Mocomi Kids http://mocomi.com Inspiring Curiosity! Wed, 20 Sep 2017 10:46:48 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.2.16 What is a drought? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-drought/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-drought/#comments Wed, 20 Sep 2017 10:46:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96635 Almost everyone loves rains. We keenly wait for the rainy season to come after the summers. In many parts of our country, people do special rituals and prayers to bring about the rains in their respective areas. Drought is a type of natural calamity that occurs when an area gets less than its normal amount of […]

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What is a drought?

Almost everyone loves rains. We keenly wait for the rainy season to come after the summers. In many parts of our country, people do special rituals and prayers to bring about the rains in their respective areas. Drought is a type of natural calamity that occurs when an area gets less than its normal amount of rain over months or even years.

What causes a drought?

Just take out some time and think about how much water you use in a day. You drink water and use it to take a shower, brush your teeth and clean various items at home. Now can you imagine going without water for a week or longer? Well, that is exactly what happens during the droughts. There occurs a severe dearth of water in the areas that are hit by a drought.
The distribution of all the water on the earth’s surface is not even. While some places have lots of fresh water available in form of lakes and rivers, there are areas that have hardly any water. This is the reason droughts have been occurring for several hundreds of years, and still, keep occurring in different parts of the world.

4 Types of drought

  1. Meteorological drought : Meteorological drought is caused by the lack of rains and dry weather is the main factor for this type of natural calamity.
  2. Agricultural drought : Agricultural drought occurs due to the lack of moisture in the soil and affects crops.
  3. Hydrological drought : Hydrological droughts takes place when there is an acute shortage of surface water and ground water supply in a particular region, often as a result of less or no rains.
  4. Socio – economical drought : Socioeconomic drought occurs when the supply of some goods and services such as energy, food and drinking water become scarce because of a shortage of water and dry weather.

Effects of drought

Droughts have a drastic effect on all forms of life – be it animals, plants or humans. Since all living beings need water to survive, so an extreme drought causes them to die. Without water, humans are at risk of dying because of dehydration or hunger. Yes, hunger too because no water means no crops, and no crops mean no food supply. A severe shortage of both food and water is also known as famine. All of you know that India is predominantly an agricultural country. Agriculture in India is heavily dependent on climatic conditions. A favorable southwest summer monsoon is vital to get water for irrigating the Indian crops. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons results in water shortages and poor crop yields. This is especially true of the drought-prone regions such as Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Gujrat, and Telangana. In the past, droughts have led to major Indian famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, in which about one-third of the population died; the 1876 – 1877 famine, in which more than five million people died, the 1899 famine, in which over 4.5 million died and the recent drought in 1900 in India that resulted in the death of more than 5 million people. Millions of families have suffered not just in India, but all over the world because of droughts.

How can we prevent drought?

Water is a precious natural resource that is required for the survival of all living things on this planet, and so it is our duty to save it. We cannot prevent droughts from happening, but we can surely help in mitigating the impacts of drought by conserving water. If we use water wisely at all times, more water will be available to us and to other life forms when drought occurs. Every day we lose a lot of water doing simple everyday tasks. Did you know that by turning off the water while brushing your teeth and showering can save more than 100 liters of water in one month? We are sure that all of the wise children reading this article would have understood the importance of water in our lives and will take every necessary step to prevent its wastage.

3 Interesting facts about droughts

1. Droughts can cause dust bowls in certain areas which means that the top layer of soil gets completely blown away, leaving behind nutrient-deficient soil to sustain crop growth.

2. Droughts often result in wildfires as the vegetation becomes dry and more prone to catching fire.

3. While drought is mostly caused by irregular weather patterns, human activity can also be a cause of drought. Deforestation, farming, excessive irrigation, erosion, and climate change due to global warming are all human causes of drought

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Plant hormones and their functions http://mocomi.com/plant-hormones/ http://mocomi.com/plant-hormones/#comments Mon, 18 Sep 2017 10:47:28 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96594 What are plant hormones? Plant hormones, also known as phytohormones are chemicals that regulate plant growth. The term, Phytohormone was coined by Kenneth Vivian Thimann, in 1948. In plants, these are produced by cells in one area of the plant, such as leaves, stems or roots and then transported to a different area of the […]

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Plant hormones and their functions

What are plant hormones?

Plant hormones, also known as phytohormones are chemicals that regulate plant growth. The term, Phytohormone was coined by Kenneth Vivian Thimann, in 1948. In plants, these are produced by cells in one area of the plant, such as leaves, stems or roots and then transported to a different area of the plant in order for them to have a response.

How do plant hormones affect the plant?

Plant hormones shape the plant, affecting seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves, and fruits. They affect which tissues grow upward and which grow downward, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. Hormones are vital to plant growth, and, lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells. So they are also known as growth factors or growth hormones.

How do plants transport hormones within the body?

Plants lack glands that produce and secrete hormones. Instead, each cell is capable of producing hormones. Hormones are transported within the plant using localised movement and cytoplasmic streaming within cells and slow diffusion. Phloem and Xylem are vascular tissues that also help in the transportation of hormones from one part of the plant to another.

Types of plant hormones

Plant hormones can be classified into five major categories, some of which are made up of many different chemicals that can vary in structure from one plant to the next. The classifications is based on chemical structural similarities and their effects on plant physiology. Each class has positive as well as inhibitory function and work in tandem with each other, interplaying to affect growth regulation.

1. Abscisic acid

  • Abscisic acid, also called ABA and/or Dormin, is one of the most important plant growth regulators. It inhibits growth/germination of seeds. It is produced mainly in conditions that are unfavourable to plant growth. It induces seed and bud dormancy in winters.
  • As the temperatures change, the levels of Abscisic acid reduce/dissipate in plants to enable flowering in plants and trees and for germination of new seeds to occur. It also prevents seeds from germinating when still within a fruit.
  • In plants, during water stress, Abscisic acid, helps to close the stomata, to conserving water.

