.

What processes occur in the biosphere?

The organisms in the biosphere are constantly involved in one or more of the following processes :

  1. Decomposition : The breakdown of complex molecules—molecules of which dead organisms are composed – into simple nutrients that can be re-utilized by living organisms.
  2. Energy : Power that can be used to perform work, such as solar energy.
  3. Nutrient cycle : The cycling of biologically important elements from one molecular form to another and back to the original form.
  4. Photosynthesis : Process in which plants capture light energy from the sun and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and organic molecules.
  5. Respiration : Chemical reaction between organic molecules and oxygen that produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

What is the Biosphere 2 project?

In order to study the biosphere and the impact of all life forms and the other spheres on the biosphere, scientists set up the Biosphere 2 project. Biosphere 1 is the planet earth.
The artificially replicated Biosphere 2 was set up on three acres, in the Arizona desert, in the 1980s. In 1991, September 26th, a group of four men and four women decided to enter Biosphere 2 for a period of two years. The artificial biosphere contained 3800 species of plants and animals and the human group experimented with growing their food and sustaining and surviving without any other resource.
Although the experiment was one of the first of the longest experiments of living in isolation, it was not successful for several reasons.

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Coughing and sneezing etiquette http://mocomi.com/coughing-and-sneezing-etiquette/ http://mocomi.com/coughing-and-sneezing-etiquette/#comments Fri, 10 Nov 2017 10:23:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97246 If you can’t completely separate you and your child during a minor cold, learning cough and sneeze etiquette at least helps. How to cough and sneeze to avoid spreading germs? Teaching your child to cough and sneeze into their shoulder or elbow instead of directly into hands (which then touch other things, and further spread the […]

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Coughing and sneezing etiquette

If you can’t completely separate you and your child during a minor cold, learning cough and sneeze etiquette at least helps.

How to cough and sneeze to avoid spreading germs?

Teaching your child to cough and sneeze into their shoulder or elbow instead of directly into hands (which then touch other things, and further spread the germs) is just one way to go.

Similarly, blowing one’s nose has some etiquette involved, too. Even with a handkerchief or tissues, some germs are blown into the air. And being as loud and honking as possible is definitely not the point! In addition, washing hands and/or use of antibacterial hand gel immediately after blowing one’s nose is critical to help stop the spread of germs.

What is the correct way to sneeze or cough in public?

  1. Turn away from people when coughing or sneezing to avoid contaminating others.
  2. Cover your mouth or nose with your left hand to keep your right hand germ free.
  3. If you are in a crowd of people and cannot turn to avoid coughing or sneezing directly at someone, cough or sneeze downward, directly in front of you.
  4. Always carry a tissue or handkerchief to cover your mouth or nose.
  5. If you are having a coughing or sneezing episode, excuse yourself from the room until it subsides.
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Major Domains of the Earth – Atmosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-atmosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-atmosphere/#comments Thu, 09 Nov 2017 12:42:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97210 The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other. What are the four major domains of the earth? The four major domains are divided as : Lithosphere – Lithosphere is the solid shell of the […]

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Major Domains of the Earth – Atmosphere

The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

The four major domains are divided as :

  1. Lithosphere Lithosphere is the solid shell of the earth and is divided into a crust and mantle.
  2. Atmosphere – Atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet, held in place by the gravity of the body.
  3. Hydrosphere Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water present on the surface or under the surface, on a planet.
  4. Biosphere Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is all the connected ecosystems on a planet and includes all living beings, including their interaction with the other spheres.

What is atmosphere?

Atmosphere is a collection of gases that make the earth habitable.

It consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% water vapour and some percentages of trace gases like argon, helium, neon and carbon dioxide. All of these gases combine to form a layer that we refer to as the earth’s atmosphere. It helps protect life on earth by creating pressure, allowing liquid water to exist on the earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention and reducing extreme temperature between day and night.

5 Layers of atmosphere

The atmosphere is comprised of 4 layers, based on temperature, and another layer 500 kms above the earth’s surface, called the exosphere. They are :

1. Troposphere :

The lowest part of the atmosphere, the troposphere contains most of our weather clouds, rain, snow. In this part, temperatures drop by 6.5 degrees celcius, at every km elevation. The sun’s heat is insulated and weathers are created in this layer.

2. Stratosphere :

The stratosphere extends from after the tropopause, the upper boundary of the troposphere. The stratosphere is crucial to life on earth, as it contains the ozone layer, which protects against UV rays from reaching the earth’s surface. Very few clouds are found in this layer. Jets fly in this layer of the atmosphere, to avoid turbulence found in the troposphere.

