Mocomi Kids http://mocomi.com Inspiring Curiosity! Wed, 22 Nov 2017 11:32:22 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.2.17 Combustion and Flame http://mocomi.com/combustion-and-flame/ http://mocomi.com/combustion-and-flame/#comments Wed, 22 Nov 2017 11:32:22 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97384 What is combustion? Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidised, often gaseous mixture termed as smoke. In some reactions, water is also produced along with smoke and other chemicals. Types of combustion Combustion is categorised as the following […]

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Combustion and Flame

What is combustion?

Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidised, often gaseous mixture termed as smoke. In some reactions, water is also produced along with smoke and other chemicals.

Types of combustion

Combustion is categorised as the following :

1. Complete and Incomplete Combustion

Complete Combustion –

  • In complete combustion, the reactant burns in oxygen, producing a limited number of products.
  • When a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen, the reaction will yield carbon dioxide and water.
  • When elements are burned, the products are primarily the most common oxides. Carbon will give carbon dioxide, sulphur will give sulphur dioxide.
  • Nitrogen is not a combustible substance when oxygen is the oxidant, but small amounts of various nitrogen oxides form when air is the oxidant.

Incomplete Combustion –

  • Incomplete combustion will occur when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely, to produce carbon dioxide and water.
  • It also occurs if external devices or sources does not allow the combustion to take place completely. Carbon and carbon monoxide are the by products and not carbon dioxide.
  • Certain substances like diesel, oil, plastic, tyres, coal or wood, pyrolysis occurs before combustion. Pyrolysis is the process where complex molecules or polymers are broken down into simpler molecules. Pyrolysis generally occurs without oxygen. It is used in waste management to alter the waste generated into a more usable material.
  • Incomplete combustion adds harmful compounds to the environment, in the form of smog and other contaminants.

2. Smouldering

This type of combustion, though categorised by the presence of incandescence and smoke, produces no flame.

A relatively slow process, smouldering occurs between the oxygen in air and the surfaces of solid fuels such as coal, peat, wood, tobacco and synthetic foams. These solid fuels glow when smouldering, indicating temperatures in excess of one thousand degrees celcius. Sometimes it occurs for some time in a hot environment, despite lack of oxygen. Although under such conditions, it produces high amounts of carbon monoxide.

3. Diffusion Combustion

Diffusion combustion results from the transfer of fuel vapours and oxygen across a concentration gradient into a reaction area that is characterised by high temperatures and correct proportion of reactants. Vapours may come initially from a solid fuel such as candle wax, a liquid fuel like alcohol or kerosene or a gaseous fuel like methane, or even the ordinary LPG cylinders we use in our homes.

The flames produced from diffusion combustion begins as smooth, laminar flame, increasing in turbulence as it grows and consumes more fuel and oxygen.

4. Rapid Combustion

Rapid combustion releases massive amounts of energy in the form of heat and light as is the case with fire. In some cases, combustion occurs so fast that large amounts of gases are released, along with heat and light, causing a significant pressure shift in the surrounding atmosphere. This pressure shift, often accompanied by a very loud noise, is called an explosion.

Internal combustion engines convert the energy produced by rapid combustion into usable kinetic energy.

5. Spontaneous Heating and Combustion

Spontaneous heating and combustion differs from most other types of combustion in that no external ignition source is required for it to proceed. An extremely slow process, spontaneous can take upto a few weeks. It consists of a gradual oxidation of certain material. As heat builds up, the rate of reaction increases, eventually causing smoldering or flaming combustion when the temperature rises. It may occur with petrochemicals, hydrocarbons, hay, cotton, etc.

What is a flame?

A flame is the visible gaseous part of a fire. It is caused by a highly exothermic reaction taking place in a thin zone.

Very hot flames are hot enough to have ionised gases as components, which may be considered plasma.

Structure of a candle flame

A candle flame consists of three zones.

  1. The innermost zone of a flame is dark or black and is the coldest part of the flame and is made of unburnt vapours of combustible material.
  2. The middle zone of a flame is yellow, bright and luminous. The fuel vapours burn partially in the middle zone, because there is not enough air for burning in this zone. The partial burning of fuel in the middle zone produces carbon particles. These carbon particles then leave the flame as smoke and soot. It has moderate temperature.
  3. The outer zone of the flame is blue. It is a non luminous zone. In this zone, complete combustion takes place, as it has enough supply of oxygen.

What is fuel?

Fuel maybe defined as any material that can be made to react with other substances, so that it releases chemical energy as heat.

Classification of fuels

1. Solid Fuel: Coal, wood, charcoal, peat and agricultural waste
2. Liquid Fuel: Kerosene, gasoline
3. Gaseous Fuel: Liquified Petroleum Gas, natural gas
4. Biofuels: Biofuel is defined as derived from biomass
5. Fossil Fuel: Fossils fuels are hydrocarbons, coal, petroleum, natural gas, coal. Fossils fuels are formed from plants dead and fossilised millions of years ago. They are non-renewable sources of energy

What are the characteristics of a good fuel?

The characteristics of a good fuel are :

  • High calorific value
  • Moderate ignition temperature
  • Low moisture content
  • Low noncombustible matter
  • Moderate velocity of combustion
  • Products of combustion not harmful
  • Low cost
  • Easy to transport
  • Combustion should be controllable
  • No spontaneous combustion
  • Low storage cost
  • Should burn in air with efficiency

Uses of combustion chemistry

The study of combustion chemistry helps us to design and monitor better and more efficient machines and engines. It also helps us to avoid using fuels that irreversibly damage our environment.

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Urban Administration Facts http://mocomi.com/urban-administration/ http://mocomi.com/urban-administration/#comments Tue, 21 Nov 2017 10:27:54 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97381 What is urban? An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure. They are categorised as cities and towns. For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is as follows: 1. All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. 2. All other […]

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Urban Administration Facts

What is urban?

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure. They are categorised as cities and towns.

For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is as follows:

1. All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
2. All other places which satisfied the following criteria:

a) A minimum population of 5,000
b) At least 75% of the male, main working population is engaged in non-agricultural pursuits
c) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km

What is urban administration in India?

Municipal governance in India has been in existence since 1687, first with the formation of the Madras Municipal Corporation and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726.

By the early 19th century, almost all towns had municipal governance of some type or the other.

With rapid urbanisation, and cities and town contributing to 60% GDP, it becomes very important to develop an efficient urban or municipal governance.

What are the main features of municipal governance?

The main features of municipal governance are :
To create an effective, responsive, democratic, transparent, accountable local governance.
To provide a responsive policy guidance and assistance to sub-national entities.
To strengthen the legal, fiscal, economic and service delivery functions of municipalities.
To foster greater citizen participation in the governance of local bodies.

What is the Nagar Palika Act or the Municipal Act?

The Nagar Palika Act or the Municipalities Act, 1992 set up through the 74th Amendment Act, also provides for a three-tier municipal system in the urban centres. It is similar to the Panchayati Raj system in rural areas.

The Twelfth Schedule of Constitution (Article 243 w) provides an illustrative list of eighteen functions, that may be entrusted to the municipalities. Reservation of seats for ST, SC, OBC & women are similarly provided as in the Panchayati Raj system.

The Nagar Palikas/Municipals are to work as instruments of development and planning and also to handle funds for local activities.

What is the structure of municipal governance of a metropolis?

The structure of municipal governance of a metropolis is as follows :

1. Municipal Corporation

It is the topmost urban local body with a population more than 3,00,000. It is set up under the special statute passed by the respective state’s legislature. Except Delhi, which is the National Capital, the power to set up a Municipal Corporation, lies with the Union Parliament.

2. Councillors

Members of the Municipal Corporation are elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage for a period of five years and they are called Councillors.
These Councillors, collectively called the Municipal Council, exercise deliberative functions and the executive functions are performed by the Municipal Commissioner.

3. Municipal Commissioner and Mayor

The Municipal Commissioner is an Indian Administrative Services(IAS) official appointed by the state government and has executive powers of the government of Municipal Corporations.The other executives known as the Mayor and Deputy Mayor are political executives elected for a period of one year by the members of the Corporation. The Mayor is an honorary head of the corporation and presides over the meetings of the corporation.

What are the functions of municipal corporations?

  1. The Municipal Corporations of cities are involved in providing amenities to the citizens of the city.
  2. Obligatory Basic Amenities
  3. Clean water and construction, and maintenance of water works
  4. Supply of electricity
  5. Road transport services
  6. Construction
  7. City maintenance
  8. Health and life services like crematorium, burial facilities, birth and death registrations
  9. Law and order
  10. Waste and sewage management

Discretionary

  1. Construction of garden, parks, libraries, museums, theatres, and stadiums
  2. Providing affordable, public housing
  3. Planting roadside trees and plants
  4. Providing relief shelters to destitutes and disabled persons
  5. Civil reception VIPS
  6. Registration of marriages, organisation and management of fairs and exhibitions
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Rural Administration Facts http://mocomi.com/rural-administration/ http://mocomi.com/rural-administration/#comments Mon, 20 Nov 2017 09:51:30 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97366 What is rural? The word rural denotes an area that is undeveloped, or under developed. It refers to small settlements which is outside the boundaries of a city, commercial or industrial area and may include countryside areas and villages, where there is natural vegetation. The primary source of income is agriculture and animal husbandry. Cottage […]

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Rural Administration Facts

What is rural?

The word rural denotes an area that is undeveloped, or under developed. It refers to small settlements which is outside the boundaries of a city, commercial or industrial area and may include countryside areas and villages, where there is natural vegetation. The primary source of income is agriculture and animal husbandry. Cottage and small-scale industries also form a source of income.

In India, a town whose population is below 15000 is considered rural, as per the planning commission.

What is rural administration?

India is made of many states. The states are further divided into districts. The districts are further divided into tehsils(sub-districts) and talukas. Gram panchayat is responsible for looking after such areas, as further they have no municipal board.

Agriculture is the main occupation and lands are sometimes leased on long-term basis for cultivation, by poor farmers. Sometimes land grabbing by people who are powerful also takes place. To settle land disputes or discourage this practice, it is very important to maintain proper land records. Records of the land are maintained by the patwari.

What is a Patwari’s function in rural administration?

A patwari is a person appointed by the local government or land authority to maintain and update land ownership records for a specific area as well as to undertake collection of land taxes. The records maintained by the patwari are used for calculating land revenues.

What is a Tehsildar’s function?

  • Tehsildars are appointed by the Financial Commissioner, and Revenue and Naib Tehsildars by the Commissioner of the Division.
  • The duties of the tehsil office (Panchayat Samiti) exercises certain fiscal and administrative power over the villages and municipalities within its jurisdiction.

The duties of the tehsildar are :

  • They enjoy the powers of Executive Magistrate, Assistant Collector and Sub Registrar/Joint Sub – Registrar.
  • Is Incharge of tehsil Revenue Agency and is responsible for proper preparation and maintenance of tehsil Revenue Record and Revenue Accounts.

What is the function of the District Magistrate?

A district magistrate, also known as district collector, is an officer of the Indian Administrative Services (IAS). They have been empowered as executive magistrates and are also incharge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.

As an IAS officer, the duties of the district magistrate or collector are very extensive. They are:

As District Magistrate:

  1. Maintenance of law and order.
  2. Supervision of the police and jails.
  3. Supervision of subordinate Executive magistracy.
  4. Hearing cases under the preventive section of the Criminal Procedure Code.
  5. Supervision of jails and certification of execution of capital sentences.
  6. Arbitrator of land acquisition.
  7. Disaster management during natural calamities such as floods, famines or epidemics.
  8. Crisis management during riots or external aggression.

As Collector:

  1. Land assessment
  2. Land acquisition
  3. Collection
  4. Collection of income tax dues, excise duties, irrigation dues etc.
  5. Distribution of agricultural loans
  6. Chairman of the District Bankers Coordination Committee
  7. Head of the District Industries Centre

As Deputy Commissioner/District Commissioner:

  • Reports to Divisional Commissioner on all matters.

As District Election Officer:

  • Conducts Elections in the district, be it General, Assembly or Municipal.
  • Acts as the Returning Officer for the Lok Sabha constituency in the district.

What is the role of a Police Station?

The police have to ensure enforcement of law and order in the area of their charge. In rural areas, sometimes a police station will cover several villages.

Station House Officer (SHO)

A police station is headed by the Station House Officer. In other words, the SHO is the in-charge of the police station. The SHO registers complaints. Complaints are usually registered in the form of an FIR(first information report) and after an investigation by a constable, the SHO may take the help of the Gram Panchayat or village elders in finding a solution. The SHO can also go to the court to reach a solution.

The Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005

According to the Hindu Succession Act 1956, daughters did not have any right to ancestral property. This act was amended in the year 2005, to grant daughters the same rights, duties, liabilities, and disabilities that were earlier limited to sons.

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Do Dragons exist? http://mocomi.com/do-dragons-exist/ http://mocomi.com/do-dragons-exist/#comments Fri, 17 Nov 2017 16:13:05 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97337 What exactly are dragons? Stories of Dragons have existed since the time stories were told. Dragons generally are said to have wings, scales, and claws and breathe fire. They are also thought be majestic creatures of mystery and Magic. Different cultures have varying stories about dragons The Greek called them serpents of the sea and […]

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Do Dragons exist?

What exactly are dragons?

Stories of Dragons have existed since the time stories were told. Dragons generally are said to have wings, scales, and claws and breathe fire. They are also thought be majestic creatures of mystery and Magic.

Different cultures have varying stories about dragons

  • The Greek called them serpents of the sea and the first mention of the word Greek word δράκων pronounced drakon is from the Iliad by Homer.
  • The Europeans early on thought of them as sea creatures and had maps depicting them waiting to eat unsuspecting sailors at the edge of the earth
  • Generally, the dragons were thought of as bringers of destruction and terror often depicting them as hoarders of treasure or maidens or both
  • At the other side of the planet the Japanese, Koreans and Chinese revered and worshipped them as mythical creatures who brought wisdom, prosperity and good luck.
  • Japanese ones are water deities and celestial beings associated with rainfall and bodies of water and are typically depicted as large, wingless, serpentine creatures with clawed feet.
  • Chinese dragons traditionally symbolize potent and auspicious powers, particularly control over water, rainfall, typhoons, and floods. The dragon is also a symbol of power, strength, and good luck for people who are worthy of it. With this, the Emperor of China usually used the dragon as a symbol of his imperial power and strength.

Has there been proof that dragons existed?

  1. Well, ancient people may have discovered dinosaur fossils and understandably misinterpreted them as the remains of dragons. Chang Qu, a Chinese historian from the 4th century B.C., mislabeled such a fossil and gave credibility to the myth of dragons.
  2. A Stegosaurus, was a giant beasts 30 feet in length and typically 14 feet tall and were covered in armored plates and spikes for defense.
  3. Even in a small town of Austria they mistook the skeleton of the ancient Rino and called it Dragons, A Statue of a Dragon still stands in the Middle of the town square
  4. Humans usually try to find meaning in things they can’t explain.
  5. The closest thing we can call to actual Dragons is the KOMODO Dragon, not entirely a dragon but fearsome anyway.
  6. So we know now that Dragons are fictional but as they say, there is no smoke without fire.
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What is a natural disaster? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-natural-disaster/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-natural-disaster/#comments Fri, 17 Nov 2017 10:51:44 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97317 A natural disaster maybe defined as a major adverse occurrence resulting from natural processes of the Earth. The severity of the disasters is measured in lives lost, economic loss, loss to the environment, like in the case of forest fires and the ability of the population for rebuilding or reconstruction. Effects of natural disasters Sometimes […]

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What is a natural disaster?

A natural disaster maybe defined as a major adverse occurrence resulting from natural processes of the Earth. The severity of the disasters is measured in lives lost, economic loss, loss to the environment, like in the case of forest fires and the ability of the population for rebuilding or reconstruction.

Effects of natural disasters

Sometimes the loss of property affects the living spaces of people, their transportation, livelihood, and means to live, which is agriculture, communication, irrigation, power projects in both rural and urban settlements.

Sometimes the natural disasters are of such huge scales, that the cost and time involved in reconstructing the infrastructure can affect the economy of the geographical region.

Difference between natural and man made disasters

Man-made disasters are caused due to human error or negligence. Some man-made disasters are so severe, they also set off natural disasters, like loss of the marine ecosystem, animal life, affecting or polluting water resources, destruction of natural resources.

Man Made Disasters

Natural Disasters

Causes

Negligence of humans

Natural forces

Types of Disaster

Oil Spilling, Nuclear bombing and testing, Terrorism, Pollution

Tsunami, Floods, Droughts, Wild Fires, Earthquakes, Cyclones etc.

Prevention

Proper intervention, inspection

education, ensuring safety measures

Regular surveillance, cautionary measures like evacuation, setting up counter-disaster systems, search and rescue, provision of emergency food, shelter, medical assistance etc.

Types of natural disasters

Natural disasters can be classified under the following categories.

1. Earthquakes:

Earthquakes are usually brief but maybe repetitive. They are caused by the sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust, creating seismic waves, which can cause a lot of damage both on the surface and under the surface, sometimes causing landslides. When earthquakes occur in the ocean, they cause tsunamis.

2. Avalanches and landslides:

Avalanches and landslides occur in high altitudes, avalanches specifically in snowy areas and landslides on mountain and hillsides.

They can be triggered by overloading of snow or surface weight, the slope angle, melting snow, rains, or water cascades, and vibrations. Sometimes, they are caused by noise as well, like thunder, or explosions, even shouting or screaming.

3. Sinkholes:

  • Sinkholes are caused by the collapse of large amounts of the earth’s surface into itself, becoming a huge gaping hole in the surface, due to the dissolution of salts, which cause the surface to become weak in places. It is a natural erosion process. It may be caused by torrential rains as well.
  • Sinkholes in the sea offer scuba divers exciting places to explore.
  • Sinkholes are also used as garbage dumping grounds, causing severe damage to groundwater.

4. Floods:

Flooding is the submerging of land not generally submerged, by the overflowing of water. The overflow may occur from a water catchment/reservoir, or from a lake or sea or any other water body.

5. Volcanic eruptions:

Volcanic eruptions occur when a volcano erupts and throws out hot materials like molten rocks(lava), rocks, ash, and dust. Because lava flowing from volcanoes is so hot, it destroys as it flows.

6. Tsunami:

A tsunami or a tidal wave is caused by a large displacement of water, in the ocean. They are seismic waves and do not resemble any other kind of sea wave or currents or tides, which are caused by wind or the lunar cycles. They reach dangerous heights and destroy the coastlines. Japan is prone to tsunamis.

7. Cyclonic storms:

Cyclones are large masses of air, that rotate, spiral around a very strong center with a low atmospheric pressure. It is called a typhoon in Northwest Pacific, a hurricane in Central America. Cyclones can cause severe destruction if they are moving at very high speed, uprooting trees and destroying buildings. They also carry storms and bring in torrential rains, which may cause flooding.

8. Droughts:

Droughts are caused by lack of rainfalls and can cause severe losses to agricultural industry and communities that are dependent on rain and agriculture. Over centuries, droughts have caused several severe famines, causing thousands to die of starvation and suicides.