2. Auxins

  • Auxins were the first class of growth regulators discovered. They affect cell elongation by altering cell wall plasticity. They are responsible for stimulating the development of xylem (water transporting tissues throughout the plant) and inhibit growth of buds lower down the stems, ensuring the plant grows with the leading tip(apical dominance). They promote root growth and branching. In high doses, it however inhibits root growth and expansion.

3. Cytokinins

  • Cytokinins or CKs are a group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation. They also delay senescence of tissues and are responsible for ensuring proper transport of the hormone auxin to where it is required in the plant’s body.
  • Cytokinins and auxins together have a synergistic effect with auxins and the ratios of these two groups of plant hormones affect major growth period in a plant’s lifetime. Cytokinins, in conjunction with ethylene promote abscission (fall or drop) of leaves and fruit.

4. Ethylene

  • Ethylene is also known as the ripening hormone. It is a gas that forms through the breakdown of methionine, which is in all cells. Its production increases when the seeds are mature, ensuring the fruit is released only when the seeds are ripe for germination.
  • Have you noticed how when you keep a ripe fruit with unripe ones, the unripe ones also ripen rapidly. This is because of ethylene.
  • Ethylene also affects cell shape and cell elongation. When, a growing shoot faces an obstacle, etheylene production increases and the stem becomes thicker, exerting more pressure to overcome the obstacle.

5. Gibberellins

  • Gibberellins were first discovered when the fungus, Gibberella fujikuroi, induced abnormal growth in rice plants.
  • Gibberellins or GAs include a large range of chemicals that are produced by plants and fungus. They are important for seed germination, initiating mobilisation of nutrients stored within the seed. Absorption of water by the seed causes the production of Gibberellins.
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What is Economy?  http://mocomi.com/what-is-economy/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-economy/#comments Fri, 15 Sep 2017 13:06:38 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96568 How many of you love playing Monopoly, Game of Life and Mine-craft? Well, these are not just any ordinary games; they are smart board games that teach you how economy works. Where does the term economy come from? The word economy comes from two Greek words- “household” and “manage.” Through the economy, goods and services in a particular […]

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What is Economy? 

How many of you love playing Monopoly, Game of Life and Mine-craft? Well, these are not just any ordinary games; they are smart board games that teach you how economy works.

Where does the term economy come from?

The word economy comes from two Greek words- “household” and “manage.” Through the economy, goods and services in a particular region are produced in a way to produce profit.

Goods are physical objects that are bought and sold such as things like cars, clothes and food items.

Services are facilities provided by others for which we pay them. Services include things like teaching, healthcare, fire-fighting, and baby-sitting.

What is Economics?

The study of the economy is called Economics and a person who studies economics is called an Economist. A country is said to have good economy when the trade is flourishing and there are lots of good – paying jobs available for the citizens.

Economics has two branches – Macroeconomics and Microeconomics

What is Microeconomics?

Microeconomics is the branch of economics that tells us how people make decisions at a small scale. In microeconomics, we learn about the small – scale financial decisions. For example what and how much to buy from the store, or how many products a company should manufacture.

What is Macroeconomics?

Macroeconomics helps us to look at a bigger picture. It looks at the economy as a whole and while Microeconomics has to do with a individual or a company, Macroeconomics deals with a country or is global.

The study of macroeconomics includes the Gross National Product of a country, unemployment rates and its imports and exports etc.

Basic economic terms and concepts –

What is a Bank?

Bank is a financial institution that keeps our money safe. We can deposit and withdraw our money from the bank according to our convenience. Money that is in the account earns interest from the bank. That is, the bank pays the account holder a small fee.

What is Credit?

Credit is the ability to borrow money. For example, if we do not have enough money to buy something on our own, we can borrow money from the bank. This is known as bank-loan. People take bank-loans for buying cars, making houses and education of the children among other things. Bank-loan is a type of credit that the bank gives us. We have to return the loan to the bank along with an additional ‘fee’ that is known as the ‘interest’. Another type of credit is a credit card. If we have a credit card, we are allowed to borrow some amount of money from the respective credit card company or the bank through it for a particular period of time. We have to return that money to the credit card companies with a certain amount of, yes, you guessed it right- ‘interest’ later on. So, the next time you swipe the credit card of your parents for buying things, please remember, a bill with ‘interest’ would be coming soon. Use it prudently!

What is Debt?

Debt is the money that someone borrows from the other person, companies or the bank. It is an amount that is to be returned to the lender with or without interest.

What is Interest?

Interest is the fee that is charged for using someone else’s money.

What is Investment?

Investment is anything that is bought with the hope that it will generate income or become more valuable in the future. While some investments may result in a loss, some are sure to bring you profit. For example, a bar of gold will certainly be worth more in ten years from now.

What is a Mortgage?

Mortgage is a loan that we take against our personal belongings like gold or house from a bank or a finance company.

What is a Recession?

A drop in economic growth of a country and its business activities that lasts for more than 6 months is called recession.

What is Stock?

Stocks are sold by companies to raise money from the buyers. When we buy a stock in a company, we become owners of a small part of that company.

What is Stock Market?

Stock market is a place where stocks are bought and sold. A stock broker is a person whose job is to help us in buying and selling the stocks.

What is Taxes?

Taxes are the main way people pay for their government. Income taxes and sales taxes help the government pay for things like roads, schools, and the armed forces.

What is Unemployment?

The unemployment rate is the percentage of citizens who are out of work and looking for jobs. High unemployment rates are a sign of a weak economy.

What is GDP?

Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, is a measure used to check the health of a country’s economy. It is defined as the total value of all products manufactured and goods provided in a specific region during a specified period, usually, one year.

What is Inflation?

Inflation indicates a rise in the level of prices of basic commodities as compared to the money available. Ask your grandparents how much one pen cost when they were students like you. Compare it with the price of a pen today. You will get your answer.

Dear children, every time you make a financial transaction, you learn something about the economy. The best way to understand more about economy is to make wise use of your pocket-money by saving it and making a budget. This includes making a priority list of the things that you truly need. If you know how to use your money wisely right from the beginning, you will have absolutely no problem in comprehending the nuances of Economics as a subject later and become a wise spender of money.