3. Mesosphere :

The mesosphere is one of the least studied layers of the atmosphere, as flights and balloons do not fly in this layer and satellight are in layers above this one. Meteors that stream into the earth’s atmosphere, are generally burnt up, by the time they reach this layer and cannot travel further. The mesosphere does experience special clouds – noctilucent clouds and the presence of lightning, called elves and sprites.

4. Thermosphere :

  • The thermosphere is the layer of the earth’s atmosphere directly above the mesosphere. The small particles of gas present in the layer absorb x – rays and ultra violet radiation from the sun. Thermosphere means heat sphere, and temperatures in the sphere can go upto 1000 degree celcius.
  • The lowest part of the thermosphere, from 80 km to 600 km and more, is the layer that contains ionised air and is called ionosphere. The sun’s rays in this part of the atmosphere are so strong, they break apart molecules and atoms of air, leaving ions (atoms with missing electrons) and free floating electrons.
  • The ionosphere is the region of the atmosphere where the aurorae occur. Aurorae occurs in both Northern and Southern hemisphere. The phenomenon is known as aurora borealis, or northern lights at the north pole and it is known as aurora australis or southern lights, at the south pole.
  • Aurora is caused by high energy particles streaming out from the sun – the solar wind – striking the earth’s upper atmosphere, or ionosphere. Energy from these electrically charged particles is converted into light, forming visible glows, rays, arcs, bands and veils. The light is generally greenish, but sometimes it is also red. The charged particles are attracted by the earth’s magnetic field. The aurorae are witnessed near the magnetic poles and some distance close to it.

5. Exosphere :

The exosphere is the last layer of the atmosphere. The exosphere extends to 10,000 km above the earth’s surface. In this layer, hydrogen and helium are the main components and particles are constantly escaping into space from this layer of the atmosphere. Several satellites orbit the earth in this layer.

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Major Domains of the Earth – Hydrosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-hydrosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-hydrosphere/#comments Wed, 08 Nov 2017 12:40:08 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97218 The earth is the only planet that can sustain and nurture life. This is because of the four domains that make the planet. What are the four major domains of the earth? The domains, also known as the spheres are : Lithosphere : The lithosphere is the solid, outer part of the earth and includes […]

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Major Domains of the Earth - Hydrosphere

The earth is the only planet that can sustain and nurture life. This is because of the four domains that make the planet.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

The domains, also known as the spheres are :

  1. Lithosphere : The lithosphere is the solid, outer part of the earth and includes the brittle, upper portion of the mantle and the crust. It is bound by the atmosphere above and the asthenosphere(a part of the upper mantle), below. The lithosphere is the most rigid of earth’s layers.
  2. Atmosphere : The atmosphere consists of 4 layers, and is responsible for the air we breathe, the weather we experience. It also protects us from the sun’s rays and regulates the temperature on the surface.
  3. Hydrosphere : The hydrosphere connects all the water sources on the planet.
  4. Biosphere : The biosphere connects all the existing ecosytem into a network with the other spheres.

What is hydrosphere?

Hydrosphere is the part of the earth which, combines all the water sources on the planet. It includes atmospheric water, oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater, ice and any other possible source.

The hydrosphere incorporates the water cycle, where water travels from one source to another, changing forms temporarily in between. About 70% of the earth’s surface is covered in oceans which is not potable water. A very small percentage of earth’s water is fresh water.

What is the water cycle?

The water cycle, or the hydrological cycle, takes into account, the exchange of water from the hydrosphere, and cryosphere, which is frozen ice. The continuous movement and exchange of water helps to form currents that move warm water from the tropics to the poles and help regulate the temperature of the earth.

Although several other elements are part of the water cycle, some are useful, like oxygen, while others maybe harmful, like acid rain, algal blooms etc.

Human impact on the hydrosphere

  • The world’s water sources have gotten and are getting even more impacted by human lifestyle.
  • Massive discharge of toxic chemicals, radioactive substances and other industrial wastes, petroleum waste and sewage disposal, seepage of minerals and pesticides into the ground water are all responsible for affecting the quality of the hydrosphere.

Major threats to the hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is affected by excessive pollution of the water sources. This has caused several problems, some of them irreversible. The three major problems are :

1. Eutrophication :

Eutrophication is the excessive dumping of nutrients into water sources. This process induces growth of plants and algae which in turn depletes the oxygen levels in the water, apart from causing other probplems. Eutrophication is almost always induced by phosphate – containg detergents, fertilizers, or sewage in water.