9. Tornadoes:

A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the Earth’s surface and a cumulonimbus cloud or in some rare cases cumulus cloud. Tornadoes cause severe damage uprooting as they move along at really high speed. They are also known as twisters.

10. Wildfire:

Wildfires or forest fires are uncontrolled fires burning in wildland areas. They can be caused by lightning or volcanic eruptions, or even human carelessness or arson. Wildfires can destroy acres of precious forests which has taken years to grow resulting in loss of both flora and fauna.

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What is an Ice Age? http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-ice-age/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-ice-age/#comments Thu, 16 Nov 2017 09:45:46 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97323 Our planet Earth has experienced several periods of warming and cooling episodes throughout its history. The Ice Age is a period in the Earth’s history that began around 70,000 years ago. As the name suggests, it was a period when the climate was way colder than it is today. In fact, it was the time […]

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What is an Ice Age?

Our planet Earth has experienced several periods of warming and cooling episodes throughout its history. The Ice Age is a period in the Earth’s history that began around 70,000 years ago. As the name suggests, it was a period when the climate was way colder than it is today. In fact, it was the time when most of the Earth’s surface was buried under sheets of ice.

Causes of Ice Age

The geologists believe that the ice age was not caused by one event but a series of factors resulted in the cooling of the Earth, including the planet’s position to the sun, its tilt, and certain changes in the Earth’s atmosphere. Small changes over a very long period of time resulted in such a dramatic change in the climate.

Discovery of the Ice Age

Swiss scientist Louis Aggasiz was one of the first few scientists to study the evidence of the Ice Age. In the mid 1800’s, he told the other scientists that the boulders they saw randomly placed on the Earth’s surface out of nowhere had been left by glaciers. No one believed him and discarded his theory, calling it foolish. They were of the opinion that those boulders were placed there by the Noah’s flood or witchcraft.

Life during the Ice Age

During the Ice Age, the Earth’s surface was completely frozen. This type of barren and cold biome is known as the tundra. Only a few plants, including the evergreen trees, could grow in the frozen soil. The main occupation of men during that period was hunting. Every part of the hunted animals was used for something or the other. Their flesh was used for eating, skins were used as clothing, blankets and shelters and bones were used for making tools and weapons.

Some of the important animals of those times were the woolly mammoth, woolly rhinos, bears, and reindeer. People used to make the pictures of these animals on the walls of their caves. Scientists have also found the frozen fossils of these animals.

Are we living in an Ice Age?

Yes, you would be surprised to learn that we are currently living in an ice age called the Quaternary Ice Age. The Earth is in a warmer stage of the ice age known as the interglacial period. In other words, an interglacial period is a warm period between the cold periods of the Earth where the glaciers are receding.

How many Ice Ages has the Earth experienced?

According to the scientists, the Earth has experienced five major ice ages which are as follows-

  • Huronian – The Huronian Ice Age lasted from about 2400 to 2100 million years ago and was one of the longest ice ages. Scientists believe that the lack of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere caused it.
  • Cryogenian – The Cryogenian Ice Age lasted from 850 to 635 million years ago. Scientists sometimes call the Earth during this phase as the ‘Snowball Earth’ also.
  • Andean-Saharan – The Andean-Saharan Ice Age took place between 460 to 430 million years ago.
  • Karoo – The Karoo Ice Age lasted around 100 million years between 360 to 260 million years ago. It is named after glacial tills in Karoo, South Africa.
  • Quaternary – The most recent ice age is the Quaternary Ice Age. It started about 2.5 million years ago and is still going on.

3 Interesting fun facts about Ice Age

  1. Ice Age is not an event that happens quickly. It is actually a very long-term natural phenomenon that lasts for several million years.
  2. The animals that lived during the Ice Ages were generally quite large and fully covered with fur. Scientists also call them ‘Megafauna’.
  3. The famous Disney movie ‘Ice Age’ is based on this period.
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What is a landslide and how does it happen? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-landslide-and-how-does-it-happen/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-landslide-and-how-does-it-happen/#comments Tue, 14 Nov 2017 09:04:07 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97291 What is a landslide? A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, mud or debris down a slope due to gravity. Landslides cause massive damage to human lives and property while also causing disruption in the movement of traffic and communication network. Landslides block the riverways which may further result in […]

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What is a landslide and how does it happen?

What is a landslide?

A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, mud or debris down a slope due to gravity. Landslides cause massive damage to human lives and property while also causing disruption in the movement of traffic and communication network. Landslides block the riverways which may further result in floods also. The productive farm fields that are affected by the landslides may lose their fertility and this causes a massive loss to the farmers.

What causes a landslide?

Landslides are induced by climatic conditions such as heavy rainfalls, snowfalls or natural phenomena such as volcanic activity or earthquakes. Human activities such as deforestation, mining, constructions, vibrations from big machines, etc. may also cause a landslide. Deforestation also is an important cause of landslides. The roots of trees hold the soil in place. Without trees, the stability of a slope is decreased greatly and with a large or even a small change, a landslide can be caused.

Types of landslides

  1. Falls – Falls are sudden movements of huge amount of soil, debris, and rock that breaks away from slopes and cliffs. Such landslides occur as a result of weathering, earthquakes, and force of gravity.
  2. Slides – In this type of a slide, the unstable sliding material breakaways from underlying stable material.
  3. Topples – Topple landslides occur when a block of rock tilts or rotates. It leads to formation of a debris cone below the slope known as a Talus cone.
  4. Spreads – This phenomenon is symbolised by the gradual horizontal displacement of large volumes of distributed material over very gentle or flat terrain.
  5. Flows – This is the most destructive and dangerous form of landslide. Flows have a high water content which loosens the slope material and turns it into a slurry.

Prevention of landslides

Though we cannot prevent natural disasters, we can always make an effort to mitigate their effect. We must encourage people to protect nature, plant more trees and curb deforestation. In addition, detailed geologic investigations, advanced engineering practices and wise use of land can help in reducing landslide hazards.

Landslides in India

Every year, landslides in the Himalayan region kill hundreds of people and cause severe damage to several small villages, leaving them unsuitable for habitation. The main reasons for landslides in India are indiscriminate cutting down of trees, slash and burn cultivation practices in the hills, road construction and mining activities, increased grazing activities, and rapid urbanization. According to data of the Defence Terrain Research Laboratory, “Landslides rank third in terms of the number of deaths due to natural disasters. While Himalayan Landslides kill one person per 100km. The estimated average losses due to landslides in the Himalayas cost 200 lives and Rs 550 crore every year.”

Some of the major landslides that have taken place in India in the last few years are as follows:

  • June 16, 2013 – Kedarnath, Uttarakhand –More than 5,700 casualties were recorded because of this dreadful natural disaster.
  • September 24, 2012 – Northern Sikkim – Over 27 people died in this sad incident, including members of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
  • July 27, 2007 – Dasalgaon-Maharashtra – The official records suggest 50+ casualties.
  • July 26, 2005 – Raigad – More than 50 people were believed to be dead in this tragedy.
  • July 26, 2005 – Sakinaka, Mumbai – Over 74 people lost their precious lives in this landslide.

3 Interesting facts about landslides

  1. Landslides can move slowly, just a few millimeters per year or can move swiftly with speeds up to 200 miles per hour.
  2. The world’s biggest landslide occurred in 1980 when Mount St. Helens, a volcano in the USA erupted.
  3. The scientists have found out that planets such as Mars and Venus also experience occasional landslides.
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Jawaharlal Nehru Biography http://mocomi.com/jawaharlal-nehru-biography/ http://mocomi.com/jawaharlal-nehru-biography/#comments Mon, 13 Nov 2017 10:31:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97271 Early Life Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of India. He was born on 14th November,1889 in Allahabad. He was born to Shrimati Swarup Rani Thussu and Shri Moti Lal Nehru, a prominent lawyer in Allahabad. He received his early education at home, and later, at the age of 15, he went to […]

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Jawaharlal Nehru Biography

Early Life

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the first prime minister of India. He was born on 14th November,1889 in Allahabad. He was born to Shrimati Swarup Rani Thussu and Shri Moti Lal Nehru, a prominent lawyer in Allahabad. He received his early education at home, and later, at the age of 15, he went to England to pursue his higher studies in law. He came back to India in 1912 and started his practice as a lawyer.

Nehru’s role in the freedom of India

Jawaharlal Nehru got married to Shrimati Kamla Nehru in the year 1916, and in 1917, he became the father of a baby girl whom he named “Indira”. Later on, this little girl went on to become India’s first woman Prime Minister. Jawaharlal Nehru was deeply perturbed by the kind of harsh treatment Britishers were giving to his fellow Indians and decided to join the freedom movement. His patriotic heart did not permit him to sit comfortably at home. He joined the Non-cooperation Movement of Mahatma Gandhi and also went to jail several times for flouting the rules of the Britishers. He underwent all the pain and suffering happily for the sake of his country.

Achievements of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as a Prime Minister

When India gained freedom in 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of India. As the Prime Minister of India, he took India on the path of progress under his guidance. During his tenure, he brought some changes in domestic, international, economic, agricultural and social policies.

Under his administration, he established several industries, so as to boost our country’s economy and direct it towards development and modernization. He believed that educating the youth of the country was vital for the country’s future growth. Towards this effect, he established numerous institutions of higher learning, including All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) as well as the National Institutes of Technology. He also included free and compulsory primary education for all children in his five-year plan. Despite being an advocate of peace and non-violence, he understood the importance of having a strong defense. He arranged the best modern equipment for the Indian army to safeguard the borders.

Children’s Day

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was extremely fond of children and loved them very much. Children also used to fondly address him as ‘Chacha Nehru’. It is because of his love for the children, his birthday- 14th November is still celebrated as Children’s Day in India. Jawaharlal Nehru always emphasized on the importance of giving love and affection to children, and the main purpose of celebrating his birthday as the Children’s Day is to encourage the welfare of children all over the country.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the most popular national and international figures. He is considered as the maker of modern India because of the remarkable changes that he brought in as the first Prime Minister of India. Serving his country, he left for his heavenly abode on 27th of May in 1964.

6 Interesting facts about Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru was the longest serving Prime Minister of the country from the year 1947 till 1964.
  2. Nehru was awarded with the Bharat Ratna award in 1955, India’s highest civilian honor for his outstanding contribution during the freedom struggle and as the first Prime Minister of India.
  3. He wrote many books, including ‘The Discovery of India’, ‘Glimpses of World History’, and his autobiography, ‘Towards Freedom’.
  4. He was also known as ‘Panditji’.
  5. He invented the fashion trend of wearing the “Nehru jacket”
  6. He was extremely fond of roses and always used to clip a bud in his jacket.

Famous quotes by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

  1. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new; when an age ends; and when the soul of a nation long suppressed finds utterance.
  2. Time is not measured by the passing of years, but by what one does, what one feels, and what one achieves.
  3. There is perhaps nothing so bad and so dangerous in life as fear.
  4. Action itself, so long as I am convinced that it is right action, gives me satisfaction.
  5. I like being with children and talking to them and, even more, playing with them. For the moment I forget that I am terribly old and it is very long ago since I was a child.
  6. Grown-ups have a strange way of putting themselves in compartments and groups. They build barriers… of religion, caste, colour, party, nation, province, language, customs and of rich and poor. Fortunately, children do not know much about these barriers, which separate. They play and work with each other and it is only when they grow up that they begin to learn about these barriers from their elders.

Read more –
Here’s a full transcript of Jawaharlal Nehru Speech – A Tryst With Destiny

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Major Domains of the Earth – Biosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-biosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-biosphere/#comments Fri, 10 Nov 2017 12:58:17 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97229 The earth is made of four main spheres or domains which play an important part in sustaining life on earth. The spheres combine and interact with each other, to form a complex and intricately balanced system of land, air, water and living creatures’ relationships with each other. What are the four major domains of the […]

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Major Domains of the Earth – Biosphere

The earth is made of four main spheres or domains which play an important part in sustaining life on earth. The spheres combine and interact with each other, to form a complex and intricately balanced system of land, air, water and living creatures’ relationships with each other.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

  1. Lithosphere : The lithosphere is the solid, exterior part of the earth. It is the most rigid of earth’s layers.
  2. Atmosphere : The atmosphere is a complex 500 – 700 km of mixture of gases, including oxygen that we breathe and other elements. These are bound to earth through gravity and so do not disappear into space.
  3. Hydrosphere : The hydrosphere consists of all the water sources on the planet and is interconnected through the water cycle.
  4. Biosphere : The biosphere connects all the existing ecosystem into a network with the other spheres. It is the sphere where all life dwells.

What is biosphere?

The biosphere is a life supporting global ecosystem and is one of the major domains on the planet. In the biosphere, all living things depend on each other, and the existing, surrounding environment, which maybe living or may consist of abiotic factors.

The biosphere is also known as the ecosphere.

When did the biosphere originate?

The biosphere is said to have originated maybe around 3.5 billion years ago and has originated from the abiogenesis process which eventually led to the biogenesis process. The term biosphere was coined by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875. Consequently, Charles Darwin, Matthew F Maury, Vladimir I Vernadsky and Arthur Tansley have contributed towards considerable research to the study of the biosphere. Sir Arthur Tansley introduced the term ‘ecosystem’, in 1935.

How does life sustain itself in the biosphere?

  • Scientists believe that the increase of atmospheric oxygen led to the evolution of the first forms of life.
  • Energy is needed for the function that organisms perform, such as growth, movement, waste removal and reproduction. It is the only requirement that living organisms in the biosphere need apart from what is there in the four major domains.
  • The source of this energy comes from the sun. Plants convert the sun’s energy into food and are very important to the biosphere.

What processes occur in the biosphere?

The organisms in the biosphere are constantly involved in one or more of the following processes :

  1. Decomposition : The breakdown of complex molecules—molecules of which dead organisms are composed – into simple nutrients that can be re-utilized by living organisms.
  2. Energy : Power that can be used to perform work, such as solar energy.
  3. Nutrient cycle : The cycling of biologically important elements from one molecular form to another and back to the original form.
  4. Photosynthesis : Process in which plants capture light energy from the sun and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and organic molecules.
  5. Respiration : Chemical reaction between organic molecules and oxygen that produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

What is the Biosphere 2 project?

In order to study the biosphere and the impact of all life forms and the other spheres on the biosphere, scientists set up the Biosphere 2 project. Biosphere 1 is the planet earth.
The artificially replicated Biosphere 2 was set up on three acres, in the Arizona desert, in the 1980s. In 1991, September 26th, a group of four men and four women decided to enter Biosphere 2 for a period of two years. The artificial biosphere contained 3800 species of plants and animals and the human group experimented with growing their food and sustaining and surviving without any other resource.
Although the experiment was one of the first of the longest experiments of living in isolation, it was not successful for several reasons.

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Coughing and sneezing etiquette http://mocomi.com/coughing-and-sneezing-etiquette/ http://mocomi.com/coughing-and-sneezing-etiquette/#comments Fri, 10 Nov 2017 10:23:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97246 If you can’t completely separate you and your child during a minor cold, learning cough and sneeze etiquette at least helps. How to cough and sneeze to avoid spreading germs? Teaching your child to cough and sneeze into their shoulder or elbow instead of directly into hands (which then touch other things, and further spread the […]

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Coughing and sneezing etiquette

If you can’t completely separate you and your child during a minor cold, learning cough and sneeze etiquette at least helps.

How to cough and sneeze to avoid spreading germs?

Teaching your child to cough and sneeze into their shoulder or elbow instead of directly into hands (which then touch other things, and further spread the germs) is just one way to go.

Similarly, blowing one’s nose has some etiquette involved, too. Even with a handkerchief or tissues, some germs are blown into the air. And being as loud and honking as possible is definitely not the point! In addition, washing hands and/or use of antibacterial hand gel immediately after blowing one’s nose is critical to help stop the spread of germs.

What is the correct way to sneeze or cough in public?

  1. Turn away from people when coughing or sneezing to avoid contaminating others.
  2. Cover your mouth or nose with your left hand to keep your right hand germ free.
  3. If you are in a crowd of people and cannot turn to avoid coughing or sneezing directly at someone, cough or sneeze downward, directly in front of you.
  4. Always carry a tissue or handkerchief to cover your mouth or nose.
  5. If you are having a coughing or sneezing episode, excuse yourself from the room until it subsides.
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Major Domains of the Earth – Atmosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-atmosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-atmosphere/#comments Thu, 09 Nov 2017 12:42:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97210 The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other. What are the four major domains of the earth? The four major domains are divided as : Lithosphere – Lithosphere is the solid shell of the […]

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Major Domains of the Earth – Atmosphere

The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

The four major domains are divided as :

  1. Lithosphere Lithosphere is the solid shell of the earth and is divided into a crust and mantle.
  2. Atmosphere – Atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet, held in place by the gravity of the body.
  3. Hydrosphere Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water present on the surface or under the surface, on a planet.
  4. Biosphere Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is all the connected ecosystems on a planet and includes all living beings, including their interaction with the other spheres.

What is atmosphere?

Atmosphere is a collection of gases that make the earth habitable.

It consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% water vapour and some percentages of trace gases like argon, helium, neon and carbon dioxide. All of these gases combine to form a layer that we refer to as the earth’s atmosphere. It helps protect life on earth by creating pressure, allowing liquid water to exist on the earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention and reducing extreme temperature between day and night.

5 Layers of atmosphere

The atmosphere is comprised of 4 layers, based on temperature, and another layer 500 kms above the earth’s surface, called the exosphere. They are :

1. Troposphere :

The lowest part of the atmosphere, the troposphere contains most of our weather clouds, rain, snow. In this part, temperatures drop by 6.5 degrees celcius, at every km elevation. The sun’s heat is insulated and weathers are created in this layer.

2. Stratosphere :

The stratosphere extends from after the tropopause, the upper boundary of the troposphere. The stratosphere is crucial to life on earth, as it contains the ozone layer, which protects against UV rays from reaching the earth’s surface. Very few clouds are found in this layer. Jets fly in this layer of the atmosphere, to avoid turbulence found in the troposphere.

3. Mesosphere :

The mesosphere is one of the least studied layers of the atmosphere, as flights and balloons do not fly in this layer and satellight are in layers above this one. Meteors that stream into the earth’s atmosphere, are generally burnt up, by the time they reach this layer and cannot travel further. The mesosphere does experience special clouds – noctilucent clouds and the presence of lightning, called elves and sprites.

4. Thermosphere :

  • The thermosphere is the layer of the earth’s atmosphere directly above the mesosphere. The small particles of gas present in the layer absorb x – rays and ultra violet radiation from the sun. Thermosphere means heat sphere, and temperatures in the sphere can go upto 1000 degree celcius.
  • The lowest part of the thermosphere, from 80 km to 600 km and more, is the layer that contains ionised air and is called ionosphere. The sun’s rays in this part of the atmosphere are so strong, they break apart molecules and atoms of air, leaving ions (atoms with missing electrons) and free floating electrons.
  • The ionosphere is the region of the atmosphere where the aurorae occur. Aurorae occurs in both Northern and Southern hemisphere. The phenomenon is known as aurora borealis, or northern lights at the north pole and it is known as aurora australis or southern lights, at the south pole.
  • Aurora is caused by high energy particles streaming out from the sun – the solar wind – striking the earth’s upper atmosphere, or ionosphere. Energy from these electrically charged particles is converted into light, forming visible glows, rays, arcs, bands and veils. The light is generally greenish, but sometimes it is also red. The charged particles are attracted by the earth’s magnetic field. The aurorae are witnessed near the magnetic poles and some distance close to it.