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Egypt Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/egypt-facts-and-information/ http://mocomi.com/egypt-facts-and-information/#comments Thu, 14 Sep 2017 10:18:25 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96573 When we talk about Egypt, first few things that come to our mind are the humongous pyramids, mysterious tombs and mummies that had a curse put on them, all thanks to the Hollywood mummy-movies! Well, Egypt is much more than that. The birth of Egyptian civilization Egyptian civilization took birth some 8,000 years ago on […]

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Egypt Facts and Information

When we talk about Egypt, first few things that come to our mind are the humongous pyramids, mysterious tombs and mummies that had a curse put on them, all thanks to the Hollywood mummy-movies! Well, Egypt is much more than that.

The birth of Egyptian civilization

Egyptian civilization took birth some 8,000 years ago on the banks of the Nile when some hunters and fishermen settled there. The Egyptian people revered river Nile and believed it to be the source of their wealth.

They were quick learners and had mastered the art of irrigation to grow profitable crops which very soon made them extremely wealthy. Once, the money came, they started doing business with their neighbours and also learned to sail boats. Egypt was a flourishing land that rapidly attracted the attention of its enemies.

Brief history of rule in Egypt

First, it was taken over by its strong neighbours – the Romans and then it fell under the control of Muslim warriors. During the 16th century, Egypt became a part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. In 1882, the British attacked and occupied Egypt. The Egyptians bravely struggled for their freedom, and in 1952, Egypt gained full independence from the British.

Current Egypt

Today, Egypt is a democratic country where elections are held to choose the leaders for running the country. The flag of Egypt is a tricolour consisting of the three equal horizontal bands of red, white, and black colour with a golden eagle placed in the centre of the white band. About 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslim and Arabic is the national language.

Egypt is famous for its delicious cuisine. The ancient Egyptians grew wheat and then made bread out of it. The fertile farmland nurtured by the Nile allowed them to grow a host of vegetables and fruits. The Egyptian food of today is a mixture of all the different civilizations that came to Egypt and left their influence in the due course of time. Modern Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes, veggies and fruits. Even after so many years, rice and bread remain staple foods. Molokhiyya, which is a spinach-like vegetable, and Ful mudammas or cooked beans, are still as popular as they were years ago.

Ancient Egyptian civilization

Egyptian people believed in life after death which is why they used to preserve the bodies of their dead so they could use them in the afterlife. The process of preserving dead bodies was known as mummification. It was a complicated and lengthy process in which various chemicals were applied onto the body and lasted up to 70 days or more.

Animals were very important to the ancient Egyptians. Cats were given utmost importance as they believed them to have magical powers.

Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses

The ancient Egyptians worshipped a number of gods and goddesses that were part humans, part animals. Osiris was one of the most worshipped gods who ruled the underworld and judged the dead. Some job he had! His wife-goddess Isis was the mother of Horus, yet another Egyptian god.

One of the most famous gods was Thoth, who was regarded as the god of writing and science and the inventor of the hieroglyphics. An intelligent god indeed!

Mummies and tombs

Don’t you think? You would have also heard about Anubis in the Hollywood movies based on mummies. Anubis was a jackal-headed god, who was the considered as the god of mummies and tombs. We really wonder if he enjoyed the work that was assigned to him.

Tutankhamun or King Tut

The ancient Egyptian kings were known as ‘pharaohs’ who were thought to be both-a man and a god by the general public. Tutankhamun or “King Tut” is probably the most famous Egyptian pharaoh.

All the Egyptian pharaohs used to build magnificent pyramids for themselves and when they died, they were buried inside the pyramids along with the things that they cherished the most. It is believed that thousands of slaves were used to cut up large blocks of stone and then move them up the pyramid on ramps.

Egyptian pyramids

It took many years to build one pyramid so the pharaohs started building pyramids and tombs for themselves as soon as they took over command. The Pyramid of Khufu, also known as the Great Pyramid of Giza, is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. According to the scientists, it took at more than 20,000 workers over 23 years to erect the Great Pyramid of Giza. No wonder it is one of the best examples of man’s ingenuity!

The Sphinx of Giza

The Great Sphinx of Giza, a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue is on the west bank of the Nile River, next to the Great Pyramid. The Great Sphinx is one of the largest single-stone statues on Earth, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians in the 3rd millennium BC, somewhere between 2520 BC and 2494 BC.

7 Interesting facts about the Egyptians

  1. Though there were no smart phones to take selfies, looking beautiful was pretty important to the Egyptians. Men and women, both, wore lovely pieces of jewellery and make-up. While the rich wore jewellry made of gold and silver, the poor used copper. They loved using dark eye paints like green, blue and black. As far as clothes were concerned, Egyptians loved to wear white linen clothes to ward off heat. Men wore kilts and women wore long gowns.
  2. Women were given due respect in the Egyptian culture. They were allowed to hold high-ranking positions such as priestesses, administrators and supervisors.
  3. It is believed that the Egyptians invented writing. It made use of various pictorial symbols called Hieroglyphs. They used ink to write on a special kind of paper called papyrus.
  4. A pharaoh had to keep his hair covered all the time.
  5. The pharaohs were buried with their precious belongings in the pyramids which is why several traps and curses were put on the pyramids to try and keep robbers at bay.
  6. King Tut’s gold mask was made with 10 kgs of pure gold. Amazing, isn’t it?
  7. Bread was the staple food of the ancient Egyptians, but it was so hard that most of the Egyptians had severely damaged teeth.
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Structure and Function of the Skin http://mocomi.com/structure-and-function-of-the-skin/ http://mocomi.com/structure-and-function-of-the-skin/#comments Wed, 13 Sep 2017 11:04:37 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96544 What is skin? Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates. It acts as a barrier and protection against water and fluid loss and prevents damage to internal organs and in some animals helps manage body temperatures as well. Other organisms, like arthropods, have other types of tissues that form their exterior, like an exoskeleton, […]

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Structure and Function of the Skin

What is skin?

Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates. It acts as a barrier and protection against water and fluid loss and prevents damage to internal organs and in some animals helps manage body temperatures as well. Other organisms, like arthropods, have other types of tissues that form their exterior, like an exoskeleton, which is made of chitin, or like in turtles and tortoise, an outer shell.

Different classifications of animals have different types of skin, like, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds.

In mammals, the skin functions as the largest organ and performs various functions.

What is the mammalian skin made of?

The mammalian skin is composed of two primary layers – epidermis and dermis, with a basement membrane in between.

What is epidermis?

The epidermis is composed of the outermost layers of the skin. It forms a protective barrier over the body’s surface, responsible for maintaining fluids in the body and prevents pathogens from entering the body.

The epidermis contains no blood vessels and the cells in the deepest layers are nourished by diffusion from blood capillaries extending to the upper layers of the skin. The melanocytes present in the epidermis are responsible for producing melanin which gives the skin its colour.

What is basement membrane?

The epidermis and the second layer, dermis are separated by the basement membrane, which is a thin sheet of fibres. The basement membrane controls the traffic of cells and molecules between the two layers of the skin, through it’s complex structuring.

What is dermis?

The dermis is the layer of the skin beneath the epidermis and consists of connective tissue, cushioning the body against stress and strain. The dermis provides tensile strength and elasticity to the skin through a complex layering of extracellular matrix of collagen fibrils, microfibrils and elastic fibres embedded in layers of vital cellular fluids and molecules that help maintain the strength of skin.

The dermis is divided into two layers, the Papillary region and Reticular region.

1. Papillary region of dermis

This layer is composed of areolar connective tissue, and is named after the finger like projections called the papillae that extend toward the epidermis. The papillae increase the surface area of the dermis, providing extra strength.

2. Reticular region of dermis

The reticular region lies deep in the papillary region and is usually much thicker. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue, and receives its name from the dense concentration of collagenous, elastic and reticular fibres that weave through it. These protein fibres give the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility and elasticity. Also located within the reticular region are the roots of the hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, receptors, nails and blood vessels.

4 Interesting facts on skin

  1. The skin renews itself completely in 28 days and sheds 30,000 to 40,000 dead cells per minute while it renews itself. An average human sheds 9 pounds of skin cells in a year.
  2. The human skin is home to a 1000 species of bacteria.
  3. The thickest skin in humans is found on the soles of the feet, where as the thinnest is found on the eye lids.
  4. On a hot day, the sweat glands can produce upto 3 gallons of sweat in a day.
  5. Goose bumps help retain a layer of warm air over our body.
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Vultures – Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/vultures-facts/ http://mocomi.com/vultures-facts/#comments Tue, 12 Sep 2017 09:55:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96529 Which category of birds do vultures come under? A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey which plays a very important role in maintaining the ecosystem by eating dead and rotting animal carcass, in the wild. What do vultures eat? They usually eat carrion, although sometimes they attack newborn or wounded animals. Vultures generally go […]

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Vultures - Facts and Information

Which category of birds do vultures come under?

A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey which plays a very important role in maintaining the ecosystem by eating dead and rotting animal carcass, in the wild.

What do vultures eat?

They usually eat carrion, although sometimes they attack newborn or wounded animals. Vultures generally go without food for long periods of time. So once they do find something to eat, they eat their fill. Vultures have a throat pouch called a crop, which is used to store food to be consumed later or to feed young ones.

What are the types of vultures found around the world?

Vultures are practically found all over the world except Australia and Antarctica.
Vultures can be divided into two groups.

1. Old World Vultures

They are found in Asia, Africa and Europe.
They look like their eagle, hawk, buzzards and kites species. They have grasping talons and voice box to vocalise with and build their nests on trees or rocky crevices with twigs. They find carcasses exclusively by sight.

There are 16 identified species of old world vultures.

  1. Cinereous vulture
  2. Griffon vulture
  3. White-rumped vulture
  4. Rüppell’s vulture
  5. Indian vulture
  6. Slender-billed vulture
  7. Himalayan vulture
  8. White-backed vulture
  9. Cape vulture
  10. Hooded vulture
  11. Red-headed vulture
  12. Lappet-faced vulture
  13. White-headed vulture
  14. Bearded vulture (Lammergeier)
  15. Egyptian vulture
  16. Palm-nut vulture

2. New World Vultures

They are from North, Central and South America.
They have a distinctly bald head, an adaptation that reduces the risks of disease, because bacteria might grow in feathers with blood and meat caught in between.
New world vultures have nostrils that are long and horizontal with a space between them. Some species have highly developed smells. They do not have a voice box and hence cannot make any sound except grunts and hisses.
They do not build nests, but lay their eggs in holes in rocky crevices or hollows of trees.

There are 7 identified species of new world vultures.

  1. Black vulture
  2. Turkey vulture
  3. Lesser yellow-headed vulture
  4. Greater yellow-headed vulture
  5. California condor
  6. Andean condor
  7. King vulture

What makes vultures unique as scavenging birds?

  • Vultures have a huge wingspan which allows them to stay in flight for long periods of time, without flapping their wings. This way they can soar at high altitudes without tiring and keep a look out for food, generally an animal that is dying, or is already dead. Once one vulture locates food, other vultures follow. There is generally a pecking order based on size.
  • They have incredibly sharp eyesight.
  • Their bodies are built for scavenging. Their extremely strong, sharp and hooked beaks can tear a carcass apart, but since they do not catch live animals, their talons are not as sharp as other birds of prey. Some vultures because of their smaller size, like the Hooded Vulture, have adapted to eating termites and lizards.
  • They have strong stomach acid, which is exceptionally corrosive and allows them to safely digest putrid carcasses infected with botulism, cholera, anthrax and even rabies that might be lethal to other scavengers.
  • They generally have bald heads and necks devoid of feathers, to avoid fostering bacteria growth that might be caused by blood and meat from carcass.
  • Vultures urinate on their legs and feet to cool off on days, a process called Urohydrosis. This also helps kill any bacteria or parasites they may have picked up on their talons.