2. Acid rain :

Acid rain is defined as precipitation, with a pH of less than 5.7 that results from reactions involving gases other than carbon dioxide. It has become a world wide problem and is caused by the emission of sulphur di-oxide and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere by human activities, mainly, fossil fuel burning.

3. Greenhouse gases :

Green house gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels has led to serious issues. One of them being the increase of global temperatures, which has caused melting of polar ice caps. This has caused the global environment to change considerably.

Environmental problems of hydrosphere

Some issues that we might face in the future if it is left unchecked are :

  • Areas of land might be lost permanently
  • Precipitation patterns may change, causing drastic changes in yearly rains and monsoons.
  • Altitude of clouds may change, causing the overall climate to drop considerably.
  • The pH levels of ocean surface water may change, causing damage to marine life and affecting the marine ecosystem.
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Major Domains of the Earth – Lithosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-lithosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-lithosphere/#comments Tue, 07 Nov 2017 09:05:22 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97196 The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other. What are the four major domains of the earth? The four major domains are divided as : Lithosphere – Lithosphere is the solid shell of the […]

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Major Domains of the Earth – Lithosphere

The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

The four major domains are divided as :

  1. Lithosphere – Lithosphere is the solid shell of the earth and is divided into a crust and mantle.
  2. Atmosphere Atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet, held in place by the gravity of the body.
  3. Hydrosphere Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water present on the surface or under the surface, on a planet.
  4. Biosphere Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is all the connected ecosystems on a planet.

What is lithosphere?

The word lithosphere is derived from two Greek words, Lithos, meaning rocky and Sphere meaning rigid. Every rocky planet has a lithosphere. The lithosphere is the outermost shell of the planet earth, which consists of the crust and the upper mantle. The upper mantle behaves elastically over thousands of years.

The earth’s lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates. The uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through the soil forming process, is called the pedosphere. The shifting of tectonic plates over millions of years is responsible for the changing earth’s surface.

What are types of lithosphere?

The earth’s lithosphere is of two types : oceanic and continental lithosphere.

1. Oceanic lithosphere

  • It consists mainly of mafic (rich in magnesium and iron) crust and ultramafic (over 90% mafic) mantle and is denser than continental lithosphere.
  • It thickens as it ages and moves away from the mid ocean ridge.

2. Continental lithosphere

  • It is also called the continental crust. It is the layer of igneous, sedimentary rock that forms continents and the continental shelves.
  • This layer consists mostly of granitic rock.
  • The oldest oceanic lithosphere is about 170 million years old compared to parts of the continental lithosphere which are billions of years old.

What is the continental drift?

Under the lithosphere layer, is a molten layer, which is in constant motion. This layer is known as asthenosphere. The lithosphere layers, both the crust and the mantle, are constantly being shaken or disturbed by the movement in the asthenosphere layer. These movements over a period of time, start changing the position of the land masses referred to as continents. This phenomenon, which takes thousands of years is known as continental drift and changes the surface topography of the planet.

Major plates of the lithosphere

  • African Plate
  • Antarctic Plate
  • Eurasian Plate
  • Indo-Australian Plate
  • North American Plate
  • Pacific Plate
  • South-American Plate
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World Wide Fund for Nature http://mocomi.com/world-wide-fund-for-nature/ http://mocomi.com/world-wide-fund-for-nature/#comments Mon, 06 Nov 2017 11:10:37 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97182 What is World Wide Fund for nature? The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non – government organisation, working in the field of wilderness preservation and towards reducing the impact of humans on the environment. When was the WWF founded? It was founded in 1961, by a small group of ardent, mostly […]

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World Wide Fund for Nature

What is World Wide Fund for nature?

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non – government organisation, working in the field of wilderness preservation and towards reducing the impact of humans on the environment.

When was the WWF founded?

It was founded in 1961, by a small group of ardent, mostly British naturalists and conservationists such as Peter Scott, Max Nicholson, Guy Mountfort and Julian Huxley. Initially called the World Wildlife Fund, it retains its official name in Canada and the United States of America.

Where is the World Wide Fund based out of?

WWF was established as a Swiss Foundation and registered in Zurich. Its current headquarters are at Avenue du Mont-Blanc, Gland, Vaud, Switzerland. It is the world’s largest conservation organisation, working in more than 100 countries. It has identified 238 ecoregions, that represent the world’s most biologically outstanding habitats and is working toward those region’s conservation.