5. Exosphere :

The exosphere is the last layer of the atmosphere. The exosphere extends to 10,000 km above the earth’s surface. In this layer, hydrogen and helium are the main components and particles are constantly escaping into space from this layer of the atmosphere. Several satellites orbit the earth in this layer.

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Major Domains of the Earth – Hydrosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-hydrosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-hydrosphere/#comments Wed, 08 Nov 2017 12:40:08 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97218 The earth is the only planet that can sustain and nurture life. This is because of the four domains that make the planet. What are the four major domains of the earth? The domains, also known as the spheres are : Lithosphere : The lithosphere is the solid, outer part of the earth and includes […]

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Major Domains of the Earth - Hydrosphere

The earth is the only planet that can sustain and nurture life. This is because of the four domains that make the planet.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

The domains, also known as the spheres are :

  1. Lithosphere : The lithosphere is the solid, outer part of the earth and includes the brittle, upper portion of the mantle and the crust. It is bound by the atmosphere above and the asthenosphere(a part of the upper mantle), below. The lithosphere is the most rigid of earth’s layers.
  2. Atmosphere : The atmosphere consists of 4 layers, and is responsible for the air we breathe, the weather we experience. It also protects us from the sun’s rays and regulates the temperature on the surface.
  3. Hydrosphere : The hydrosphere connects all the water sources on the planet.
  4. Biosphere : The biosphere connects all the existing ecosytem into a network with the other spheres.

What is hydrosphere?

Hydrosphere is the part of the earth which, combines all the water sources on the planet. It includes atmospheric water, oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater, ice and any other possible source.

The hydrosphere incorporates the water cycle, where water travels from one source to another, changing forms temporarily in between. About 70% of the earth’s surface is covered in oceans which is not potable water. A very small percentage of earth’s water is fresh water.

What is the water cycle?

The water cycle, or the hydrological cycle, takes into account, the exchange of water from the hydrosphere, and cryosphere, which is frozen ice. The continuous movement and exchange of water helps to form currents that move warm water from the tropics to the poles and help regulate the temperature of the earth.

Although several other elements are part of the water cycle, some are useful, like oxygen, while others maybe harmful, like acid rain, algal blooms etc.

Human impact on the hydrosphere

  • The world’s water sources have gotten and are getting even more impacted by human lifestyle.
  • Massive discharge of toxic chemicals, radioactive substances and other industrial wastes, petroleum waste and sewage disposal, seepage of minerals and pesticides into the ground water are all responsible for affecting the quality of the hydrosphere.

Major threats to the hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is affected by excessive pollution of the water sources. This has caused several problems, some of them irreversible. The three major problems are :

1. Eutrophication :

Eutrophication is the excessive dumping of nutrients into water sources. This process induces growth of plants and algae which in turn depletes the oxygen levels in the water, apart from causing other probplems. Eutrophication is almost always induced by phosphate – containg detergents, fertilizers, or sewage in water.

2. Acid rain :

Acid rain is defined as precipitation, with a pH of less than 5.7 that results from reactions involving gases other than carbon dioxide. It has become a world wide problem and is caused by the emission of sulphur di-oxide and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere by human activities, mainly, fossil fuel burning.

3. Greenhouse gases :

Green house gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels has led to serious issues. One of them being the increase of global temperatures, which has caused melting of polar ice caps. This has caused the global environment to change considerably.

Environmental problems of hydrosphere

Some issues that we might face in the future if it is left unchecked are :

  • Areas of land might be lost permanently
  • Precipitation patterns may change, causing drastic changes in yearly rains and monsoons.
  • Altitude of clouds may change, causing the overall climate to drop considerably.
  • The pH levels of ocean surface water may change, causing damage to marine life and affecting the marine ecosystem.
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Major Domains of the Earth – Lithosphere http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-lithosphere/ http://mocomi.com/major-domains-of-the-earth-lithosphere/#comments Tue, 07 Nov 2017 09:05:22 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97196 The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other. What are the four major domains of the earth? The four major domains are divided as : Lithosphere – Lithosphere is the solid shell of the […]

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Major Domains of the Earth – Lithosphere

The earth is a very complex place. It has been divided into four sphere, to enable us to understand it separately and how each sphere interacts with each other.

What are the four major domains of the earth?

The four major domains are divided as :

  1. Lithosphere – Lithosphere is the solid shell of the earth and is divided into a crust and mantle.
  2. Atmosphere Atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding a planet, held in place by the gravity of the body.
  3. Hydrosphere Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water present on the surface or under the surface, on a planet.
  4. Biosphere Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is all the connected ecosystems on a planet.

What is lithosphere?

The word lithosphere is derived from two Greek words, Lithos, meaning rocky and Sphere meaning rigid. Every rocky planet has a lithosphere. The lithosphere is the outermost shell of the planet earth, which consists of the crust and the upper mantle. The upper mantle behaves elastically over thousands of years.

The earth’s lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates. The uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through the soil forming process, is called the pedosphere. The shifting of tectonic plates over millions of years is responsible for the changing earth’s surface.

What are types of lithosphere?

The earth’s lithosphere is of two types : oceanic and continental lithosphere.

1. Oceanic lithosphere

  • It consists mainly of mafic (rich in magnesium and iron) crust and ultramafic (over 90% mafic) mantle and is denser than continental lithosphere.
  • It thickens as it ages and moves away from the mid ocean ridge.

2. Continental lithosphere

  • It is also called the continental crust. It is the layer of igneous, sedimentary rock that forms continents and the continental shelves.
  • This layer consists mostly of granitic rock.
  • The oldest oceanic lithosphere is about 170 million years old compared to parts of the continental lithosphere which are billions of years old.

What is the continental drift?

Under the lithosphere layer, is a molten layer, which is in constant motion. This layer is known as asthenosphere. The lithosphere layers, both the crust and the mantle, are constantly being shaken or disturbed by the movement in the asthenosphere layer. These movements over a period of time, start changing the position of the land masses referred to as continents. This phenomenon, which takes thousands of years is known as continental drift and changes the surface topography of the planet.

Major plates of the lithosphere

  • African Plate
  • Antarctic Plate
  • Eurasian Plate
  • Indo-Australian Plate
  • North American Plate
  • Pacific Plate
  • South-American Plate
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World Wide Fund for Nature http://mocomi.com/world-wide-fund-for-nature/ http://mocomi.com/world-wide-fund-for-nature/#comments Mon, 06 Nov 2017 11:10:37 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97182 What is World Wide Fund for nature? The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non – government organisation, working in the field of wilderness preservation and towards reducing the impact of humans on the environment. When was the WWF founded? It was founded in 1961, by a small group of ardent, mostly […]

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World Wide Fund for Nature

What is World Wide Fund for nature?

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non – government organisation, working in the field of wilderness preservation and towards reducing the impact of humans on the environment.

When was the WWF founded?

It was founded in 1961, by a small group of ardent, mostly British naturalists and conservationists such as Peter Scott, Max Nicholson, Guy Mountfort and Julian Huxley. Initially called the World Wildlife Fund, it retains its official name in Canada and the United States of America.

Where is the World Wide Fund based out of?

WWF was established as a Swiss Foundation and registered in Zurich. Its current headquarters are at Avenue du Mont-Blanc, Gland, Vaud, Switzerland. It is the world’s largest conservation organisation, working in more than 100 countries. It has identified 238 ecoregions, that represent the world’s most biologically outstanding habitats and is working toward those region’s conservation.

Why does the WWF use the Panda symbol?

The WWF giant panda logo originated from a panda named Chi Chi, who had been transferred from Beijing Zoo to London Zoo in 1958. The panda being, an endangered species, with its recognisable iconic features of black and white, made it a strong symbol that could be identified, without language barriers around the world.

It has been modified slightly over the years.

What is the WWF mission?

The WWF work has evolved from saving species and landscapes, to now working with sectors globally, to educate and influence people into making sustainable choices and decisions. The WWF also works with corporates and business and helps make decisions around the use of natural resources.

The WWF work focuses on these areas :

1. Food : With the growing human population, the food requirements of human is increasing rapidly. With this increasing need, man requires more land and resources like fresh water for rearing animals and farming for food which places a considerable strain on land and wildlife and other resources. While efforts to produce adequate amounts of food has been successful, the food doesn’t reach malnourished people. WWF aims to improve efficiency and productivity while reducing wastage and shifting consumption patterns to help conserve our resources and reduce environmental impact.

2. Climate : Our carbon footprint has led to polluted air, acid rains and global warming, which in turn causes polar ice caps to melt, causing several natural disasters. WWF is involved in helping people rethink the way we produce and consume energy, food, water in the present and for the future. It involves changing and redesigning the current public infrastructure and facilities to make it more climate resilient.

3. Fresh Water : The world is facing a huge fresh water crisis. Water is important to all life and there is just 1% of it, that is fresh and accessible. Changing climate, population growth and changing consumption patterns are just a few things affecting fresh water. WWF is committed to partnering with governments, businesses, institutions and communities to ensure healthy fresh water to communities in under developed countries, for wildlife and to provide a sustainable future for all.

4. Wildlife : Ours is a living planet. Saving our wildlife is high on the list of WWF priorities. The 2014 report revealed an astounding decline in wildlife by 52% in the last 40 years. Some species are on the verge of extinction. WWF recovery success stories include southern Africa’s black rhino to black bucks in the Himalayas. All species play an important part in the ecosystem of a region.

5. Forests : Over urbanisation due to pockets of exploding human population, or deforestation to increase farmlands to grow food, has led to extremely huge areas of the earth’s precious forest areas to completely deplete. This has caused changes in temperature, affected rainfalls, changed topography and caused wildlife to go extinct. Loss of our forests will also cause irreplaceable loss to flora and fauna on the planet.

WWF is involved in conserving tropical rain forests, which are the most biologically diverse and complex forests on Earth – forests in the Amazon, the Congo Basin, the Greater Mekong and other regions near the equator. But it also is taking place in temperate regions, such as the Russian Far East and the United States.

6. Oceans : Home to over 2 million species, marine biodiversity far outweighs, life on land. Our oceans regulate global climates, mediate and cause temperature, drought, rainfall. The oceans are also responsible for 83% circulation of the planet’s carbon cycle, making sustaining the ocean a very high priority.

WWF’s oceans work focuses on healthy and resilient marine ecosystems that support abundant biodiversity, sustainable livelihoods, and thriving economies.

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Discovery of light http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-light/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-light/#comments Fri, 03 Nov 2017 11:01:19 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97165 What is light? Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy. Radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma rays are some of the forms of electromagnetic radiation. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy, but visible light is only a small portion of the spectrum, which contains a broad range of electromagnetic wavelengths. Who discovered light? […]

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Discovery of light

What is light?

Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy. Radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma rays are some of the forms of electromagnetic radiation. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy, but visible light is only a small portion of the spectrum, which contains a broad range of electromagnetic wavelengths.

Who discovered light?

Aristotle was responsible for one of the first theories of light. He stated that, “The essence of light is white light. Colors are made up of a mixture of lightness and darkness.” However, It was Sir Isaac Newton who conducted several experiments to understand light. And how light is composed of several wavelengths. In his book, Optiks, Newton describes how he used prisms to disassemble and reassemble light.

Wavelength of visible light

Visible light falls in the spectrum between infra red and ultra violet, the wavelengths easily visible to the human eye. Violet has the shortest wavelength, at around 380 nanometers, and red has the longest wavelength, at around 700 nanometers.

How do we perceive color?

Cone-shaped cells in our eyes act as receivers tuned to the wavelengths in this narrow band of the spectrum. Other portions of the spectrum have wavelengths too large or too small and energetic for the biological limitations of our perception.

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What is satire and it’s types http://mocomi.com/what-is-satire/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-satire/#comments Fri, 03 Nov 2017 09:50:42 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97157 Definition of satire Satire maybe defined as a genre of literature. A feature of satire is the strong dramatic use of emotions and words to highlight the follies and foibles of humanity, society or an individual. How is satire used in literature or in art forms? The four elements of satire are : Reversal – […]

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What is satire and it's types

Definition of satire

Satire maybe defined as a genre of literature. A feature of satire is the strong dramatic use of emotions and words to highlight the follies and foibles of humanity, society or an individual.

How is satire used in literature or in art forms?

The four elements of satire are :

  1. Reversal – Satire uses reversal to present the opposite of the normal order. Reversal can focus on the order of events, or the hierarchical order.
  2. Parody – To imitate the techniques and/or style of some person, place, or thing in order to ridicule the original. But it is required to have an original frame of reference for the reader or the audience to understand the parody.
  3. Exaggeration – To enlarge, increase or represent something beyond normal bounds so that it becomes ridiculous and its faults can be seen. Caricature is the exaggeration of a physical feature or trait. Cartoons are an example of this. Burlesque is the ridiculous use of language, for example, characters speak differently and out of character.
  4. Incongruity – To present things that are out of place or are absurd in relation to its surroundings. Particular techniques include oxymoron, metaphor and irony.

Different types of satire

Satire has been in existence since early Roman writing and performance arts. The word satire is derived from the phrase, lanx satura, meaning medley.

The Roman writers Horace (Horatian Satire) and Juvenal (Juvenalian Satire) by their practice have left an indelible mark on formal satirical verse writing. Through their writings, they devised loosely defined rules of satire.

Roman satire is of two types – Comical satire and tragical satire

Nicolas Boileau, Dryden and Alexander Pope’s writings in the 17th and 18th century have contributed to the modern age of satire, influencing satire writing styles.

Although satire is a complex writing form and difficult to classify, it is classified based on the writers who have contributed significantly, on the medium that it is conceived for and the topics that it depicts.

Satirical writings have also been discovered in ancient Egyptian papyrus rolls, dating from 2nd millennium BC.

The Greeks had no formal word for satire, although the term cynicism and parody has been used in writings. Greek playwright Aristophanes, is one of the best known early playwright.

Menippean satire

Another type of satire is Menippean satire which is usually in the form of prose with its central focus on mental attitudes and not individuals or entities. It is named after the Greek parodist Menippus. His works have influenced other early Greek and Roman writers.

Difference between Irony, Sarcasm and Satire

  • Irony – Irony maybe defined as describing situations that are strange or funny because things happen, in a way that seems to be the opposite of what an audience or reader expects.
  • Sarcasm – Sarcasm depends on addressing an issue indirectly and generally uses a comparative point of reference. It uses bitterness, rudeness, harshness to drive a point.
  • Satire – Satire uses emotional or attitudinal exaggeration humour to ridicule a situation or a society or an individual.

Famous works in satire

  • The Animal Farm
  • Don Quixote
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Masai Mara National Reserve http://mocomi.com/masai-mara-national-reserve/ http://mocomi.com/masai-mara-national-reserve/#comments Thu, 02 Nov 2017 11:29:46 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97141 Where is Masai Mara national reserve located? The Masai Mara National Reserve, known by the local inhabitants as the Mara, is a large game reserve in the Narok County, Kenya. It shares its borders with the Serengeti National Park in the Mara Region, Tanzania. It lies in the Great Rift Valley, which is a fault […]

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Masai Mara National Reserve

Where is Masai Mara national reserve located?

The Masai Mara National Reserve, known by the local inhabitants as the Mara, is a large game reserve in the Narok County, Kenya. It shares its borders with the Serengeti National Park in the Mara Region, Tanzania. It lies in the Great Rift Valley, which is a fault line, some 5,600 kilometers from Ethiopia’s Red Sea.

Mara, which is Maa, in Masai language is translated as spotted, as it describes the landscape, with cloud shadows, circle of trees, scrub, savanna, which cover the area.

Masai Mara safari

The Masai Mara is one of the most visited natural wildlife reserves, with adventure safaris, but it also suffers from local poachers and international trophy game hunters.

The Masai are the ancestral inhabitants of the Mara.

Who are the Masai people?

  • The Masai people are Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting the Kenyan and Tanzanian savannas. They speak the Maa language and Swahili, Kenyan and Tanzanian.
  • They are pastoralists and have inhabited the grasslands and chosen to live with the wild animals, without hunting them, being one with the land.

What kind of animals inhabit the Masai Mara?

  • The Masai Mara is one of the world’s finest wildlife destinations. It is home to one of the oldest, most diverse and expansive ecosystems on the planet.
  • It is also home to the Big 5, the world’s most sought after wild animals, dangerous and difficult to hunt by colonial hunters, which are the African Lion, Elephant, Rhino, Leopard and the Buffalo.

Great migration of the Masai Mara

  • One of the spectacular events to occur in the Mara is the annual Wildebeest migration, one of the largest overland migration in the world.
  • The Great Migration sees over 1.5 million Wildebeest, 200,00 Zebra and a host of other Antelope travelling cross country. This occurs around July, each year.

4 Interesting facts about Masai Mara National Reserve

  1. It was officially established as a reserve in 1961, as a wildlife sanctuary and covered only 520 square kilometers(200 square miles) of the current area. Today it covers 1,510 square kilometers area.
  2. Apart from the Big 5, the most dangerous and difficult to hunt animals, the Masai Mara also has animals which form a part of the wildlife, like the Hyena, Cheetah, Eland, Gazelle, Topi, Thomson’s Gazelle, Vultures, Hippos etc. Hippos are abundant in the Mara River, as well as very large Nile crocodiles.
  3. The Wildebeest are the largest inhabitants of the Masai Mara. More than 470 species of birds are found in the Masai Mara, many of them migrants. Species such as Eagles, Stork and Vultures are among the more than 50 birds of prey.
  4. There are more than 4 types of topography in the Mara. They are : Ngama Hills, Oloololo Escarpment, the Mara Triangle and the Central Plains.
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World Trade Organisation http://mocomi.com/world-trade-organisation/ http://mocomi.com/world-trade-organisation/#comments Wed, 01 Nov 2017 10:23:22 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97114 What is the World Trade Organisation? The World Trade Organisation is an inter – governmental organisation that regulates international trade. It has been created to ensure that trade occurs smoothly, predictably and as freely as possible. WTO agreements have been negotiated and signed by a substantial number of the world’s trading nations and has been […]

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World Trade Organisation

What is the World Trade Organisation?

The World Trade Organisation is an inter – governmental organisation that regulates international trade. It has been created to ensure that trade occurs smoothly, predictably and as freely as possible. WTO agreements have been negotiated and signed by a substantial number of the world’s trading nations and has been ratified in their parliaments.

How was the WTO conceived and why?

The World Trade Organisation was conceived and created to handle trade negotiations.

Initially conceived as ITO, but functioning as GATT, it continued to be one of the key pillars of Post World War 2 economic reconstruction and development. This is before WTO came into being.

GATT proved to be highly successfully in liberalising world trade. By the mid 1980s, there was a need for a stronger multilateral organisation to monitor trade and resolve trade disputes. Following the Uruguay Round, (1986 – 1994) of multi trade negotiations, World Trade Organisation began its operation.