4 Interesting facts about vultures

  1. Although they feed on dead animals, they bathe after eating.
  2. Vultures are relatively social and often feed, fly or roost in large flocks. A group of vultures is called a committee, venue or volt. In flight, a flock of vultures is called a kettle, and when the birds are feeding together at a carcass, the group is called a wake.
  3. The Indian vultures were on the verge of extinction because of the use of a veterinary drug found in carcass of livestock.
  4. The first Saturday in Spetember is recognised as International Vulture Awareness Day.
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Marie Curie Biography http://mocomi.com/marie-curie/ http://mocomi.com/marie-curie/#comments Fri, 08 Sep 2017 10:16:27 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96518 Who was Marie Curie? Marie Curie was born on 7th November, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only woman to win the award in two fields of science, Physics and Chemistry. She died on July 4, 1934, in France, due to aplastic anemia, caused by […]

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Marie Curie Biography

Who was Marie Curie?

Marie Curie was born on 7th November, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only woman to win the award in two fields of science, Physics and Chemistry. She died on July 4, 1934, in France, due to aplastic anemia, caused by prolonged exposure to radiation.

What is Marie Curie best known for?

She is the most famous female scientists of all times and has received several posthumous honours. Marie Curie made many breakthroughs in her life and she along with her husband Pierre Curie’s research led to the discovery of radium and polonium.

Early life and education

Born as Maria Sklodowska, and the daughter of teachers, Marie Curie was the youngest of five children and took after her father, Wladysław, with her aptitude for Math and Physics. At the age of 10, she lost her mother, Bronislawa, to tuberculosis.

A top student in her school, Marie Curie was unable to attend the men only University of Warsaw. She continued her education in Warsaw’s ‘Floating University’ informal classes, that were conducted.

Marie helped her sister Bronislawa to complete her medical studies in Paris, while she worked to support them, in exchange for the same support.

In late 1891, she left Poland for France and enrolled at the University of Paris, to study Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. She underwent severe hardships while following through with her education. In 1893, she was awarded a degree in Physics and began working in an industrial laboratory of Professor Gabriel Lippmann.

Marie and Pierre Curie

With the aid of a fellowship, she was able to earn a second degree in 1894. Marie began her scientific career with a commission to study magnetic properties of different types of steels. She met her husband Pierre Curie around this time. Their mutual interest soon developed into deep feelings and they married.

Their eldest daughter Irene was a scientist and a Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry.

Marie Curie’s research and discoveries

  • In 1895, after Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the existence of X – rays and Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium salts emitted rays that resembled X – rays, Marie Curie decided to look into Uranium rays as a research thesis. This research brought Pierre and Marie their first Nobel Prize along with Henri Becquerel in Physics, in 1903.
  • Their journey continued with their work on X Rays, Radium and Polonium bringing them several accolades. Their contribution to science paved the way for nuclear and atomic energy sciences. Pierre Curie lost his life in 1906, due to an accident.
  • Marie Curie received her second Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of the elements, Radium and Polonium, in 1911.
  • In 1995, Marie Curie were enshrined in the Pantheon in Paris. She was the first woman to be honoured for her achievements.

Top 4 quotes by Marie Curie

  1. I am among those who think that science has great beauty.
  2. It was like a new world opened to me, the world of science, which I was at last permitted to know in all liberty.
  3. One never notices what has been done; one can only see what remains to be done.
  4. Scientist believe in things, not in person.
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What is sound? http://mocomi.com/what-is-sound/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-sound/#comments Thu, 07 Sep 2017 10:40:32 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96501 What is sound in physics? Sound is a longitudinal, mechanical wave. It is caused by the back and forth vibration of the particles of the medium through which the sound wave is moving. The vibrations of the object set particles in the surrounding medium in vibrational motion, causing the auditory receptors to detect them. This […]

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What is sound?

What is sound in physics?

Sound is a longitudinal, mechanical wave. It is caused by the back and forth vibration of the particles of the medium through which the sound wave is moving. The vibrations of the object set particles in the surrounding medium in vibrational motion, causing the auditory receptors to detect them. This is called sound.

Does sound need a medium to travel?

Yes, sound needs a medium to travel. It can travel through any medium, but it cannot travel through a vacuum. Sound is absent in outer space, as there is no medium to carry sound vibrations.

When the vibrations are fast, you hear a high note, and when the vibrations are slow, it creates a low note.

What are the components of a sound wave?

Wavelength – A sound wave is created due to pressure variations caused by vibrations. There are low pressure areas and high pressure areas. The high pressure areas are represented as crests and low pressure areas as troughs.

The physical distance between two consecutive crests or troughs in a sound wave is referred to as a wavelength.

Amplitude – In sound waves, amplitude refers to the magnitude of compression or expansion experienced by the medium the sound wave is travelling through.

High amplitude means loud noise. Low amplitude means low sound.

Pitch – Pitch/Frequency in a sound wave refers to the rate of the vibration of a particular sound travelling through air. It is calculated in cycles per second. The SI Unit for Frequency is Hertz.

The speed or velocity is calculated as frequency multiplied by wavelength.

Velocity of Sound = Frequency X Wavelength

What are the types of sound?

There are two types of sound, Audible and Inaudible.

  • Inaudible sounds are sounds that the human ear cannot detect. The human ear hears frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 KHz.
  • Sounds that are below 20 Hz frequency are called Infrasonic Sounds. Elephants use Infrasonic sounds to communicate with herds 100s of kms away.
  • Sounds that are above 20 KHz frequency are called Ultrasonic Sounds. Dogs, Bats can hear high frequency sounds.