Why does the WWF use the Panda symbol?

The WWF giant panda logo originated from a panda named Chi Chi, who had been transferred from Beijing Zoo to London Zoo in 1958. The panda being, an endangered species, with its recognisable iconic features of black and white, made it a strong symbol that could be identified, without language barriers around the world.

It has been modified slightly over the years.

What is the WWF mission?

The WWF work has evolved from saving species and landscapes, to now working with sectors globally, to educate and influence people into making sustainable choices and decisions. The WWF also works with corporates and business and helps make decisions around the use of natural resources.

The WWF work focuses on these areas :

1. Food : With the growing human population, the food requirements of human is increasing rapidly. With this increasing need, man requires more land and resources like fresh water for rearing animals and farming for food which places a considerable strain on land and wildlife and other resources. While efforts to produce adequate amounts of food has been successful, the food doesn’t reach malnourished people. WWF aims to improve efficiency and productivity while reducing wastage and shifting consumption patterns to help conserve our resources and reduce environmental impact.

2. Climate : Our carbon footprint has led to polluted air, acid rains and global warming, which in turn causes polar ice caps to melt, causing several natural disasters. WWF is involved in helping people rethink the way we produce and consume energy, food, water in the present and for the future. It involves changing and redesigning the current public infrastructure and facilities to make it more climate resilient.

3. Fresh Water : The world is facing a huge fresh water crisis. Water is important to all life and there is just 1% of it, that is fresh and accessible. Changing climate, population growth and changing consumption patterns are just a few things affecting fresh water. WWF is committed to partnering with governments, businesses, institutions and communities to ensure healthy fresh water to communities in under developed countries, for wildlife and to provide a sustainable future for all.

4. Wildlife : Ours is a living planet. Saving our wildlife is high on the list of WWF priorities. The 2014 report revealed an astounding decline in wildlife by 52% in the last 40 years. Some species are on the verge of extinction. WWF recovery success stories include southern Africa’s black rhino to black bucks in the Himalayas. All species play an important part in the ecosystem of a region.

5. Forests : Over urbanisation due to pockets of exploding human population, or deforestation to increase farmlands to grow food, has led to extremely huge areas of the earth’s precious forest areas to completely deplete. This has caused changes in temperature, affected rainfalls, changed topography and caused wildlife to go extinct. Loss of our forests will also cause irreplaceable loss to flora and fauna on the planet.

WWF is involved in conserving tropical rain forests, which are the most biologically diverse and complex forests on Earth – forests in the Amazon, the Congo Basin, the Greater Mekong and other regions near the equator. But it also is taking place in temperate regions, such as the Russian Far East and the United States.

6. Oceans : Home to over 2 million species, marine biodiversity far outweighs, life on land. Our oceans regulate global climates, mediate and cause temperature, drought, rainfall. The oceans are also responsible for 83% circulation of the planet’s carbon cycle, making sustaining the ocean a very high priority.

WWF’s oceans work focuses on healthy and resilient marine ecosystems that support abundant biodiversity, sustainable livelihoods, and thriving economies.

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Discovery of light http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-light/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-light/#comments Fri, 03 Nov 2017 11:01:19 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97165 What is light? Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy. Radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma rays are some of the forms of electromagnetic radiation. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy, but visible light is only a small portion of the spectrum, which contains a broad range of electromagnetic wavelengths. Who discovered light? […]

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Discovery of light

What is light?

Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy. Radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma rays are some of the forms of electromagnetic radiation. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy, but visible light is only a small portion of the spectrum, which contains a broad range of electromagnetic wavelengths.

Who discovered light?

Aristotle was responsible for one of the first theories of light. He stated that, “The essence of light is white light. Colors are made up of a mixture of lightness and darkness.” However, It was Sir Isaac Newton who conducted several experiments to understand light. And how light is composed of several wavelengths. In his book, Optiks, Newton describes how he used prisms to disassemble and reassemble light.

Wavelength of visible light

Visible light falls in the spectrum between infra red and ultra violet, the wavelengths easily visible to the human eye. Violet has the shortest wavelength, at around 380 nanometers, and red has the longest wavelength, at around 700 nanometers.

How do we perceive color?

Cone-shaped cells in our eyes act as receivers tuned to the wavelengths in this narrow band of the spectrum. Other portions of the spectrum have wavelengths too large or too small and energetic for the biological limitations of our perception.

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Discovery of light

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