Why did GATT change to WTO?

WTO is a successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT created in 1947. GATT had been created in the hope that a specialised United Nations agency called International Trade Organisation (ITO) would materialise. GATT was successful for five decades, despite non – materialisation of ITO.

WTO began operations on January 1, 1995, under the Marrakesh Agreement signed by 123 countries. By 2010, World Trade Organisation had more than 160 members.

What are the objectives of WTO?

World Trade Organisation has six set objectives. They are,

  1. To set and enforce rules for international trade
  2. To provide a forum for negotiating and monitoring further trade liberalisation
  3. To resolve trade disputes
  4. To increase the transparency of decision-making processes
  5. To cooperate with other major international economic institutions involved in global economic management
  6. To help developing countries benefit fully from the global trading system

WTO focuses on all goods, services and intellectual and some investment policies, as well.

Organisational structure of WTO

The General Council has the following subsidiary bodies that oversee several committees and agencies. They are :

  1. Council for Trade in Goods : There are 11 committees under this Council’s jurisdiction
  2. Council for Trade : Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights : These work in recording the intellectual property information within WTO and other international organisations.
  3. Council for Trade in Services : The Council operates under the guidance of the General Council and is responsible for overseeing the functioning of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is open to all WTO members and can create subsidiary bodies as required.
  4. Trade Negotiations Committee : Deals with current trade talks.

What purpose does World Trade Organisation serve?

  • WTO attempts to protect small and weak countries against discriminatory trade practices of large and powerful countries.
  • Secondly, it also requires members to limit trade only through tariffs and to provide market access not less favourable than that specified in their schedules.
  • It also enables to help governments resist lobbying efforts by groups claiming special favours on trade.

What is WTO’s role in resolution of trade disputes?

  • Just like GATT before it, WTO plays a very strong role in helping settle trade disputes. Members are commited not to take unilateral or one sided decisions, against other members. Instead they are expected to seek to settle issues with the dispute settlement system and to abide by its rules and findings.
  • Resolution of Trade Disputes begin with bilateral consultations, through the mediation, or good offices. If this does not work, an independent panel is created to hear the dispute.
  • All settlements have to finish within nine months and are settled as per the rules set by the Appellate Body, unless a consensus exists among the members against doing so.
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Difference between vertebrates and invertebrates http://mocomi.com/difference-between-vertebrates-and-invertebrates/ http://mocomi.com/difference-between-vertebrates-and-invertebrates/#comments Tue, 31 Oct 2017 13:05:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97108 What are vertebrates? Vertebrates are animals with a spinal column and an elaborate skeletal structure. Characteristic traits of vertebrate animals Vertebrates have the following characteristics: All vertebrates have muscles and skeletons that help them to move around easily and perform complex moves. All vertebrates also have an endoskeleton, which consists of the bones that are inside […]

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Difference between vertebrates and invertebrates

What are vertebrates?

Vertebrates are animals with a spinal column and an elaborate skeletal structure.

Characteristic traits of vertebrate animals

Vertebrates have the following characteristics:

  1. All vertebrates have muscles and skeletons that help them to move around easily and perform complex moves.
  2. All vertebrates also have an endoskeleton, which consists of the bones that are inside a body which gives them their shape and allows them to stand erect.
  3. All vertebrates have some or all of these systems : muscular system, skeletal system, excretory system, immune system and nervous system, and skin covered with scales, fur, hair, or feathers.

Classification of vertebrates

Vertebrates are further classified into five classes. They are:

1. Pisces – fishes

  1. They are cold-blooded animals
  2. They have streamlined body
  3. They have gills to breathe and fins for movement
  4. In most of the cases, the body is covered with scales which provide protection to the body

Example – Goldfish, Seahorse, Shark

2. Amphibia – frogs and salamanders

  1. They are cold-blooded animals
  2. They can live both on land and in water
  3. They breathe through both lungs and moist skin
  4. They reproduce only in water

Example – Toad, Frog, Salamander

3. Reptilia – lizards and snakes

  1. They are cold -blooded animals
  2. They live on land
  3. They breathe with the help of lungs
  4. They have dry and scaly skin
  5. They lay eggs

Example – Snake, Turtle, Crocodile

4. Aves – birds

  1. They are warm blooded animals
  2. Their body is covered with feathers
  3. Their forelimbs are modified into wings
  4. They breathe through lungs
  5. Their bones are hollow
  6. They lay eggs

Example – Pigeons, Parrot, Peacock

5. Mammals – animals with mammary glands

  1. They are warm blooded animals
  2. They breathe through lungs
  3. They give birth to babies
  4. They have mammary glands to produce milk

Example – Human, Dog, Cat

What are invertebrates?

Invertebrates are animals without a spine. They have no vertebrae.

Characteristic traits of invertebrate animals

Invertebrates have the following characteristics:

  1. They are multi-cellular and all the cells are assigned different tasks
  2. They have no cell walls
  3. They reproduce by two reproductive cells or gametes

Classification of invertebrates

1. Sponges – poriferans

  1. They are known as sponges
  2. They live in salt water fixed to some object
  3. Their body is covered with pores through which their food enters

Example – Sycon, Spongilla

2. Cnidarians

  1. They live in the marine habitat
  2. The body is like a tube with one opening called mouth
  3. Mouth is surrounded by tentacles that help in capturing prey
  4. They have a radially symmetrical body

Example – Hydra, Jellyfish

3. Platyhelminthes – flatworms

  1. They can be found in marine/fresh water
  2. They have flat, ribbon shaped body
  3. The body is bilaterally symmetrical
  4. The body has a single opening
  5. Most of them are parasites

Example – Tapeworms, Liverfluke

4. Nemathelminthes – roundworms

  1. They are found in fresh/marine water or on land
  2. They have a thread like, rounded body
  3. They have an unsegmented body
  4. Their body has two openings, mouth and anus
  5. The body is bilaterally symmetrical
  6. Most of them are parasites and reproduce sexually by laying eggs

Example – Pinworm, Ascaris

5. Annelids – segmented worms

  1. They are found in marine and fresh water
  2. They have segmented bilaterally symmetrical body
  3. They have a body cavity
  4. They have special organs of excretion known as Nephridia

Example – Earthworm, Leech

6. Arthropods – animals with jointed legs

  1. They have a segmented, bilaterally symmetrical body
  2. Their body is divided into three parts – Head, Thorax and Abdomen
  3. It is covered by a tough outer covering called exoskeleton
  4. They have jointed appendages

Example – Ants, Honeybee, Scorpion, Spider

7. Molluscs – soft bodied shelled animals

  1. Animals have a soft unsegmented body with an external hard shell

Example – Squid, Snail, Octopus

8. Echinoderms – spiny-skinned animals

  1. They live in the marine environment and have spines all over the body
  2. The body is radially symmetrical
  3. Their body has two openings, mouth and anus
  4. They have tube like feet having suckers

Example – Starfish, Sea Urchins

5 Fun facts about vertebrates and invertebrates

  1. Different types of vertebrates have different numbers of vertebrae. Humans have 33 vertebrae, an alligator has 66 vertebrae, and a snake has about 500 vertebrae!
  2. Vertebrates have advanced nervous system, therefore, they are much more intelligent than invertebrates.
  3. Invertebrates cannot make their own food, and therefore, they have to feed off other things to get their energy.
  4. Mammals and birds are warm-blooded, which means that they can make their own body heat even when the temperature outside is low. The body temperatures of warm blooded animals usually stay the same.
  5. The body temperature of the cold-blooded animals, like reptiles, fish and amphibians depends on the temperature outside. For example, when the sun sets at night, their bodies become cold and when the sun rises, their bodies become warmer.
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What is electromagnetism? http://mocomi.com/what-is-electromagnetism/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-electromagnetism/#comments Mon, 30 Oct 2017 11:11:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97097 Definition of electromagnetism Electromagnetism is the type of magnetism produced by an electric current. This phenomenon was discovered in 1819 when a Danish scientist named Hans Oersted noticed the needle on a magnetic compass moved if it was put close to an electric wire. Before his discovery, scientists believed that electricity and magnetism were two […]

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What is electromagnetism?

Definition of electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is the type of magnetism produced by an electric current. This phenomenon was discovered in 1819 when a Danish scientist named Hans Oersted noticed the needle on a magnetic compass moved if it was put close to an electric wire.

Before his discovery, scientists believed that electricity and magnetism were two different scientific phenomena. Then, in 1825, an English physicist named William Sturgeon created the first use – able electromagnet that could easily lift a 9 pounds iron piece.

What is an electromagnet?

An electromagnet is a magnet whose magnetic field is created when electricity is flowing. This type of magnet is different from the refrigerator magnets that you use to decorate your refrigerator. A refrigerator magnet is a kind of permanent magnet made of magnetic material that continuously generates a magnetic field. On the other hand, electromagnets are built and produce a magnetic field only when required.

Difference between a permanent magnet and electromagnet?

Permanent magnet

  1. The South – North polarity of a permanent magnet is fixed. It cannot be changed.
  2. Its strength cannot be altered.

Electromagnet

  1. The South – North polarity of an electromagnet can be altered by changing the direction of the current in the coil.
  2. Its strength can be altered by changing the current flowing in it or by changing the number of turns in it.

How is an electromagnet made?

When an electric current flows through a wire, it generates a magnetic field. The magnetic field can be increased by coiling the wire. This allows more current to flow through a smaller distance and increases the magnetic field. The direction of the current determines the direction of the magnetic field.

Right hand rule and electromagnetic field

When electricity flows in a long straight wire it creates a circular or cylindrical magnetic field around the wire according to the right-hand rule, which means the fingers show the direction of the electromagnetic field generated and the thumb points to the direction of flow of electrons or current.

How to make an electromagnet?

Not every material can be used to create an electromagnet. A naturally magnetic material like nickel, cobalt or iron, has to be used. Any of these three materials or their mixtures are used with a solenoid and a battery to create an electromagnet. You too can make your own electromagnet at home by following the given instructions:

Making a simple electromagnet

All of you know that a nail is not a magnet. However, it can be turned into one if you wrap a wire coil, called a solenoid, around it.

Material required –

  • A battery
  • Paper clips
  • Nail
  • Copper wire

3 Steps to make a simple electromagnet

  1. Wrap the copper wire onto the nail. Make sure that the wire-coils are very close and tight.
  2. Wrap the copper wire ends tightly to the top of the battery on both sides where the positive and negative charges are located.
  3. Now, move the contraption on the top of the paper clips that you have. You would be able to easily lift them without touching them. This is electromagnetism at work!

6 Uses of electromagnetism

  1. Electromagnets produce much more powerful magnetic fields than permanent magnets. The power of the electromagnets can be adjusted by changing the amount of current flowing through it. Electromagnets find their uses in many things that we use in our everyday lives.
  2. They are used in cell phones that work on the interaction between the phone signals and magnetic pulses produced by an electromagnet inside the phone.
  3. Electromagnets are also used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines that help us to look inside the human body.
  4. Loudspeakers use electromagnets to produce sound.
  5. Electromagnets make it easy to handle large chunks of scrap metal via cranes.
  6. Modern generators also require electromagnets to function efficiently.
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Sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick – Tongue Twister http://mocomi.com/sixth-sick-sheiks-sixth-sheeps-sick-tongue-twister/ http://mocomi.com/sixth-sick-sheiks-sixth-sheeps-sick-tongue-twister/#comments Fri, 27 Oct 2017 10:20:59 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96599 The most difficult tongue twister in English language is “sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick” Em: Hey Emma I bet you can’t say ‘babbling, bumbling band of baboons’ really fast 5 times! Emma: You really want to play tongue twister? Then try saying a real one. How about ‘Betty Botter bought some butter, but the […]

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Sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick - Tongue Twister

The most difficult tongue twister in English language is “sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick”

Em: Hey Emma I bet you can’t say ‘babbling, bumbling band of baboons’ really fast 5 times!

Emma: You really want to play tongue twister? Then try saying a real one. How about ‘Betty Botter bought some butter, but the butter was bitter so Betty bought a better butter to make the bitter butter taste better!

Em: Hey! I know, I read somewhere about the most difficult tongue twister in English language…something with six….ummmm

Emma: Sixth…sick…sheik’s….sixth…. sheep’s….sick! Man! it is so difficult…see how long I have to pause after each word.

Em: I will have to write it down to even say it!

Reason: You sure do. ‘Sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick’ is considered as the hardest tongue twister by Guinness Book of World Records. It is extremely difficult to say this string of words quickly multiple times. It may not make much sense, but then tongue twisters are just a string of silly words put together to exercise your tongue. Why don’t you try again?

Em: Sixth.sick..sixt..sorry..sheik’s…this one will surely twist my tongue! I am happy with my bumbling baboons.

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What is World Bank? http://mocomi.com/what-is-world-bank/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-world-bank/#comments Fri, 27 Oct 2017 08:44:37 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97073 The World Bank is an international organisation dedicated to providing finance, advice and research to developing nations to aid their economic advancement. The Bank predominantly acts as an organisation that attempts to fight poverty by offering developmental assistance to middle class and poor income countries for capital programs. How does the World Bank work? The […]

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What is World Bank?

The World Bank is an international organisation dedicated to providing finance, advice and research to developing nations to aid their economic advancement.

The Bank predominantly acts as an organisation that attempts to fight poverty by offering developmental assistance to middle class and poor income countries for capital programs.

How does the World Bank work?

The World Bank is based in Washington DC. The United States and United Kingdom are the two most powerful countries in attendance and dominate negotiations.

The largest shareholders of the World Bank are France, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom and United States of America. The other countries’ presence as shareholders is based on the size of their economy.

The President of the World Bank

Although the Presidents of the World Bank have traditionally been American, there have been a few instances of non – American presidents.

Current president of the World Bank

The current 12th President is Jim Yong Kim, a South Korean born American physician, who is serving his second term. His development priorities include launching several innovative financial instruments including facilities to address infrastructure needs to prevent pandemics and help millions of people forcibly displaced from their homes by climate shocks, conflict and violence.

How is the World Bank organised?

Due to growing membership and needs, the World Bank expanded and consists of five different agencies which are :

  1. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development – Funded by sales of bonds in international capital markets, the IBRD provides assistance to middle income countries.
  2. The International Development Association – Provides policy advice, interest free loans and technical advice to countries with a per capita income lesser than $885.
  3. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) – Finances private sector investments.
  4. The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) – Helps encourage foreign investments and investment opportunities, by providing guarantees to foreign investors against loss caused by non – commercial risks in developing countries.
  5. The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes – Settles any disputes that may arise between foreign investors and host countries.
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Industrial Revolution Timeline http://mocomi.com/industrial-revolution/ http://mocomi.com/industrial-revolution/#comments Thu, 26 Oct 2017 10:57:33 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97044 What was the start of the industrial revolution? Britain was the first country to experience modern industrialisation. Apart from the fact that Britain was well connected to Europe and rest of the discovered world, it also had ample supply of fuel and raw materials, like iron and labour from increasing population, especially in cities. Coal […]

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Industrial Revolution Timeline

What was the start of the industrial revolution?

Britain was the first country to experience modern industrialisation. Apart from the fact that Britain was well connected to Europe and rest of the discovered world, it also had ample supply of fuel and raw materials, like iron and labour from increasing population, especially in cities.

Coal played a very important part in the Industrial Revolution because most machines were powered by it, but the burning of coal intensified air pollution in the cities. Now let us come to iron!

The industrial revolution begins

At the beginning of the 18th Century, iron makers found a way to extract pure iron out of iron ore. Soon, industries started producing enough iron to make machines, water pipes, engines and rails etc. that were required for the development. The mass production of goods called for new methods of transportation. New roads and a system of canals carried products made in factories to markets all over the world. The process of spinning raw cotton into thread and weaving of thread into fabric completely revolutionized the textile industry.

Impact of the industrial revolution

Though the European countries were getting wealthier, the labourers who actually produced goods were living in deplorable conditions. As more and more people were flocking to the cities from villages in search of job opportunities, there was a gross dearth of accommodation. The workers were forced to live in small, dingy houses which also led to the spread of communicable diseases. Many people died because of fatal diseases like cholera, plague and typhoid. Small children of your age were also made to work in the factories. The working hours were long, salaries were very less and there were no holidays. The air was filled with black smoke from the factories chimneys and the pollution was at its peak causing huge damage to the environment.

Important inventions during the first industrial revolution and their inventors

Inventors Inventions Year
James Watt First Reliable Steam Engine 1775
Samuel F. B. Morse Telegraph 1836
Elias Howe Sewing Machine 1846
Isaac Singer Improves on Howe’s Sewing Machine 1851
Werner von Siemens Electric Dynamo 1866
John Macadam Safer roads with stones 1820
James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny 1770
Samuel Crompton Spinning Machine 1779

How many industrial revolutions have we had?

1. THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

As we just read, the first industrial revolution spanned from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. It witnessed the appearance of mechanisation that replaced agriculture with industry. Non – renewable sources of energy like coal and iron were the heroes that facilitated this change. Important events were the invention of the steam engine, development of railroads, acceleration of trade, and birth of the first factories and cities as we know them today.

2. THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION – 1870

At the end of the 19th century, new sources of energy like electricity, gas and oil surfaced and initiated the second industrial revolution. The steel industry began to develop and grow. Chemical synthesis also developed and introduced us to different synthetic fabrics, dyes and fertilizers. The invention of better means of communication like the telegraph, the telephone and advanced means of transportation like automobiles and planes also came into existence.

3. THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION – 1969

In the latter half of the 20th century, a third industrial revolution appeared with the advent of nuclear energy. This revolution saw the rise of electronics such as transistors and microprocessors, and computers. The modernisation of technology led to the production of miniaturised material which played an important part in furthering space research and biotechnology.

4. THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION – Current

The fourth industrial revolution is taking place before our eyes. Its origin lies in the emergence of the Internet which has helped us to create a new virtual world from which we can manoeuvre the physical world. There is a growing concern about the environment and factories of tomorrow will hopefully be powered by renewable sources of energy such as wind, sun and geothermal energy. That would be great, right?

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Srinivasa Ramanujan Biography http://mocomi.com/srinivasa-ramanujan/ http://mocomi.com/srinivasa-ramanujan/#comments Wed, 25 Oct 2017 09:29:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97028 Ramanujan’s early years Srinivasa Ramanujan was one of the most famous mathematical wizards who made important contributions to the field of advanced mathematics. Srinivasa Ramanujan was born on 22 December, 1887, to a poor Brahmin family in Erode, a small village in Tamil Nadu, India. He grew up in Kumbakonam town, near Chennai, where his […]

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Srinivasa Ramanujan Biography

Ramanujan’s early years

Srinivasa Ramanujan was one of the most famous mathematical wizards who made important contributions to the field of advanced mathematics. Srinivasa Ramanujan was born on 22 December, 1887, to a poor Brahmin family in Erode, a small village in Tamil Nadu, India.

He grew up in Kumbakonam town, near Chennai, where his father was employed as a clerk in a cloth merchant’s shop. He was an exceptionally good student and won a number of merit certificates and awards. He loved Mathematics more than any other subject.