6 Interesting facts about sound

  1. Sounds travel at 340.29 m/second at sea level and 20 degrees celsius.
  2. Sounds that are higher in frequency than audible sounds are known as ultrasonic sounds. Bats, whales, dolphins, dogs use ultra sound for echo location (to find either their location or to find or locate food, prey, or enemies and danger) and navigation.
  3. A cat can hear high frequency sounds two octaves higher than humans.
  4. Elephant communicate in sound waves in lower frequencies that human ears cannot detect.
  5. The study of sound waves is called acoustics.
  6. Flies are unable to hear any sounds.
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Kingdom Classification of Living Organisms http://mocomi.com/kingdom-classification-of-living-organisms/ http://mocomi.com/kingdom-classification-of-living-organisms/#comments Wed, 06 Sep 2017 09:37:19 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96489 What is classification of kingdoms of living organisms? In biology, classification of kingdoms is very important as living organisms need to be classified to study and to understand them better. Who created the classification of living things? Classification of living things was first formalised by Carolus Linnaeus (also known as Carl Linnaeus), a Swedish botanist, […]

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Kingdom Classification of Living Organisms

What is classification of kingdoms of living organisms?

In biology, classification of kingdoms is very important as living organisms need to be classified to study and to understand them better.

Who created the classification of living things?

Classification of living things was first formalised by Carolus Linnaeus (also known as Carl Linnaeus), a Swedish botanist, and zoologist, in 1735. He classified all living things as Plants and Animals on the basis of nutrition and locomotion (mobility).

The two classification system however did not indicate an evolutionary relationship between plants and animals and grouped unicellular and multicellular organisms together and some organisms were not classifiable based on the limiting parameters, including viruses.

The classification of living organisms took on a new journey with the discovery of the microscope. New organism were discovered, and new classification became necessary. Today the classification of living organism consists of six kingdoms.

How did the six kingdom of classification come to be?

The German biologist Earnst Haeckel in 1866, in his book Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, had classified the living world into three kingdoms : Protista, Plants and Animals. The group Protista included all single celled organisms that are intermediate in many respects between plants and animals.

R H Whittaker, an American Taxonomist, classified all living things in a five kingdom classification in 1969. They were Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plants and Animals.

They were classified on the basis of:

  • Complexity of cell structure
  • Complexity of body organisation
  • The mode of nutrition
  • Life style (ecological role)
  • Phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationships

The six kingdoms of classification which is the current standard of classification of all living things was defined around 1980. It was defined by Carl Richard Woese, an American microbiologist.

He based this classification on his studies of ribosomal RNA. His studies made it possible to divide the prokaryotes into two kingdoms, called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.

What are the six kingdoms of living organisms?

1. Archeabacteria –

  • They are very primitive single celled organisms that live in harsh and severe environments.
  • Prokaryote
  • No true nucleus
  • Unicellular
  • Autotrophic or Heterotrophic
  • Live in extreme conditions and are chemically different from Eubacteria

2. Eubacteria –

  • They are classified as true bacteria and have rigid cell walls.
  • Prokaryote
  • No true nucleus
  • Unicellular
  • Autotrophic or Heterotrophic
  • Live everywhere – “true bacteria”

3. Protist –

  • They are classified as neither plants, animals or fungi. They are generally unicellular.
  • Eukaryote
  • True nucleus
  • Most are unicellular
  • Autotrophic or Heterotrophic
  • Can be protozoa, algae, funguslike, autotrophic, heterotrophic, unicellular or multicellular

4. Fungi –

  • They are classified separately from plants because of the absence of cellulose in their cell walls and the presence of chitin, a hard substance uncommon in plant cells.
  • Eukaryote
  • True nucleus
  • Multicellular (except for yeast)
  • Heterotrophic
  • Digest their food outside of their bodies

5. Plant –

  • They are classified based on the fact that they are multicellular, have chlorophyll and can manufacture their own food.
  • Eukaryote
  • True Nucleus
  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophic
  • All multicellular autotrophs
  • Start food chains, no life on Earth without plants

6. Animal –

  • They are classified based on the fact that they are multi – cellular, have mostly internal digestive systems and do not have rigid cellular walls.
  • Eukaryote
  • True Nucleus
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • All multicellular heterotrophs
  • Largest known kingdom with over 1 million species
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Early to bed and early to rise! http://mocomi.com/early-to-bed-and-early-to-rise/ http://mocomi.com/early-to-bed-and-early-to-rise/#comments Fri, 01 Sep 2017 10:55:28 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96477 If you are a night owl, it is time to change your sleeping habits. Benefits of early to bed and early to rise An early riser reaps many benefits. Research has shown that children who go to bed early and wake up early are smarter and tend to get good grades in academics. They are […]

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Early to bed and early to rise!

If you are a night owl, it is time to change your sleeping habits.

Benefits of early to bed and early to rise

An early riser reaps many benefits. Research has shown that children who go to bed early and wake up early are smarter and tend to get good grades in academics. They are more positive and can plan their day accordingly. Going early to bed gives your body that relaxation time and you wake up feeling energetic and rested. Mornings are the time when your mind is fresh and best for revisions and studying or finishing up the leftover homework. Sleeping early also keeps your immune system strong, keeping you away from the seasonal coughs and colds. When you sleep early, you are ready to take on the next day with more energy.

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Degrees of Comparison in English http://mocomi.com/degrees-of-comparison-in-english/ http://mocomi.com/degrees-of-comparison-in-english/#comments Thu, 31 Aug 2017 13:20:54 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96460 What are Degrees of Comparison? Degrees of Comparison are adjectives that change form and are used to compare one thing or person to another. They are applicable to adjectives and adverbs and not to nouns and verbs. 3 Types of Degrees of Comparison? Degrees of Comparison are of three types. 1. Positive Degree The positive […]

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Degrees of Comparison in English

What are Degrees of Comparison?

Degrees of Comparison are adjectives that change form and are used to compare one thing or person to another.

They are applicable to adjectives and adverbs and not to nouns and verbs.

3 Types of Degrees of Comparison?

Degrees of Comparison are of three types.

1. Positive Degree

The positive degree of an adjective in comparison is the adjective in its simple form. It is used to denote the existing state of a person or thing and is used when no comparison is made.

2. Comparative Degree

The comparative degree of an adjective in Degrees of Comparison denotes the higher degree of the quality than the positive. It is used when two things or two sets of things are compared.

3. Superlative Degree

The superlative degree conveys the highest quality of a person or a thing. It is used when more than two people or things are compared.