Once, when he was just in his middle school classes, he mathematically calculated the approximate length of the equator. He also very clearly knew the values of the square root of two and value of pi!

Srinivasa Ramanujan – Education and work

  • At the age of 16, he got a scholarship for his first year at the Government College in his hometown. His deep interest in Mathematics led him to neglect other subjects because of which he was not able to clear his examinations and had to forgo his scholarship. After dropping out of college, he had to struggle a lot to earn his living.
  • However, it did not dampen Ramanujan’s spirits and he continued to work on problems and theorems. He bought a book authored by G. S. Carr which contained over 5000 problems. He worked and reworked all the problems and theorems and made new discoveries. He also found a job as an accounts clerk in the office of the Madras Port Trust.
  • Then, he got in touch with V. Ramaswamy Aiyer, the founder of the Indian Mathematical Society. With his help, Ramanujan got his paper on Bernoulli numbers published in the ‘Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society’ in 1911. Soon, he became a quite popular in Chennai for his prowess in Mathematics.
  • In 1913, he casually wrote to the well-known Cambridge mathematician, G. H. Hardy, and told him about his work. Hardy was mighty impressed with Ramanujan’s works and assisted him in getting a grant from Trinity College, Cambridge.
  • Ramanujan moved abroad and started to work in collaboration with Hardy, but his health started failing. Despite poor health, he remained engrossed in his research and study of newer vistas in mathematics. In 1916, he graduated from Cambridge with a Bachelor of Science by Research.
  • In 1920, he moved back to India and left for his heavenly abode.

What is Srinivasa Ramanujan famous for?

  • Despite having almost no formal training in Mathematics, Ramanujan’s knowledge of the subject-matter was astounding. Without the knowledge of the modern developments in the subject, he had made some important contributions to the field of mathematical analysis, number theory, game theory, infinite series and continued fractions.
  • He was a luminary who rose to great heights from a humble background and followed his heart against the odds in his way. His innovative ideas and vision still serve as a great resource for modern mathematicians.

The Man Who Knew Infinity

In the honour of Ramanujan, December 22 is now celebrated as the National Mathematics Day in India. His biography titled ‘The Man Who Knew Infinity‘ was published in 1991 and a movie based on him starring Dev Patel was also shown at the 2015 Toronto Film Festival.

Famous quotes by Srinivasa Ramanujan

  1. An equation means nothing to me unless it expresses a thought of God.
  2. I have not trodden through a conventional university course, but I am striking out a new path for myself. I have made a special investigation of divergent series in general and the results I get are termed by the local mathematicians as “startling.”
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What is scattering of light? http://mocomi.com/scattering-of-light/ http://mocomi.com/scattering-of-light/#comments Tue, 24 Oct 2017 06:11:27 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96983 Scattering is the phenomenon by which a beam of light is redirected in many different directions when it interacts with a particle of matter. What is the difference between scattering of light and just normal reflection? Scattering occurs when a particle of light is fully absorbed and then emitted, while reflection is when a wave/particle […]

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What is scattering of light?

Scattering is the phenomenon by which a beam of light is redirected in many different directions when it interacts with a particle of matter.

What is the difference between scattering of light and just normal reflection?

Scattering occurs when a particle of light is fully absorbed and then emitted, while reflection is when a wave/particle is simply reflected off the surface without interacting.

What is the difference between scattering of light and just normal refraction?

Refraction is the bending of light as it crosses different transparent/translucent mediums, and doesn’t experience any change except it bends. In scattering, light experiences a change in its properties.

How does light scattering work?

When light experiences particles on its path, it is scattered by the particles, it encounters. The intensity of the scattered light depends on the size of the particles and the wavelength of the light.

Light scattering theory

According to Rayleigh theory, a theoretical description of light scattering involving particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light, makes the sky blue.

When light meets a molecule smaller than its wavelength, the electric fields temporarily polarise the molecule, re-distributing the electrons in the molecule such that one end has a weak positive charge, and the other has a weak negative charge. This separation of charges is called a dipole moment. As the oscillating electric fields interact with the molecule, the molecule’s dipole moment oscillates and the molecule re-radiates the light in all directions.

Rayleigh scattering can be considered to be elastic scattering since the photon energies of the scattered photons do not change.

Molecules with larger sizes than the wavelength of the light , experience scatter differently. They experience what is known as the Mie Effect. Since the particles are bigger, the light appears white. This is why clouds, which are made of droplets of water appear white.

These principles are sometimes used to calculate molecular mass.

Why do shorter wavelengths scatter more?

Shorter wavelengths and higher frequency scatter more because, the more wavy the line, the more chances it has of intersecting with a particle. Longer wavelengths have lower frequency and so have less chances as they are straighter and chances of colliding or intersecting with a particle is less.

Why is the sky blue?

The colour of the sky is blue because of the shorter wavelength and the length of the path. The colour of the sky changes as the path distance changes.

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What is a Chromosome? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-chromosome/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-chromosome/#comments Wed, 18 Oct 2017 09:39:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=97008 Definition of Chromosome The word chromosomes is derived from two words, Chroma, meaning colour and Soma, meaning body. This is because when they were first discovered, they had used very strong colour dyes to detect them. What are chromosomes made of? They are thread like structures, located inside the nucleus of cells of both plants […]

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What is a Chromosome?

Definition of Chromosome

The word chromosomes is derived from two words, Chroma, meaning colour and Soma, meaning body. This is because when they were first discovered, they had used very strong colour dyes to detect them.

What are chromosomes made of?

They are thread like structures, located inside the nucleus of cells of both plants and animals. Each chromosome is made of protein and single molecule of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). DNAs are responsible for carrying forward the genetic make up of an individual plant or animals and so the species.

In humans, animals, and plants, most chromosomes are arranged in pairs within the nucleus of a cell. Humans have 22 of these chromosome pairs, called autosomes.

What does a chromosome structure look like?

  • Chromosomes tend to show up only when the cell is undergoing cell division.
  • Chromosomes are made of DNA that are tightly coiled around positively charged proteins called histones. This is to condense the DNA material.
  • On each chromosome, there is a constriction point known as the centromere, that separates into four arms. The centromere plays an important role in the overall shape of the chromosome and can be used to locate a specific gene. Short arms are called p arms and long arms are called q arms. This gives the chromosome an X like appearance.
  • Studies have shown that chromosomes without centromeres, segregate randomly, are eventually lost from cells. On the other hand that have multiple centromeres tend to fragment, causing genetic mutations and disorders.

4 Types of chromosomes

1. Metacentric Chromosome

Metacentric chromosomes have the centromere in the center, such that both sections are of equal length. Human chromosome 1 and 3 are metacentric.

2. Submetacentric Chromosome

Submetacentric chromosomes have the centromere slightly offset from the center leading to a slight asymmetry in the length of the two sections. Human chromosomes 4 through 12 are submetacentric.

3. Acrocentric Chromosome

Acrocentric chromosomes have a centromere which is severely offset from the center leading to one very long and one very short section. Human chromosomes 13,15, 21, and 22 are acrocentric.

4. Telocentric Chromosome

Telocentric chromosomes have the centromere at the very end of the chromosome. Humans do not possess telocentric chromosomes but they are found in other species such as mice.

How many chromosomes does a human cell have?

  • Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, making a total of 46 chromosomes. Of these, 22 pairs are called autosomes and look the same in both male and female humans.
  • In females, the 23rd pair has two X shaped chromosomes.
  • In males, the 23rd pair has one X and one Y chromosome.
  • The sex or the reproductive cells, the gametes, have 23 chromosomes out of which the sperm cell will carry an X or a Y chromosome. The egg will carry 23 chromosomes, out of which the 23rd will be an X. This is a haploid cell.
  • On fertilization of the egg, depending on the 23rd chromosome, the gender of the zygote is decided. The zygote will carry 46 chromosomes. This is known as a diploid cell.

Why are chromosomes so important?

Chromosomes are important to ensure that when cell duplicate or undergo cell division, to produce new cells, they carry the genetic information accurately to the next generation of cells, and hence the organism. This keeps the genetic information intact and is important to keep the species alive. It is also important for cells of organs to regenerate.

What is a chromatid?

A chromatid is one of the replicated copies of a chromosome. Identical sister chromatids are produced as a result of DNA replication.

In contrast, homologous chromosomes are derived from either the mother or the father of the organism. Although they contain the same set of genes, they usually have genetic differences.

Do bacteria and viruses have chromosomes?

  • Bacteria and virus have simplified chromosome structures.
  • In bacteria or prokaryotes, the chromosome is dispersed within the cell and is not enclosed by a separate membrane. It is called a nucleoid. It is also common for bacterial species to have to possess extrachromosomal genetic elements called plasmids. Plasmids play a major role in drug/antibiotic resistance and hence spread of bacteria borne diseases.
  • Virus on the other hand have very basic, fragments of genetic material inside the protein coat or shell. The shell is called capsid.
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What is Ohm’s Law? http://mocomi.com/what-is-ohms-law/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-ohms-law/#comments Wed, 18 Oct 2017 06:00:06 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96991 Definition of Ohm’s law Ohm’s Law is the mathematical relationship between electric current, resistance and voltage. Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor, between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. The principle is named after the German scientist Georg Simon Ohm. Ohm’s Law formula The formula for […]

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What is Ohm's Law?

Definition of Ohm’s law

Ohm’s Law is the mathematical relationship between electric current, resistance and voltage.

Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor, between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

The principle is named after the German scientist Georg Simon Ohm.

Ohm’s Law formula

The formula for Ohm’s Law is as follows:

V = IR

where

V is Voltage
I is Current
R is Resistance

How does Ohm’s Law work?

A continuous flow of free electrons, through the conductors of a circuit is called current. An electric circuit is formed when a conductive path is created to allow the free electrons to continously move.

The force that is motivating the flow of electrons is called voltage. It is a specific measure of potential energy that is always relative between two points.

Free electrons tend to move through conductors with some degree of friction, or opposition to motion. This opposition to movements of free electrons is called resistance.

Using this Law, we are able to analyse electric circuits. If you know any two values, you can analyse the third one. Sometimes electric circuits are complicated, but this equation is so important, it solves those complicated circuit values as well. It is applied in almost all circuit studies.

Practical application of Ohm’s Law

  1. Ohm’s Law is used in electrical heaters to generate heat. The conductor is designed to create resistance to the flow of free electrons and so the resistance creates heat.
  2. Ceiling and other fans, use Ohm’s Law as well. The speed is regulated using Ohm’s Law application.
  3. Light Bulbs emit light using Ohm’s Law

Here is a simple, fun exercise. Walk around your house and see which object uses Ohm’s Law! Make a list and compare it with your friends. Have fun!

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Simple Interest and Compound Interest http://mocomi.com/simple-interest-and-compound-interest/ http://mocomi.com/simple-interest-and-compound-interest/#comments Tue, 17 Oct 2017 12:04:36 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96998 What is interest? Interest is the rate at which money is borrowed. It is used in accounting and by banks and people who lend money. It is calculated by using a set percentage, generally pre-determined or decided by the party that is lending the money. The borrowed money is called Principal Amount. When we borrow […]

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Simple Interest and Compound Interest

What is interest?

  • Interest is the rate at which money is borrowed. It is used in accounting and by banks and people who lend money. It is calculated by using a set percentage, generally pre-determined or decided by the party that is lending the money.
  • The borrowed money is called Principal Amount. When we borrow and then pay back, we pay back the Principal Amount plus the additional Interest Amount, which has been calculated.
  • The person borrowing the money is called a Borrower.
  • The person giving the money is called a Lender.
  • Interest is calculated as either Simple Interest or Compound Interest. And all banks or people who loan money use this.

What is simple interest?

Simple Interest is rate of interest calculated only on the principal amount, or on that portion of the principal amount that remains. It excludes the effect of compounding. Simple interest can be applied over a time period other than a year, for example every month or week, even every day.

Simple interest formula –

Simple Interest =

P x R x T
__________
100
where

  • P is the Principal Amount
  • R is the Rate of Interest
  • T is the Time

This type of interest usually applies to automobile loans or short-term loans, although some mortgages use this calculation method.

What is compound interest?

Compound Interest is the addition of interest to the principal amount of a loan or deposit, or in other words, interest on interest. It is the result of re-investing interest, rather than paying it out, so that interest in the next period is then earned on the principal sum plus previously-accumulated interest. Compound Interest is standard in finance and economics.

Compound interest formula –

Compound Interest (A) = P(1 + R/n)nT

A = the future value of the investment/loan, including interest
P = the principal investment amount (the initial deposit or loan amount)
R = the annual interest rate (decimal)
n = the number of times that interest is compounded per year
T= the number of years the money is invested or borrowed for

Have fun solving these simple interest exercises!

1. How much time will it take to yield Rs. 8892/- on Rs. 28,500/-, if the rate of interest is 7.8 percent?
Ans :

  • 2.5 years
  • 4 years
  • 2.3 years
  • 3 years

Correct Answer: 4 years
2. What is the amount of interest paid on Rs. 5432/- for 2.8 years, at 9 percent?

Ans :

  • Rs. 610/- per annum
  • Rs. 1030/- per annum
  • Rs. 1368/- per annum
  • Rs. 980/- per annum

Correct Answer: Rs. 1368/- per annum

Have fun solving these compound interest problems!

1. What is the time period if the calculated compound interest is Rs. 7299/- on a principal amount of Rs. 6285/-?

Ans :

  • 6 years
  • 3 years
  • 5 years
  • 4 years

Correct Answer: 3 years

2. What is the per annum percentage of compound interest calculated if the principal amount is Rs. 17,852 and the amount returned is Rs. 27938/- after 5 years.

Ans :

  • 5 %
  • 7%
  • 9%
  • 8%

Correct Answer: 3. 9%

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Thomas Edison Biography http://mocomi.com/thomas-edison/ http://mocomi.com/thomas-edison/#comments Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:07:18 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96970 Early life Thomas Alva Edison has been described as America’s greatest inventors. He was born on February 11, 1847, in Milan, Ohio and he grew up in Port Michigan. He was the youngest of seven children of Samuel and Nancy Edison. His father was an exiled political activist from Canada, while his mother was an […]

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Thomas Edison Biography

Early life

Thomas Alva Edison has been described as America’s greatest inventors. He was born on February 11, 1847, in Milan, Ohio and he grew up in Port Michigan. He was the youngest of seven children of Samuel and Nancy Edison. His father was an exiled political activist from Canada, while his mother was an accomplished school teacher and a major influence in Thomas’ early life.

An early bout with scarlet fever and ear infections left Thomas Edison with hearing difficulties and nearly deaf. He was a hyperactive child and so he attended school only for a few months and was instead taught by his mother.

The young entrepreneur

As a young child, he sold newspapers, candy and vegetables on the railroads. He even printed and sold his own newspaper, called the Grand Trunk Herald.

In 1866, at the age of 19, Thomas Edison moved to Louiseville, Kentucky, where, as an employee of Western Union, he worked the Associated Press bureau news wire. Edison worked the night shift, while he followed up on his two passions, reading and experimenting.

Wives and children

He married one of his employees, Mary Stilwell, and during their 13 year marriage, they had three children, Marion, Thomas and William, who also became an inventor. In 1884, Mary died at the age of 29 of a suspected brain tumour.

In 1886, Edison married Mina Miller, 19 years his junior. They also had three children, Madeleine, Charles and Theodore. Mina outlived Edison dying on 24th August, 1947.

Inventing years

One of the most prolific inventors of all time, Thomas Edison, created, and invented an impressive amount of objects we use in our everyday life. Apart from being an inventor, Edison also managed to become a successful manufacturer and businessman, marketing his inventions to the public.

His gift to early modern research were two huge laboratory facilities, Menlo Park and West Orange Laboratory, where some of his biggest and famous inventions were designed and discovered, including vacuum tube electronics. These became model of other research facilities.

At the time of his death on October 18, 1931, he had amassed a record 1093 patents covering innovations in telecommunications, electric power, sound recording, motion pictures, mining and cement technology.

Thomas Edison’s most famous inventions

His major contributions to the field of science and technology were the :

  1. Telegraph
  2. phonograph where Edison recorded ‘Mary had a Little Lamb!’
  3. first commercially incandescent electric bulb
  4. alkaline storage batteries and a kinetograph (a camera for motion pictures)
  5. including several research projects for the United States Government including submarines, ships and other equipments
  6. early stages of today’s wireless technology, known as the Edison Effect

5 Famous quotes by Thomas Edison

  1. Be courageous! Whatever setbacks America has encountered, it has always emerged as a stronger and more prosperous nation…Be brave as your fathers before you. Have faith and go forward.
  2. I never perfected an invention that I did not think about in terms of the service it might give others… I find out what the world needs, then I proceed to invent.
  3. When you have exhausted all possibilities, remember this: you haven’t.
  4. To have a great idea, have a lot of them.
  5. What you are will show in what you do.
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Why is oral health important? http://mocomi.com/why-is-oral-health-important/ http://mocomi.com/why-is-oral-health-important/#comments Fri, 13 Oct 2017 11:27:30 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96931 Why is it so important to take care of your teeth? Taking care of your teeth since childhood goes a long way. You will thank yourself when you could enjoy a piece of chocolate or any delicious fruit even at the age of 70 yrs. Here are some easy ways to improve your oral health […]

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Why is oral health important?

Why is it so important to take care of your teeth?

Taking care of your teeth since childhood goes a long way. You will thank yourself when you could enjoy a piece of chocolate or any delicious fruit even at the age of 70 yrs.

Here are some easy ways to improve your oral health

  1. Brush your teeth along with the gum line twice a day with an ADA (accepted fluoride toothpaste) to remove plaque – the sticky film on teeth which is the main cause of tooth decay.
  2. Eat a well-balanced diet that limits starchy or sugary foods, which produce plaque acids that cause tooth decay.
  3. Drink plenty of water.
  4. Limit sugary foods which contribute towards the tooth decay.
  5. Have regular visits to the dentist.
  6. Wear a mouth-guard during contact sports or activities where there is risk of injury to the face.
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What is an Exponent? http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-exponent/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-exponent/#comments Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:50:08 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96934 Definition of exponent An Exponent is a number that states how many times the base number is to be used in multiplication. The Exponent Number appears on the top right of the base number as a small number. Basic exponent rules 55 means 5×5. The smaller number 2 is the Exponent and denotes the number […]

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What is an Exponent?

Definition of exponent

An Exponent is a number that states how many times the base number is to be used in multiplication. The Exponent Number appears on the top right of the base number as a small number.

Basic exponent rules

  • 55 means 5×5. The smaller number 2 is the Exponent and denotes the number of times 5 needs to be multiplied.
  • So instead of writing 2x2x2 we can simply write 23
  • The Exponent way is much shorter and easier to write an and comes in handy when you need to solve big equations. Exponents are also known as Index or Power.
  • Thus we can say that tells you to multiply ‘a’ by itself ‘n’ number of times.

Example: 35 = 3x3x3x3x3= 243

Properties of exponents

Suppose A = 1 or 0 exponent

  • If the Exponent is 1 then you have the number itself. Example: = 91 = 9
  • If the Exponent is 0 then you get 1. Example: 50 = 1
  • If both the Number and the Exponent is zero 00 then the result is indeterminate.

Negative Exponents

A Negative Exponent is just the opposite of Multiplication, that is Division.
So, 5-1
Is basically 1/52 = 1/25= 0.04
A negative exponent means how many times you need to divide 1 by the number.
Example: 6-3 = 1/= 0.0046

Grouping exponents with signs

In order to avoid confusions, use Parenthesis like () brackets.

There is a difference:

  • With brackets: (ab)2 = (ab)x(ab)
  • Without brackets: ab2 = axbxb

Example:

  • -22 = (-2)X(-2)= 4
  • -22 = -(2)2 = -4

Special exponents:

  • When a number has an Exponent of 2, it is called Squared.
  • When a number has an Exponent of 3, it is called Cubed.

Special cases:

Example : 52 x 53

  • Is same as 5 to the power of 2+3 or 52
  • So when the bases are same you can add the exponents during Multiplication.

Example:

  • This is the same as 3 to the power of 4×2 or 32
  • This is the case of exponent on top of an Exponent and here we multiply the Exponents.

Worksheet on exponents

1. Write the expression using exponents:
a) 56 x 56 x 56
b) 1.8×1.8×1.8×1.8×1.8×1.8
c) (-2)x(-2)x(-2)x(-2)

Ans: 563; 1.83; -24

2. Solve the following exponents:
a) 103
b) 04
c) 26
d) 18

Ans: 1000; 0; 64; 1

3. Solve the following equations:
a) -(1/2)5
b) -0.52
c) -1.23
d) -(5/2)3

Ans: 1/32;  0.25;  1.2;  125/8

4. Solve the equations:
a) 10-3
b) 3-2
c) 5-4
d) 1-1

Ans: 1/1000;  1/9;  1/625;  1

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Types of Objects in English http://mocomi.com/types-of-objects/ http://mocomi.com/types-of-objects/#comments Thu, 12 Oct 2017 11:01:42 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96916 What is a subject? We all know about a subject in English grammar. A subject is a person, place, thing or an idea that the sentence is talking about. This subject performs an action which we know as the verb. Examples: Mona played. Ritu ate. Here Mona and Ritu are subjects, while played and ate […]

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Types of Objects in English

What is a subject?

We all know about a subject in English grammar. A subject is a person, place, thing or an idea that the sentence is talking about. This subject performs an action which we know as the verb.

Examples:

  • Mona played.
  • Ritu ate.
  • Here Mona and Ritu are subjects, while played and ate are the verbs or actions respectively.
  • Mona played with a doll.
  • Rita ate an apple.
  • Here, doll and apple are the objects.

What is an object?

An object is a person or a thing that receives the action of the verb. An object is a noun or a pronoun or a noun phrase that is affected by the action verb. It also completes a sentence.

Find the objects in these sentences:

  • The boys are playing with kites.
  • They are clicking pictures.
  • Ria is reading a book.

What are the different types of objects?

There are two types of objects – direct and indirect objects

What is a direct object?

A direct object answers the questions ‘what’ or ‘whom’. The noun object follows the transitive verb and completes the sentence.
Sam wrote a letter.
Here it answers the questions ‘what’ so letter is the object.

Examples:

  • Pooh collected honey all day.
  • Here honey becomes the object.
  • Tim brought his friend to the cricket match.
  • Here it answers ‘whom’ so friend becomes the direct object.

What is an indirect object?

An indirect object answers the questions ‘to whom’, ‘for whom’, ‘to what’ and ‘for what’. Here the indirect object always comes before the verb and the direct object.

Examples:

  • He bought his daughter a scooter.
  • It answers the question ‘for whom’ so ‘his daughter’ is the Indirect object.
  • Raju sent Mani a lovely postcard.
  • It answers the question ‘to whom’ so Mani is the Indirect object here.

Usage of direct objects in a paragraph

Shivali held her diary tightly. In the other hand she had a spatula. She wanted to hit the spider but could not find the courage.

Usage of indirect objects in a paragraph

Mr. Mehta opened his wallet and gave the shopkeeper the money. He had bought milk for his white cat. It was a cold night and he had to heat it for the cat.

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What is Graham’s Law? http://mocomi.com/what-is-grahams-law/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-grahams-law/#comments Wed, 11 Oct 2017 11:04:17 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96896 What is Graham’s Law of Diffusion and Effusion? In1829, Thomas Graham, a Scottish Chemist formulated the Graham’s Law of the Diffusion and Effusion of Gases. According to this Law, the rate of Diffusion of different gases, at a constant temperature, is inversely proportional to the square root of its density. Formula for Graham’s Law of […]

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What is Graham's Law?

What is Graham’s Law of Diffusion and Effusion?

In1829, Thomas Graham, a Scottish Chemist formulated the Graham’s Law of the Diffusion and Effusion of Gases. According to this Law, the rate of Diffusion of different gases, at a constant temperature, is inversely proportional to the square root of its density.

Formula for Graham’s Law of Diffusion and Effusion

r ∝ 1/(M)½

where,

r = rate of diffusion or effusion
M = molar mass

The Molar Mass tells you the number of grams per mole of a compound. The units for molar mass is grams/mole. It indicates the number of atoms, ions, molecules, or formula units present in a particular chemical.

3 Fun facts about Graham’s Law

  1. Our noses can smell because of Graham’s Law. Graham’s Law determines what we smell faster. Some gases travel faster and some gases travel slower.
  2. Respiration in all living things is based on Graham’s Law, including respiration through skin or lungs.
  3. You would have noticed balloons lose air from them slowly, even if they haven’t burst? This is because of Diffusion of Gases.

What is the Ideal or Universal Gas Law?

According to the Universal or Ideal Gas Law, the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature for a fixed mass (quantity) of gas is as follows:

  1. If temperature and pressure are kept constant, then the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules of gas.
  2. If the temperature and volume remain constant, then the pressure of the gas changes directly proportional to the number of molecules of gas present.
  3. If the number of gas molecules and the temperature remain constant, then the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume.
  4. If the temperature changes and the number of gas molecules are kept constant, then either pressure or volume (or both) will change in direct proportion to the temperature.

Formula for the Universal or Ideal Gas Law

The formula for the Universal Gas or the Ideal Gas Law is :

PV = nRT

where,

p is pressure
V is volume
n is the number of moles
R is the universal gas constant
T is temperature (K)

The Universal or Ideal Gas Law can be derived from the Kinetic Molecular Theory.

What is Kinetic Molecular Theory?

Kinetic Molecular Theory shows us how individual gas molecules behave or interact with one another.

According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory :

  1. Molecules are point masses (they have no volume)
  2. Gas molecules exert no force on each other unless they collide
  3. Collisions of molecules with each other or the walls of the container do not decrease the energy of the system
  4. The molecules of a gas are in constant and random motion
  5. The temperature of a gas depends on its average kinetic energy, that is, the energy of an ideal gas is entirely kinetic.
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Elasticity vs Plasticity http://mocomi.com/elasticity-vs-plasticity/ http://mocomi.com/elasticity-vs-plasticity/#comments Tue, 10 Oct 2017 12:39:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96849 All of you would have heard the terms ‘plastic’ and ‘elastic’. Do you know that ‘plastic’ and ‘elastic’ are also important scientific terms that are used to describe the properties of materials such as rubber, plastic, metal, etc? What is elasticity? In Physics, when an external force is applied to the surface of any material, […]

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Elasticity vs Plasticity

All of you would have heard the terms ‘plastic’ and ‘elastic’. Do you know that ‘plastic’ and ‘elastic’ are also important scientific terms that are used to describe the properties of materials such as rubber, plastic, metal, etc?

What is elasticity?

In Physics, when an external force is applied to the surface of any material, the material goes through a physical change or deformation. When the force is removed, the material, depending on its properties, may or may not return to its original shape. Now, if the material returns to its original shape, it is said to be elastic in nature, and this property is known as ‘elasticity’.

What is plasticity?

On the other hand, if the material does not regain its original shape, it is said to be plastic in nature, and this property is known as ‘plasticity’.

What kind of materials are known as elastic and plastic materials?

Elastic material:

One of the most common examples of elasticity is a rubber band. You can easily stretch it to a length many times its original one, but when you release it, it returns to its original shape. The balloons that you use in your birthday parties are again made of rubber, which is an elastic material. Even those stretchable jeans and shirts that you wear are made of an elastic material, mostly spandex which is a stretchable fiber.

Plastic material:

The bending of a steel rod upon applying force is an example of plasticity. Once bent, it cannot come back to its original position.

What happens when force is applied to a body?

When an external force is applied to a body, the body tends to break. This happens because the distance between the atoms inside it, increases and each atom tries to pull its neighboring atom closer to itself. The pull between the atoms creates a force inside the body that tries to resist the deformation. This force is called strain, and the deforming force on the body is known as stress. The resistance of a material to elastic deformation or deflection is called stiffness. Also, there is a limit to the force which a body can resist without breaking. This limit is called the elastic limit of a body.

Difference between plasticity and elasticity

Plasticity

Elasticity

Process

It is an irreversible process.

It is a reversible process.

Ductility

Plastic materials are highly ductile in nature.

Elastic materials are less ductile in nature.

Shape and size

The shape and size of materials change permanently in this process.

The shape and size of materials does not change permanently

Example

Plastic

Rubber

Hooke’s Law and elasticity

Hooke’s Law proposes that the amount of elongation of a spring is directly proportional to the force that is acting on it. Springs and every elastic material require an application of some force to stretch it. The force required to stretch an elastic material depends on the stiffness of the material, and is known as the ‘Young’s modulus’ or ‘elastic modulus.

In other words, Young’s modulus is a measure of the flexibility of a given material. With the help of Young’s modulus, engineers and scientists can calculate and understand the behavior of a material under load. For example, it can be used to foretell how much a wire will extend under tension, or to predict the load at which a thin column will give away under compression.

Young’s modulus is constant over a range of strains. Such materials are called linear. Examples of linear materials include Steel, Carbon Fiber and Glass.
Rubber is a non – linear material.

Uses of plasticity in the metal industry

The metal industry takes advantage of the plastic properties of materials by making them undergo some degree of permanent deformation without rupture or failure. Almost all materials including metals, plastics, soils, rocks and concrete undergo plastic deformations. Heat and pressure are commonly used to shape these materials into the desired form. This is done in a carefully controlled environment so that the objects do not beak apart. Metals like copper, silver, steel and gold have greater plastic deformation ranges. Materials like rubber, crystals and ceramics have the least plastic deformation ranges.

5 Interesting facts about elasticity

  1. A steel bar or wire can be extended only around 1 percent of its original length, while in case of rubberlike materials, we can get elastic extensions of up to 1,000 percent also.
  2. When force is applied on a given body, the bonds between the atoms inside it break leading to deformations. Elastic materials like rubber have long-chain molecules that uncoil because of which it gets extended and gets back into shape when they recoil.
  3. Rubber can be stretched three times its original size.
  4. Your hairs have elastic properties too. A single strand of hair can hold 100 grams of weight without breaking!!
  5. Young’s modulus is represented by the alphabet E. The higher this value is, the stiffer the material is!!
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What is Charles’ Law? http://mocomi.com/what-is-charles-law/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-charles-law/#comments Mon, 09 Oct 2017 09:08:06 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96800 Charles’ Law of Ideal Gases Charles’ Law of Ideal gases is named after Jacques Charles, who formulated the original law. An ideal gas maybe defined as a theoretical gas composed of molecules on which no forces act, except upon collision with one another and with the walls of the container in which the gas is […]

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What is Charles' Law?

Charles’ Law of Ideal Gases

Charles’ Law of Ideal gases is named after Jacques Charles, who formulated the original law.

An ideal gas maybe defined as a theoretical gas composed of molecules on which no forces act, except upon collision with one another and with the walls of the container in which the gas is enclosed.

It is a gas which perfectly follows Boyle’s Law.

Charles’ Law is a special case of the ideal gas law. It states that the volume of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature. This law applies to ideal gases held at a constant pressure, where only the volume and temperature are allowed to change.

What is the formula for Charles’ Law?

V/T = k,

where V is the volume of gas, T is the temperature of gas (measured in kelvins) and k is a constant.

According to this formula, at a fixed pressure, the volume of a gas is proportional, to the temperature of the gas. As the temperature increases, the volume of the gas also increases.

6 Facts about Charles’ Law

  1. Jacques Charles, who formulated Charles’ Law of Ideal Gases, is also the inventor of the first hydrogen gas balloon, which made its first flight in August, 1783.
  2. On heating up a fixed mass of gas, that is, increasing the temperature, the volume also increases. Similarly, on cooling, the volume of the gas decreases.
  3. Air conditioners and Fans function using Charles’ Law. Hot air rises up and cold air comes down. Fans function on revolving the air, where as air conditioners also give off a blast of cold air from compressed coolants.
  4. Breads and cakes also use Charles’ Law of Ideal Gases. Carbon dioxide trapped in fermented dough, expands on baking and causes fluffy breads and cakes.
  5. If you keep aerosol and deodrant spray cans in sunlight, they can burst. Compressed gases will expand when the temperature inside the cans increases.
  6. Steam engines and car combustion engines also work on the principle that gases expand as temperatures increase. Charles Law is used to apply mechanical movements in these engines.
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English is the official language of the sky! http://mocomi.com/english-is-the-official-language-of-the-sky/ http://mocomi.com/english-is-the-official-language-of-the-sky/#comments Fri, 06 Oct 2017 13:43:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96779 Emma: Hey Em! How was your trip to Dubai? I want to know everything about it. Em: It was so much fun. I did not want to come back. Emma: So did you learn some Arabic words? Em: Not really! Everyone seemed to understand and speak English. We heard some Arabic during the flight but […]

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English is the official language of the sky!

Emma: Hey Em! How was your trip to Dubai? I want to know everything about it.

Em: It was so much fun. I did not want to come back.

Emma: So did you learn some Arabic words?

Em: Not really! Everyone seemed to understand and speak English. We heard some Arabic during the flight but it was soon spoken in English as well.

Emma: Well, English does seem to be the official language all over the world. Plus, English is the official language of the sky! It doesn’t matter which country they are from, all pilots speak in English on international flights.

Em: Yeah? So even if I go to… say… Africa?

Emma: Of course silly! English is the language that is understood and learnt by almost everyone, all over the world.

Why English is considered the language of the skies?

Reason: That’s true. These days the skies are so busy that accurate communication is most important. Communication lapses and errors can occur if different languages are used for different zones. So, English is officially used in the aviation industry worldwide to avoid any miscommunication.

Em: That makes so much sense. Imagine if I pilot a plane to Africa from India and I communicate with them in Hindi, they wouldn’t understand a thing and may not let me land!

Emma: You got that! Now tell me about your trip and show me all your fun pictures.

Reason: Me too!

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What is Boyle’s Law? http://mocomi.com/what-is-boyles-law/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-boyles-law/#comments Fri, 06 Oct 2017 10:30:46 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96775 Definition of Boyle’s Law Boyle’s Law is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases. It is named after the chemist and physicist Robert Boyle. What does Boyle’s Law state? According to this law : If a fixed amount of ideal […]

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What is Boyle's Law?

Definition of Boyle’s Law

Boyle’s Law is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases. It is named after the chemist and physicist Robert Boyle.

What does Boyle’s Law state?

According to this law : If a fixed amount of ideal gas is kept at a fixed temperature, the pressure (P) and volume (V) are inversely proportional, that is, when one doubles, the other is reduced by half.

What is an ideal gas?

An ideal gas maybe defined as a theoretical gas composed of molecules on which no forces act except upon collision with one another and with the walls of the container in which the gas is enclosed.
It is a gas which perfectly follows Boyle’s Law.

Why is Boyle’s Law important?

Boyle’s Law is important for us to understand how gases behave under pressure.
The practical uses of Boyle’s Law is seen all around us everyday.

Practical applications of Boyle’s Law

  1. Medical syringes use this principle. The plunger creates a space when it is pulled back and reduces the pressure in the tube. The fluid draws up inside the tube, because of this low pressure inside, balancing the pressure inside to pressure outside.
  2. When you climb high altitudes or are in an aeroplane, your ears ‘pop’ or you feel uncomfortable because of a change of pressure in your head. This is because the pressure inside the body is not in balance with the pressure outside which is lower at high altitudes. This is against Boyle’s Law. So your body has to undergo a period of acclimatisation.
  3. Deodrants and other spray cans work on Boyle’s Law. The compressed air, which is in the can, is a liquid because its boiling temperature is lower than room temperature. This gets released as the nozzle is pressed. Once the seal is released, the liquid inside the container expands and becomes a gas. So you get a whiff of your favourite smell, or a coat of paint.
  4. Popular aerated drinks and sodas also use Boyle’s Law. Carbon di oxide gas is mixed with syrups and water to make soft drinks. Mixing Carbon di oxide increases the pressure in the liquid making it fizzy, which is what aerated drinks are about!
  5. Deep sea diving also uses an understanding of Boyle’s Law to acclimatise deep sea divers.
    When deep sea divers go under water, after a certain point, while the pressure in their body is still at sea level, the pressure at deep sea level is high. As the divers descend, pressure inside the body increases along with the fact that they are breathing in compressed air from air tanks. When the divers start their ascent, they have to decompress at different levels to release the pressure and the mixed gases inside them. The different pressures inside and outside, plus the the fact that compressed air starts expanding as the ascent begins can cause air bubbles in between tissues and cells, which can cause severe damage, even death.
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Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals http://mocomi.com/fluid-mechanics/ http://mocomi.com/fluid-mechanics/#comments Thu, 05 Oct 2017 10:26:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96761 What is fluid mechanics? In science, fluids refers to any substance that takes on the shape of its container or continously deforms. Fluid mechanics is the study of gases and liquids at rest and in motion. This area of physics is divided into fluid statics – the study of the behavior of fluids at rest, […]

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Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals

What is fluid mechanics?

In science, fluids refers to any substance that takes on the shape of its container or continously deforms.

Fluid mechanics is the study of gases and liquids at rest and in motion. This area of physics is divided into fluid statics – the study of the behavior of fluids at rest, and fluid dynamics – the study of moving fluids. Fluid dynamics is further divided into hydrodynamics or the study of water flow, and aerodynamics or the study of airflow.

Most problems in the field of fluid dynamics are too complex to be solved just by mathematical calculations. Such problems are solved by numeric methods using computer simulations. This branch of study is called numerical or computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

Real life applications of fluid mechanics

Understanding how fluids behave helps us in understanding the mechanism of flight and water currents. For example, fluid mechanics can be used to understand how aircrafts fly through the air, how ships sail through water and also changes in the weather patterns.

Main principles of fluid dynamics

  • Fluids are the substances that flow when an external force is applied to them.
  • Liquids and gases are both fluids.
  • Fluids do not have a definite shape and they conform to the shape of containers they are poured in.
  • The total force exerted by a liquid at rest on a given surface is called thrust.
  • The SI unit of thrust is newton.
  • A faster, moving fluid has less pressure than a slower, moving fluid.

Archimedes’ principle

If an object is immersed in a fluid, be it a balloon in air or a ship sailing in the ocean, it displaces the fluid, in which it is immersed. The amount of fluid displaced is equivalent to the weight of the object.