Examples of the three types of Degrees of Comparision

Positive Comparative Superlative
high higher highest
fast faster fastest
strong stronger strongest
bright brighter brighter
black blacker blackest
bold bolder boldest
clever cleverer cleverest
cold colder coldest
great greater greatest
kind kinder kindest
long longer longest
small smaller smallest
sweet sweeter sweetest
tall taller tallest
fast faster fastest
young younger youngest

Now let’s try an exercise. Fill in the blanks in the following sentence.

1. There are very few places as _________________ as Paris.
Option : pretty / prettier / prettiest
Answer : pretty Positive Degree
2. Of the two, who is __________________ ?
Option : tall / taller / tallest
Answer : taller Comparative Degree
3. This is the _________________ house in the neighbourhood.
Option : big / bigger / biggest
Answer : biggest Superlative Degree
4. There is nothing ___________________ than a glass of water.
Option : good / better / best
Answer : better Comparative Degree
5. There is nothing as ___________________ as a glass of water.
Option : good / better / best
Answer : good Positive Degree

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Rational and Irrational Numbers http://mocomi.com/rational-and-irrational-numbers/ http://mocomi.com/rational-and-irrational-numbers/#comments Wed, 30 Aug 2017 08:48:17 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96439 What are numbers? A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and label. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc are called natural numbers. What is a rational number? A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a fraction with an integer numerator and a positive integer denominator. Two different fractions may […]

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Rational and Irrational Numbers

What are numbers?

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and label.
1, 2, 3, 4, etc are called natural numbers.

What is a rational number?

A rational number is a number that can be expressed as a fraction with an integer numerator and a positive integer denominator. Two different fractions may correspond to the same rational number.
1/2 = 2/4
Every whole number is a rational number. These can be written as N/1 = N, so they are rational numbers.

What is a negative rational number?

A rational number is said to be negative, if its numerator and denominator are of opposite signs, that is, one is a positive integer, and the other a negative one: example – -1/6, -30/11

What is an irrational number?

An irrational number is any number that is not rational. It is a number that cannot be written as a ratio of two integers or cannot be written as a fraction.
The square root of 7 is an irrational number.
If a fraction has a denominator of zero, it is an irrational number : example – 9/0

Is zero a rational number or an irrational number?

Zero (0) is a rational number as it can be computed as zero in a fraction. Zero divided by any integer will equal to a zero.

What is the difference between rational and irrational?

  • Rational numbers can be expressed in fractions, where the denominator is not zero. Irrational numbers cannot be expressed in fractions.
  • Rational numbers include perfect squares like 9, 16, 25, 36, 49 etc. Irrational numbers have to be left in their root form and cannot be simplified like 2, 3, 5, 7, 11 etc.
  • Rational numbers include decimals which are finite and repeating. Irrational numbers include numbers whose decimal expansion is infinite, non- repetitive and shows no pattern.

3 Fun facts about rational and irrational numbers

  1. π (Pi) is a famous irrational number. You cannot write down a simple fraction that equals Pi.
    The value of π = 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510…
  2. The Golden Ratio is an irrational number. Two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.
    The first few digits of the golden ratio = 1.61803398874989484820…
  3. The square root of the number two is an irrational number.
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Types of questions in English http://mocomi.com/types-of-questions-in-english/ http://mocomi.com/types-of-questions-in-english/#comments Tue, 29 Aug 2017 13:34:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96429 Different types of questions in English There are many types of questions that the English language has. A sentence which asks a question is known as an Interrogative sentence. But every interrogative sentence is not the same. Here are the different types of questions in English. 1. Yes/No questions This is the simplest type of […]

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Types of questions in English

Different types of questions in English

There are many types of questions that the English language has. A sentence which asks a question is known as an Interrogative sentence. But every interrogative sentence is not the same. Here are the different types of questions in English.

1. Yes/No questions

This is the simplest type of question in English Language. These types of questions are such which expect the answers as either a Yes or No. Though, sometimes they can be accompanied with a reason but not always.

Example:
Can I have a glass of water?
Do you like mangoes?
Did you hear what I said?

2. Choice questions

These types of questions ask the other person to choose between two or more options, which are presented to them. These options are connected to each other using the conjunction OR.
Example:
Would you like to have chocolate or butter scotch?
Who do you like more, Harry or Ron or Hermione?
What do you prefer, dogs or cats?

3. ‘Wh’ questions

These are those questions that start with the words having ‘Wh’ in them. Such words are: Why, when, where, what, who, whose, which
Example:
What is your name?
When is the movie going to start?
Whose book is this?
There are other questions that do not start with ‘Wh’ but do fall in this category. These are the ‘how’ questions.
How are you?
How much is that shirt for?

4. Indirect Questions

These are also known as embedded questions. They are not asked directly but are embedded within another sentence or question. They are either polite questions or reported speech.
Example:
Could you tell me if the next train is on schedule? (indirect)
Is the next train on schedule? (Direct)
I was wondering if I can have a piece of the cake? (Indirect)
Can I have a piece of the cake? (Direct)
Do you know where I can find a water filter? (Indirect)
Where can I find a water filter? (Direct)

5. Rhetorical questions

These are such questions that do not expect any answers and are used for expression or stylist purposes. Such questions are mostly expressions or reactions. This is the reason why they are mostly written with an exclamation mark instead of a question mark.
Example:
Are you really serious?
What! I really got the job?
Girl- I think I will have to cancel the meeting today?
Boy- What? But everything is scheduled.

Understanding the four types of questions worksheet

1. Use the different words to form Yes/No questions:

You, Delhi, from, Are

  • From Delhi, are you?
  • You are from Delhi?
  • Are you from Delhi?

Right Answer Are you from Delhi?

They, do, horses, have

  • Do they have horses?
  • Have horses, do they?
  • They horses, do have?

Right Answer Do they have horses?

2. Form Wh/how questions:

Dinner, is, what, for

  • What dinner is for?
  • What is for dinner?
  • What for is dinner?

Right Answer What is for dinner?

Spell, name, your, you, do, how

  • How you do spell your name?
  • How your name do you spell?
  • How do you spell your name?