When a body is partially or fully immersed in a liquid, an upward force acts on it which is known as buoyancy.

Bernoulli’s principle

In 1738, a famous scientist called Daniel Bernoulli introduced the world to an interesting and important scientific theory. According to it, a fluid moving at a higher speed has lower pressure than a fluid moving at a lower speed. We can use Bernoulli’s principle to measure the speed of a liquid or gas moving in a pipe or over a given surface.

This principle also explains how aircrafts are able to take off from the ground. Because the wing of an aircraft is flat at the bottom and curved on the top, the air has to travel a greater distance along the top surface than along the bottom surface. To do this, air has to go faster over the top, causing its pressure to decrease. This makes a higher-pressure air pocket at the bottom of the aircraft which gives it a lift and makes it airborne.

What is fluid flow?

A fluid in motion is called a flow. It includes a wide range of fluid movement through the air, through a pipe or a channel, or just along a given surface. The flow of a fluid is classified into different types based on the properties of the flow.

Steady vs. Unsteady flow

  • Steady flow – If the movement of a fluid does not change over time, it is termed as a steady flow.
    For example : Water flow out of a tap. Though the flow is unsteady to start with, but with time it becomes steady.
  • Unsteady flow – If the movement of a fluid keeps changing with respect to time, then it is called an unsteady flow.

Different types of fluid flow

  • Laminar flow – A smooth flow of liquid is said to have a laminar flow.
  • Turbulent flow – An unsteady, irregular and chaotic flow is called turbulent flow. This type of flow may contain eddies and vortices etc.
  • Pipe flow – Such type of flow is in contact with rigid boundaries on all sides. One example would be water moving through a pipe or air moving through an air duct.
  • Open-S channel flow – It is a type of flow where there is a minimum of one free surface, not in contact with a rigid boundary. For example – water moving through a river, rain water on the streets, and irrigation canals.

3 Interesting facts about fluid dynamics

  1. Archimedes discovered hydrostatics in about 250 BC. According to a legend, he rushed out of his bath and ran through the streets of Syracuse shouting ‘Eureka!’
  2. It is believed that Bernoulli started studying fluids because he was interested in studying the pressure and flow of blood in the human body.
  3. Most of the universe is made of fluids, including our atmosphere and oceans, planets such as Jupiter, and stars like the Sun as well. Even rocks and metals can become fluid upon heating.
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Earthworm Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/earthworm-facts-and-information/ http://mocomi.com/earthworm-facts-and-information/#comments Wed, 04 Oct 2017 10:36:01 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96750 What is an earthworm? An earthworm is a tube shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. Their body is characterised by this tube within a tube construction. They are found living in soil, feeding on live and dead organic matter. They are known as night crawlers in North America. Earthworms do not live in […]

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Earthworm Facts and Information

What is an earthworm?

An earthworm is a tube shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. Their body is characterised by this tube within a tube construction. They are found living in soil, feeding on live and dead organic matter. They are known as night crawlers in North America.

Earthworms do not live in deserts or extremely cold, permanently frozen regions. Their size ranges from 7 to 8 cms to sometimes almost a foot or so. They are vital to soil health and to plants growing in it because they transport nutrients and minerals from below the earth’s surface through their digestive system.

How are earthworms useful to the environment?

Earthworms form the base of many food chains and are a source of food to numerous birds, rodents, toads and are also used as fish bait in recreational fishing.

They are used in vermiculture, which is feeding organic waste to earthworms to decompose food waste. This particular species is known as the Red Wriggler, and is a compost worm and does not survive in the open.

What are the advantages of Vermiculture?

Vermi – compost is an ecofriendly natural fertilizer prepared from biodegradable organic wastes and is free from chemical additives. Encouraging vermiculture ensures a good supply of vermi – compost.

Vermo – compost makes the soil healthy in nutrient content (marco and micro nutrients) and improves the water retaining capacity of soil, because it is rich in mineral content, both organic and inorganic.

8 Interesting facts about earthworms

    1. Earthworms have no eyes, but they have light receptors, so they can detect between light and dark.
    2. Earthworm sense vibrations from the ground and of other movements of animals and their environment. They do not have ears.
    3. Their nervous system is highly evolved and helps it to survive against predators.
    4. An earthworms’ digestive system is a long tube that extends from its mouth to finally end in the anus. It is divided into the buccal cavity, the pharynx, easophagus, crop, gizzard and intestine and helps it to digest minerals along with plant matter to convert it into nutrients for the soil.
    5. Earthworms do not have special respiratory system and breathe through their skin, which is why their skin is moist.
    6. They are hermaphrodites, that is, they have both male and female sexual organs and do not require to produce a partner.
    7. Because of their well developed muscular system, earthworms can burrow around into the ground and help to turn the soil, which replenishes it, drains and airs it and also increases soil fertility.
    8. Earthworms are considered a delicacy by the Maori tribes of New Zealand.

Related Article:
Click here to understand how earthworms help farmers.

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The White Revolution in India http://mocomi.com/the-white-revolution-in-india/ http://mocomi.com/the-white-revolution-in-india/#comments Tue, 03 Oct 2017 12:46:13 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96737 What is White Revolution? White Revolution was one of the biggest dairy development movements, by the Indian Government, in India in 1970. It was a step taken by the Indian Government to develop and help the dairy industry sustain itself economically by developing a co-operative, while providing employment to the poor farmers. The White Revolution […]

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The White Revolution in India

What is White Revolution?

White Revolution was one of the biggest dairy development movements, by the Indian Government, in India in 1970. It was a step taken by the Indian Government to develop and help the dairy industry sustain itself economically by developing a co-operative, while providing employment to the poor farmers.

The White Revolution helped increase milk productivity and milk was now sold at competitive market prices. This program increased the demand for development and production of healthy animals, use of modern technology in milk production sector and networking between various small and large scale dairy industries.

The White Revolution followed after the success of the Green Revolution and the aim of White Revolution was to make India one of the largest milk producers in the world.

How did the White Revolution start?

The White Revolution, known as Operation Flood, was launched in 1970. It was an initiative by India’s National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and was the world’s biggest dairy development programme. It transformed India from a milk deficient nation into the world’s largest milk producers.

Operation Flood was based on the experimental pattern set up by Verghese Kurien, chairman and founder of AMUL, who was named the Chairman of NDDB and was also recognised as the architect of Operation Flood.

Under Verghese Kurien, the programme created national milk grid linking producers throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and cities, reducing seasonal and regional price variations and ensuring that the milk producers get a major share of the income generated from end consumers, by forming co-operatives.

Father of the White Revolution

Verghese Kurien was the father of the White Revolution. He founded Amul, one of the largest milk producing companies in India. Kurien, along with his friend H. M. Dalaya invented the process of making milk powder and condensed milk from buffalo milk. Many companies were started under his leadership and former Prime Miniter Lal Bahadur Shastri created the National Dairy Development Board based on Amul’s management, resource and infrastructure arrangements.

What were the phases of the White Revolution in India?

Phase 1: This phase started in July 1970 with the objective of setting up dairy cooperatives in 18 milk sheds in 10 states. They were to be linked with the four best metropolitan markets. By the end of this phase in 1981 there were 13,000 village dairy cooperatives covering 15,000 farmers.

Phase 2: It aimed at building on the designs of phase 1 and on the assisted Dairy development programmes in Karnataka, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. By the end of this phase in 1985 there were 136 milk sheds, 34,500 village dairy cooperatives and over 36 lakh members.

Phase 3: This phase emphasised on consolidating the gains of the earlier two phases by improving the productivity and efficiency of the dairy sectors for long term sustainability. It ended in 1996 and by that time there were 73,300 dairy cooperatives and over 9.4 million farmer members.

4 Advantages of White Revolution

  1. It ended the imports of milk solids in India and India started exporting milk powder to many foreign nations.
  2. Dairy industries and infrastructures modernised and expanded. Around 10 million farmers earn their income from dairy farming.
  3. Dairy needs are met locally.
  4. Genetic improvement of milking animals has increased due to cross breeding.
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Why does time seem to pass at different speeds? http://mocomi.com/why-does-time-seem-to-pass-at-different-speeds/ http://mocomi.com/why-does-time-seem-to-pass-at-different-speeds/#comments Fri, 29 Sep 2017 12:30:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96603 Time has always fascinated man. Early civilisations first divided the day based on light and dark. They constructed sun dials to calculate the movement of the sun and hence time. As thinking and understanding progressed, days were divided into hours and minutes and seconds, even nano seconds. But did you think, how time sometimes goes […]

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Why does time seem to pass at different speeds?

Time has always fascinated man. Early civilisations first divided the day based on light and dark. They constructed sun dials to calculate the movement of the sun and hence time. As thinking and understanding progressed, days were divided into hours and minutes and seconds, even nano seconds.

But did you think, how time sometimes goes by really fast or really slow? And how you cannot measure it in hours or minutes?

Have you noticed how…
Time sometimes seems to go by really fast
And sometimes really slow

So, does time move at different speeds?

Time always moves one second per second.

It moving slow or fast depends on how your brain experiences it.

Time or your experience of it slows down when you encounter a boring moment. When you are not doing anything in particular, boredom draws your attention to time and gives you the feeling of time slowing down.

Time tends to fly when you are experiencing fun moments and do not think about time or pay any attention to it. The amount of time you have spent might be the same as a boring moment you’ve had earlier but you have so much fun that you do not realise how time passed by.

So times doesn’t fly or stand still. Time always continues at the same speed. It is your experience of time that makes it seem to go by slow or fast.

Related article – Is time travel possible, according to science?

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Hydrogen Fun Facts http://mocomi.com/hydrogen-facts/ http://mocomi.com/hydrogen-facts/#comments Fri, 29 Sep 2017 08:58:26 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96715 9 Facts about hydrogen you should know! Hydrogen was distinctly recognised as an element in 1766 by the English physicist and chemist Henry Cavendish. The element was named hydrogen by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier. The name hydrogen comes from the Greek words, Hydro meaning ‘water’, and gene, meaning ‘forming’. Hydrogen is an essential element […]

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Hydrogen Fun Facts

9 Facts about hydrogen you should know!

  1. Hydrogen was distinctly recognised as an element in 1766 by the English physicist and chemist Henry Cavendish. The element was named hydrogen by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier.
  2. The name hydrogen comes from the Greek words, Hydro meaning ‘water’, and gene, meaning ‘forming’.
  3. Hydrogen is an essential element of our world. Infact it makes up 75% of the mass of the universe. It is found in the sun and all stars. Hydrogen is believed to be one the element produced in the Big Bang, the start of the universe as we know it today. And is the source of energy of all the stars, even the energy we get from the sun.
  4. Hydrogen is the simplest and lightest element on the periodic table of elements. And bonds to itself or to something else to fill its outer shell. It forms both negative and positive ions. That is why it is represented as H2. Its atomic weight is 1.00797 making it the lightest of all elements.
  5. Hydrogen is odourless, colourless and tasteless. And is undetectable by human senses.
  6. Hydrogen is highly flammable but will not ignite unless an oxidiser (air) and ignition sources are present.
  7. Hydrogen fuel cells make electricity. They are very efficient, but expensive to build though. Small fuel cells can power cars. Power generated by hydrogen is environmental friendly as it reduces dependency on fossil fuels and the by product is water. But the production of hydrogen as fuel is not eco – friendly or cheap!
  8. Hydrogen is the main component of Jupiter and the other gas giant planets.
  9. The first gas balloon flight in Paris in 1783 used hydrogen.

What are the main uses of hydrogen?

  • Hydrogen is used to make ammonia for fertilizer, in a process called the Haber process, in which it is reacted with nitrogen.
  • The element is also added to fats and oils, such as peanut oil, through a process called hydrogenation.
  • Hydrogen use include rocket fuel, welding, producing hydrochloric acid, reducing metallic ores and filling balloons.
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Hormones in Animals http://mocomi.com/hormones-in-animals/ http://mocomi.com/hormones-in-animals/#comments Thu, 28 Sep 2017 09:07:19 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96588 What are hormones? Hormones are specific molecules produced by the endocrine system, that act as messengers to perform important and critical functions of the body. They are directly released by the endocrine glands (without ducts) within the body into the circulatory system and reach the organs or areas of the body that require attention. The […]

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Hormones in Animals

What are hormones?

Hormones are specific molecules produced by the endocrine system, that act as messengers to perform important and critical functions of the body. They are directly released by the endocrine glands (without ducts) within the body into the circulatory system and reach the organs or areas of the body that require attention. The word hormones is derived from the greek word ‘to set in motion’.

They regulate specific biological activities including growth, development of the body skeleton, muscles, metabolism, movements, water usage and storage, electrolyte balance, and sexual development including physical appearance.

Both plants and animals have hormones to carry out important functions. In plants the hormones are called phytohormones and endogenous growth inhibitors. A combination of these determine normal growth process in plants.

3 Types of hormones in animals

Animals have three types of hormones based on their chemical composition and origin. They are :

  1. Steroid Hormones
  2. Peptide Hormones
  3. Amine Hormones

What is an endocrine system?

An endocrine system maybe defined as a set of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood. As the body’s chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another.

Do hormones act only on the part of the body they are meant for?

Yes, although the organism’s body has several hormones in the blood at any given time, the designated hormones affect the cells that are genetically programmed to receive and respond to its message because hormones are target specific.

Hormone levels in the body are affected by factors such as stress, infections and changes in the balance of fluids and minerals in blood.

What are the different endocrine glands in animals?

1. Pineal Gland :

The pineal gland is located near the centre of the brain, dorsal to the diencephalon and produces the hormone Melatonin, which affects reproductive development, sleeping patterns and seasonal functions.

2. The Pituitary Gland :

It is a pea shaped gland located at the base of the brain and is considered to be the master gland and secretes several hormones like Growth Hormone, TSH, LSH, ACTH, MSH, Vasopressin and Oxytocin.

3. Hypothalamus :

It is a neuro – endocrine part of the brain and links the nervous system and the endocrine system through the pituitary gland. It secretes hormones like TRH, GnRH, GHRH, CRH, Somatostatin and Dopamine.

4. The Thyroid Gland :

It is located in the neck, ventral to the larynx and is one of the largest glands. It produces three very important hormones, Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine and Calcitonin. The hormones released are important for metabolism and a healthy skeletal structure.

5. The Parathyroid Glands :

These are two pairs of small, oval shaped glands embedded on the dorsal surface of the thyroid gland present in the neck. They secrete Parathormone, which helps in regulation of Calcium and Phosphate ions in the bones and blood.

6. The Thymus Gland :

It is located in front of the heart, in the upper part of the sternum. It produces the hormone Thymosine which helps in the maturation of T – lymphocytes.

7. The Adrenal Gland :

The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys and hence are called as suprarenal glands.
There are two regions in the adrenal glands :

  • Adrenal Cortex – it secretes hormones like Cortisol, Aldosterone and Androgens.
  • Adrenal Medulla – it secretes hormones like Adrenaline and Noradrenaline. Adrenaline is also called the fight or flight hormone and is released when the body faces stressful situations involving danger, anger and excitement.

8 The Pancreas :

It is located just below the stomach within the curve of the intial part of the small intestine, the duodenum. It is both exocrine (with ducts) and endocrine in function. It secretes Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin and Pancreatic polypeptide. They are important for maintaining metabolism. Insulin controls blood sugar levels.

9 The Gonads :

There are two types of gonads. One for the female species and one for the male species.

A. The Ovaries : They are the female sex organs and lie on either side of the female abdominal cavity. Ovaries produce the female hormones Oestrogen/Estrogen and Progesterone.

  • Oestrogen/Estrogen – It controls changes at female puberty, like the feminine voice, soft skin, and development in mammary glands.
  • Progesterone – It controls uterine changes in the menstrual cycle and helps maintain pregnancy.

B. The Testes : A pair of testes make the male sex organs and are located in the scrotum, outside the male body. Testes produce the male hormone, Testosterone. Testosterone controls changes in the male body at puberty, like a deeper voice, development of penis, facial and body hair.

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Lines and Angles http://mocomi.com/lines-and-angles/ http://mocomi.com/lines-and-angles/#comments Wed, 27 Sep 2017 06:47:46 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96690 What is a straight line? All of you have drawn different types of lines while making paintings, playing paper games and doing your homework. But, do you know what exactly a line in terms of Geometry is? A line is a straight, thin, zero-width object that extends on both sides and has no curves. Here are some […]

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Lines and Angles

What is a straight line?

All of you have drawn different types of lines while making paintings, playing paper games and doing your homework. But, do you know what exactly a line in terms of Geometry is?

A line is a straight, thin, zero-width object that extends on both sides and has no curves. Here are some examples of straight lines-

Properties of straight lines

  • A straight line travels on a straight path which can be extended indefinitely in both the directions.
  • A straight line is shown by two arrowheads in opposite directions.
  • A straight line does not have any fixed length.
  • A straight line has no beginning point or end point.
  • A straight line may have infinite number of points on it.
  • A straight line is often denoted by small letters of the English alphabet.

What is a line segment?

A line segment is a straight path which has a definite length with two endpoints. It is a part of the line.

7 Types of straight lines

  1. Vertical straight lines: Vertical straight lines go up and down.
  2. Horizontal straight lines: Horizontal straight lines go from left to right or vice versa.
  3. Perpendicular lines: Perpendicular lines are straight lines that intersect or cross each other at right angles.
  4. Oblique or slanting lines: Oblique or slanting lines are straight lines that slant and make a slope.
  5. Transversal lines: Transversal lines are the lines that intersect two or more other lines.
  6. Intersecting lines: Intersecting lines are the lines that cross other lines.
  7. Parallel lines: Parallel lines are the straight lines that never intersect or cross one another.

What is a ray?

A ray has one end point and infinitely extends in one direction. The Sun’s rays are the perfect examples of rays.

What is an angle?

An angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

10 Types of angles

  1. Acute angle: The angle that is between 0° and 90° is an Acute angle.
  2. Obtuse angle: The angle that is between 90° and 180° is an Obtuse angle.
  3. Right angle: The angle that is 90° is a Right angle.
  4. Straight angle: The angle that is 180° is a Straight angle.
  5. Reflex angle: The angle that is greater than 180 degrees.
  6. Supplementary angles: If the sum of two angles is 180° then the angles are called supplementary angles.
  7. Complementary angles: If the sum of two angles is 90° then the two angles are called complementary angles.
  8. Adjacent angles: The angles that have a common arm and a common vertex are called adjacent angles.
  9. Linear pair: The pair of adjacent angles whose sum is a straight angle is called a linear pair.
  10. Vertically opposite angles: When two lines intersect, the angles formed opposite to each other at the point of intersection (vertex) are called vertically opposite angles.

What is a curved line?

A curved line is a line that has a curve or arc. Curved lines are not straight lines. Here are some examples of curved lines –

7 Interesting facts about lines and angles

  1. Parallel lines are used in everyday structures that we see around us such as buildings, roads and footpaths.
  2. The sum of all angles in a Triangle is 180º.
  3. Adding up all angles in a 4 sided shape such as square/rectangle, parallelogram or quadrilateral is 360º.
  4. A right angle is denoted by a square mark.
  5. The word angle is derived from a Latin word ‘angulus’ meaning corner.
  6. The word ‘acute’ means sharp. The word obtuse means blunt.
  7. A complete angle or a full angle is known as ‘perigon’. It has 360 degrees or a complete one turn.
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Difference between a star, planet and moon http://mocomi.com/difference-between-a-star-planet-and-moon/ http://mocomi.com/difference-between-a-star-planet-and-moon/#comments Tue, 26 Sep 2017 12:23:18 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96673 Our solar neighborhood is really an exciting place. It is full of different heavenly bodies such as planets, moons, asteroids, meteors, comets, and many other exciting objects. Let us learn more about them. What is a planet? Planets are large natural objects that orbit, or revolve around, stars. You are standing on one at this moment! […]

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Difference between a star, planet and moon

Our solar neighborhood is really an exciting place. It is full of different heavenly bodies such as planets, moons, asteroids, meteors, comets, and many other exciting objects. Let us learn more about them.

What is a planet?

Planets are large natural objects that orbit, or revolve around, stars. You are standing on one at this moment! Yes, Earth is a planet too. Today, we have eight planets orbit the star called the Sun. In order, from the closest to the Sun, these planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

While some of the planets are small, rocky bodies with a solid ground – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars; the others are big gas giants – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

Earlier, the scientists were of the opinion that there are nine planets including Pluto, but in 2006, modern scientists came up with three compulsory conditions to award planet – hood to any heavenly body :

  • A planet must revolve around the Sun
  • Be spherical in shape
  • Its orbit must be free of other small objects

Unfortunately, Pluto failed to meet the third condition and had to step down from being a planet to a “dwarf planet”.
So far, hundreds of worlds beyond our solar system have been discovered and many new ones are in the process of being discovered. Scientists believe some of these planets may sustain alien life. Well, no one knows for sure, but there is a high probability that an alien kid elsewhere in the galaxy is also reading about us and the Earth in an article like this!

What is a star?

Stars are giant spheres of superhot gas, generally made up of hydrogen and helium. Stars get so hot and bright because of a process called nuclear fusion that takes place inside them. Nuclear fusion is a process in which hydrogen gas gets converted into helium, releasing light and heat. Though it seems to us that the stars twinkle in the night, they really don’t. What happens is that the light of the stars has to travel through various layers of our atmosphere during which it bounces around, and we feel that the stars are twinkling.

What is a moon?

Moons are natural objects that orbit planets. There are about 170 moons in our Solar System that revolve around different planets. Our Moon was probably made billions of years ago when a large object hit the Earth. Many small rocks were thrown out by the explosion and they started revolving around the Earth. With the due course of time, they got fused together, cooled down and became the Moon.

How is a planet different from a star?

What are the characteristics of a star?

  • A star has its own light.
  • Stars do not undergo any noticeable change in their position.
  • All stars have very high temperatures.
  • There are billions of stars in the galaxy.

What are the defining characteristics of a planet?

  • A planet has no light of its own. It shines by reflecting the light of the sun.
  • Planets do not twinkle.
  • Planets move around the stars and there is a noticeable shift in their position in the sky.
  • Planets have low temperatures.
  • There are only nine planets in the solar system.
  • Similarities between stars and planets
  • Planets and stars both orbit other stars. This is a similarity between the two heavenly objects.

Difference between a moon and a planet

If an object revolves around the Sun, it is called a planet; however, if it circles some other heavenly body (generally a planet) other than the Sun, it is called a moon.

Are stars planets or suns?

A star is called a “sun” if it is the center of a planetary system. There is a fair chance of having a large percentage of the stars in the galaxy that have planets orbiting them. You can call all of them “suns”.

What is the Sun?

The Sun is one of the million stars that are present in our galaxy. It is placed at the center of our solar system. It is a huge ball of gases with millions of degrees of heat. Because of its large size, it has a strong gravitational pull which helps in keeping the Earth and the other planets in line. Without the gravitational pull of the Sun, all planets would go spinning off into space.
Without the Sun, there would be no life on Earth and it would be frozen solid. The Sun is also responsible for change in seasons, as the Earth travels around the Sun, on its orbit.

9 Interesting facts about stars, planets and moons

  1. The Sun’s light reaches the Earth in eight minutes. This is known as the speed of light.
  2. Water was discovered on the moon in November 2009
  3. The footprints of Apollo astronauts are still visible on the Moon. They will remain visible for at least 10 million years more as there is no atmosphere or wind-erosion on the Moon.
  4. Scientists usually refer to moons in the galaxy as planetary satellites. On the other hand, human-made satellites are called artificial moons.
  5. You can see about 7,000 stars with naked eyes from Earth.
  6. Many stars and constellations are named after ancient gods and animals that they resemble.
  7. Every star you see in the sky is larger and brighter than the Sun.
  8. The largest planet in the solar system is Jupiter and Mercury is the smallest.
  9. Neptune is the coldest planet and Jupiter is the hottest planet.
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What are seedless plants? http://mocomi.com/what-are-seedless-plants/ http://mocomi.com/what-are-seedless-plants/#comments Mon, 25 Sep 2017 12:06:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96659 All of us have read in our Science classes that plants grow from seeds. This is not true of all the plants that are found on Earth. Yes, you would be surprised to know that there are many plants that do not grow from the seeds. Evolution of seedless plants Scientists believe that the seedless […]

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What are seedless plants?

All of us have read in our Science classes that plants grow from seeds. This is not true of all the plants that are found on Earth. Yes, you would be surprised to know that there are many plants that do not grow from the seeds.

Evolution of seedless plants

Scientists believe that the seedless plants first appeared on Earth about 400 million years ago. Such seedless plants include ferns, mosses, horsetails and liverworts. These plants have stems, roots, and leaves like other plants, but since they do not produce flowers, they have no seeds.

These plants, however, have specialized tissues for conducting water and food. Seedless plants lack a system of retaining and transporting water.

Reproduction in seedless plants

Now the question is, how do the seedless plants reproduce? Well, the seedless plants reproduce via seed-like objects, known as spores, or they produce through asexual reproduction.

What are spores?

Spores are usually unicellular or single-celled structures, having only one set of chromosomes. Spores lay dormant until conditions are favorable. Once conditions are favorable, cell division takes place in them and they grow into full-fledged plants. Spores are produced in bulk in a seedless plant and since they are very small and light, they are dispersed by the wind to new areas where they can grow.

What is asexual reproduction in seedless plants?

Some seedless plants reproduce asexually. This method of reproduction occurs when a part of the plant falls off on the ground and grows into a new plant on its own.

What are vascular and non-vascular plants?

Vascular plants are the plants which have a series of tubes that can transport water. All seed plants are vascular, whereas seedless plants can be vascular or non-vascular. Seedless vascular plants include ferns and horsetails. Such plants have proper roots, stems, and leaves. Non-vascular plants include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. These plants do not have well-differentiated root, shoots and stems or water transport system so they thrive only in moist places.

Examples of seedless vascular plants

A. Fern

Ferns are one of the most common plants found in our homes. You would have seen these plants at the florist and even being used for landscaping in big hotels, malls and airports. Ferns produce spores on the underside of their leaves. The leaves of ferns are called fronds and have small brown spots down below. These small brown spots are nothing else but spores and you can feel them with your hands too. It is believed that the ferns were the first plant species to develop a water transportation system that helped them in growing larger.

B. Horsetails

Horsetails and ferns are closest living relatives to seed plants, because they have a vascular system. Most of these plants are extinct so the chances of you seeing them are rare.

Examples of non-vascular seedless plants

A. Mosses

Mosses are small, soft and spongy plants that grow only a few inches tall. They grow in clumps and form a sort of a carpet on the ground. Mosses anchor themselves to rocks and soil with short growths called rhizoids.

B. Liverworts

The worts are considered to be the simplest of all plants and believed to be one of the first plants to have colonized the Earth. They are small, flat and along the ground in large leaf-like structures. Instead of roots, they have little hair called rhizoids to absorb moisture. Like mosses, they also thrive in moist areas, and some species even spend their whole lives in water.

6 Interesting facts about the seedless plants

  1. In a hostile environment, such as the tundra where the soil remains frozen for almost the whole year, mosses provide food and shelter to many species, from small insects to musk oxen and reindeer.
  2. Mosses absorb pollutants from the air and hence the level of pollution at a particular place can be determined by the existing number of mosses there.
  3. Dried peat moss is a renewable resource for energy.
  4. Ferns promote the weathering of rock and help in soil formation.
  5. Ferns harbor nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots and thereby enrich the soil in nutrients.
  6. Coal is primarily made of seedless vascular plants.
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Who discovered Pi? http://mocomi.com/who-discovered-pi/ http://mocomi.com/who-discovered-pi/#comments Fri, 22 Sep 2017 13:12:46 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96582 What is Pi? Pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. No matter what is the size of the circle, pi is always the same number. For any circle, dividing its circumference by its diameter will give you the exact same number: 3.14159…or pi. Discovery of Pi It is said that Pi […]

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Who discovered Pi?

What is Pi?

Pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. No matter what is the size of the circle, pi is always the same number. For any circle, dividing its circumference by its diameter will give you the exact same number: 3.14159…or pi.

Discovery of Pi

It is said that Pi has been known for nearly 4,000 years and was discovered by ancient Babylonians. The Great Pyramid at Giza, which was built between 2550 and 2500 BC, has a perimeter of 1760 cubits and a height of 280 cubits, which gives it a ratio of 1760/280, or approximately 2 times pi.

The earliest textual evidence of pi dates back to 1900 BC; both the Babylonians and the Egyptians had a rough idea of the value. The Babylonians estimated pi to be about 25/8 (3.125), while the Egyptians estimated it to be about 256/81 (roughly 3.16).

How did Archimedes discover it?

Archimedes was one of the first mathematicians to discover the approach to estimate a Pi. He figured out how to estimate the perimeters for polygons with twice as many sides. He went from a 6-sided polygon, to a 12-sided polygon, to a 24-sided polygon, to a 48-sided polygon, and ended up with a 96-sided polygon. This final estimate gave a range for π between 3.1408 and 3.1428, which is accurate to two places.

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What is an Equation? http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-equation/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-equation/#comments Fri, 22 Sep 2017 08:59:15 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96584 Definition of equation An equation is a statement that says that the value of two mathematical expressions is equal. In simple words, an equation says that two things are equal. It is denoted by the equal to sign ‘=’. Example of an Equation: 8+2= 12-2 The above equation says that the left side of the equation […]

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What is an Equation?

Definition of equation

An equation is a statement that says that the value of two mathematical expressions is equal. In simple words, an equation says that two things are equal. It is denoted by the equal to sign ‘=’.

Example of an Equation: 8+2= 12-2
The above equation says that the left side of the equation is equal to the right side. Thus an equation is a statement that states ‘this equals that’.

Different types of equations in mathematics

Students may come across these different types of equations in Math, Algebra to be specific:

1. Linear equations

Linear means having one line. These are equations of the type Y= ax+b where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are numbers and ‘x’ cannot be zero. In these equations ‘x’ has no exponents. Y=4x+3 is a linear equation.

2. Quadratic equations

This is a second degree equation where one variable out of all contains the exponent of 2. ax2+bx+c= 0 is a quadratic equation where x is not equal to zero.

3. Radical equations

These are equations whose maximum exponent on the variable is ½ and have more than one term. Here the variable is lying inside a radical symbol usually in a square root. √x+10=26 is a radical equation.

4. Trigonometric equations

These are equations in which the variables are affected by trigonometric functions. Cos 2x= 1+Sin 4x is a trigonometric equation.

5. Polynomial equations

A polynomial equation is one which takes away the highest exponent limit. Here all the ‘x’s are numbers and the equation consists of several terms. (x7 + 2×4 – 5) * 3x=0

6. Exponential equations

These are equations that have variables in place of exponents. ab = 0 is an exponential equation.

Solution of an equation

(x + 1)2 = x2 – 2
We need to first expand the variables on the left hand side of the equation with the formula of (a+b) 2= a2+ 2ab+ b2
X2+ 2x+ 1= x2-2
Now, x2 from both sides gets cancelled so we are left with
2x+1= -2
2x= -3
X= -3/2
X= -1.5

Solve the following equations

1. 4+n= 6
a. 4  b. 2  c.10  d. 0

2. 4*7= v+9
a. 28  b. 9  c. 19  d. -19

3. m/10= 9*6
a. 5.4  b. 540  c.64  d. -5.4

4. 10*11= x-3
a. 110  b. -113  c. 113  d. 107

5. (-5-v)/3=1
a. -8  b. 8  c. 1.67  d. 15

6. 7= w-(-7)/5
a. 56  b. 5.6  c. 35  d. 3.5

7. 2p-6=8+5(p+9)
a. 19.6  b. -19.6  c. 59  d. -59

8. 8(x+4)-4= 4x-1
a. -7.25  b. 29  c. 7.25  d. 32

9. 8(t+5)+2= 4.8t+4
a. 1187  b.11.87  c. 11.78  d. -11.87

10. (3v/3) – 3v= -5
a. -2.5  b. 2.5  c. -6  c. 15

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How is gold formed? http://mocomi.com/how-is-gold-formed/ http://mocomi.com/how-is-gold-formed/#comments Thu, 21 Sep 2017 13:29:50 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96605 What is gold? Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (Latin : Aurum) and atomic number 79. It is one of the precious metals, known to man. In its purest form, Gold is considered a noble metal and is a slightly, reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. It is one of […]

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How is gold formed?

What is gold?

Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (Latin : Aurum) and atomic number 79. It is one of the precious metals, known to man. In its purest form, Gold is considered a noble metal and is a slightly, reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal.

It is one of the least reactive elements and occurs in its native, free, elemental state as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits. Sometimes it is found mixed with other elements as gold compounds.

How is gold processed?

Gold was one of the first precious metals to be mined because it commonly occurs in its original state. It is a scarce metal and it is concentrated by geological processes to form commercial deposits of two principal types : lode (primary) deposits and placer (secondary) deposits.

Lode Mining

Lode deposits are the targets for gold prospectors seeking gold at the site of its deposit from mineral solutions. Gold is collected in a precipitate form and further purified. in lode mining, ores of gold are collected from the source by quarrying rocks with the ore deposits. This is known as the mother lode, geology.
A mother lode is the principal vein or zone of veins of gold or silver, found in rocks.

Placer Mining

Placer mining is the mining of water stream bed deposits. It is also done by open pit or open cast mining or other surface excavation processes. Gold in ancient times, before modern, sophisticated equipment was developed, was sourced through placer mining.

In olden times, river beds were panned for gold bits, carried along with eroded rocks by the force of gushing water streams from underground water sources.

Why is gold considered a precious metal?

  • A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metal of high economic value due to its extremely stable nature under harsh condition, natural or man made.
  • In ancient days, gold was used by nobility and various historical artifacts have been discovered made of gold from archaeological sites. It was used as currency by early civilisations, infact it is still used in international trading. The reason being so, grading the quality of gold doesn’t change over the years.
  • It is so malleable, that a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of one square meter and further till it is semi transparent.

5 Interesting facts about gold

  1. Gold is edible. Gold dust and gold foil are used in gourmet cuisine.
  2. Our bodies contain a small percentage of gold.
  3. More gold is recoverable from a ton of personal computers than from 17 tonnes of gold ore.
  4. Nearly all the gold on earth came from meteorites that bombarded the planet millions of years ago.
  5. The world’s largest gold nugget was called ‘Welcome Stranger’. It was found in Victoria, Australia in 1869 and weighed over 71 kg of which 65 kg became refined or pure gold.
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What is a drought? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-drought/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-drought/#comments Wed, 20 Sep 2017 10:46:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96635 Almost everyone loves rains. We keenly wait for the rainy season to come after the summers. In many parts of our country, people do special rituals and prayers to bring about the rains in their respective areas. Drought is a type of natural calamity that occurs when an area gets less than its normal amount of […]

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What is a drought?

Almost everyone loves rains. We keenly wait for the rainy season to come after the summers. In many parts of our country, people do special rituals and prayers to bring about the rains in their respective areas. Drought is a type of natural calamity that occurs when an area gets less than its normal amount of rain over months or even years.

What causes a drought?

Just take out some time and think about how much water you use in a day. You drink water and use it to take a shower, brush your teeth and clean various items at home. Now can you imagine going without water for a week or longer? Well, that is exactly what happens during the droughts. There occurs a severe dearth of water in the areas that are hit by a drought.
The distribution of all the water on the earth’s surface is not even. While some places have lots of fresh water available in form of lakes and rivers, there are areas that have hardly any water. This is the reason droughts have been occurring for several hundreds of years, and still, keep occurring in different parts of the world.

4 Types of drought

  1. Meteorological drought : Meteorological drought is caused by the lack of rains and dry weather is the main factor for this type of natural calamity.
  2. Agricultural drought : Agricultural drought occurs due to the lack of moisture in the soil and affects crops.
  3. Hydrological drought : Hydrological droughts takes place when there is an acute shortage of surface water and ground water supply in a particular region, often as a result of less or no rains.
  4. Socio – economical drought : Socioeconomic drought occurs when the supply of some goods and services such as energy, food and drinking water become scarce because of a shortage of water and dry weather.

Effects of drought

Droughts have a drastic effect on all forms of life – be it animals, plants or humans. Since all living beings need water to survive, so an extreme drought causes them to die. Without water, humans are at risk of dying because of dehydration or hunger. Yes, hunger too because no water means no crops, and no crops mean no food supply. A severe shortage of both food and water is also known as famine. All of you know that India is predominantly an agricultural country. Agriculture in India is heavily dependent on climatic conditions. A favorable southwest summer monsoon is vital to get water for irrigating the Indian crops. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons results in water shortages and poor crop yields. This is especially true of the drought-prone regions such as Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Gujrat, and Telangana. In the past, droughts have led to major Indian famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, in which about one-third of the population died; the 1876 – 1877 famine, in which more than five million people died, the 1899 famine, in which over 4.5 million died and the recent drought in 1900 in India that resulted in the death of more than 5 million people. Millions of families have suffered not just in India, but all over the world because of droughts.

How can we prevent drought?

Water is a precious natural resource that is required for the survival of all living things on this planet, and so it is our duty to save it. We cannot prevent droughts from happening, but we can surely help in mitigating the impacts of drought by conserving water. If we use water wisely at all times, more water will be available to us and to other life forms when drought occurs. Every day we lose a lot of water doing simple everyday tasks. Did you know that by turning off the water while brushing your teeth and showering can save more than 100 liters of water in one month? We are sure that all of the wise children reading this article would have understood the importance of water in our lives and will take every necessary step to prevent its wastage.

3 Interesting facts about droughts

1. Droughts can cause dust bowls in certain areas which means that the top layer of soil gets completely blown away, leaving behind nutrient-deficient soil to sustain crop growth.

2. Droughts often result in wildfires as the vegetation becomes dry and more prone to catching fire.

3. While drought is mostly caused by irregular weather patterns, human activity can also be a cause of drought. Deforestation, farming, excessive irrigation, erosion, and climate change due to global warming are all human causes of drought

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