Right Answer How you do spell your name?

3. Change these direct questions into indirect questions:

  • What do you mean by that?
  • What do you mean by that, tell me?
  • What you do mean by that, tell me?
  • Tell me, what do you mean by that?

Right Answer Tell me, what do you mean by that?

  • What are your plans?
  • Would like to know your plans?
  • I would like to know what are your plans?
  • What plans do you have?

Right Answer I would like to know what are your plans?

4. Which of these are rhetorical questions?

A1. a. How are you? b. Sure, why not? (Right Answer)

A2. a. Are you sad? b. Are you kidding me? (Right Answer)

A3. a. Is there anything I can do? b. Where have you been all my life? (Right Answer)

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Swami Vivekananda Biography http://mocomi.com/swami-vivekananda/ http://mocomi.com/swami-vivekananda/#comments Mon, 28 Aug 2017 09:13:18 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96419 Where was Vivekananda born? Swami Vivekananda was born Narendranath Datta on 12th January, 1863, to an aristrocratic Bengali family of Calcutta. His father, Vishwanath Datta was an attorney at the Calcutta High Court, and his mother, Bhubaneshwari Devi was a devout housewife. The progressive and rational thinking of his parents mixed with a deep rooted […]

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Swami Vivekananda Biography

Where was Vivekananda born?

Swami Vivekananda was born Narendranath Datta on 12th January, 1863, to an aristrocratic Bengali family of Calcutta. His father, Vishwanath Datta was an attorney at the Calcutta High Court, and his mother, Bhubaneshwari Devi was a devout housewife. The progressive and rational thinking of his parents mixed with a deep rooted spirituality shaped young Narendranath’s mind.

As a young boy, Swami Vivekananda excelled in music, gymnastics and studies. He went on in life to become one of the greatest Indians to introduce the philosophies of Yoga and Vedanta to the Western world. He is also credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the 19th Century.

Early Years

Swami Vivekananda was one of nine siblings. He was spiritually inclined at an early age, fascinated by wandering ascetics and monks.

His education was both a mix of Western and Indian worlds. He studied Western philosophies, religion, history, social science, art and literature along with the Puranas, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads and the Vedas. Around this time, he was also briefly introduced to the Brahmo Samaj.

In 1881, he passed the Fine Arts examination and completed his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884, from General Assembly’s Institution, where the principal described him to be a genius, with an amazing sense and understanding of philosophies.

Over the course of several years, Swami Vivekananda studied various schools of esoteric philosophies. He first met Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, who was to later become his Guru, in 1881. His meeting with Ramakrishna again in 1884, after his father’s death, was a life changing event.

He turned toward a monastic life and after Ramakrishna’s death from throat cancer, Swami Vivekananda and the other disciples were left without shelter. He decided to convert a dilapidated house to establish the first Ramakrishna Math at Baranagar and start the monastic order of Ramakrishna.

Monastic Vows and Life After

Swami Vivekanada took his formal monastic vows along with the other disciples, in 1886. He assumed the name Swami Vivekananda much later.

In 1888, Swami Vivekanada left the monastery after receiving the blessings of Sarada Devi, Ramakrishna’s wife and embarked on a journey around India.

The Ramakrishna Mission

The more he travelled, he understood, how poor and backward the masses were. And how important it was to uplift the poor, educate both men and women, and this sowed the seed for the Ramakrishna Mission.

After he had travelled for five years around India, he travelled to the United States of America, after spending a few months in Japan, China and Canada. He attended the Parliament of World’s Religions on 11th September, 1893, at Chicago, where he spoke on Vedanta, Advaita and Hinduism and its philosophies.

He spent three years, lecturing, touring, travelling around the various cities of United States of America.

Back to India – 1897 – 1899 and Death

Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission on 1st May, 1897, in Calcutta. Its ideals were based on Karma Yoga. He further established two other ashrams, one in Mayavati, near Almora and one in Madras (Chennai), and founded two journals.
After another tour of the United States and France, Swami Vivekananda settled down at the Belur Math. On July 4th, 1902, he left his earthly body and attained samadhi.

Swami Vivekananda – Legacy

He inspired the freedom fighters of India like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Gandhiji. Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore is also deeply influenced by his writings and teachings. His influence to this day extends into Hinduism, the way we look at Neo -Vedanta and Advaita philosophies.

Swami Vivekananda – Teachings

  1. New Understanding of Religion and the explanation that reality is common to all humanity and that science and religion are not contradictory but complementary.
  2. New View of Man
  3. New Principle of Morality and Ethics
  4. Bridge between East and West

His birthday is celebrated as National Youth Day.

Swami Vivekananda – Quotes

  1. All that man has to do is to take care of three things; good thought, good word, good deed.
  2. Self-sacrifice, indeed, is the basis of all civilisations.
  3. Please everyone without becoming a hypocrite or a coward.
  4. The real individuality is that which never changes and will never change; and that is the God within us.
  5. Strength is the property of everyone in spite of all apparent weakness.
  6. Through education comes faith in one’s own Self.
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What is a phrase? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-phrase/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-phrase/#comments Fri, 25 Aug 2017 12:55:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96402 Definition of phrase in English A group of words that do not use a subject or a predicate to communicate a thought and is used as part of a clause. A phrase is used as a mode of expression and is always incomplete on its own. Identify the phrase Examples: It was a very bright, […]

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What is a phrase?

Definition of phrase in English

A group of words that do not use a subject or a predicate to communicate a thought and is used as part of a clause. A phrase is used as a mode of expression and is always incomplete on its own.

Identify the phrase

Examples:

It was a very bright, sunny day.
It was a very
bright, sunny day.
Answer: Phrase

He was walking on the cool, wet grass.
He was walking on the
cool, wet grass.
Answer: Phrase

The tower has steep and high steps
The tower has steep and high steps
Answer: Phrase

9 Types of phrases

Phrase have been classified into 9 types.

1. Noun Phrase

This type of phrase acts like a noun in a sentence.
Examples: 
She has a very nice smile
Answer: Noun Phrase
He has made a very comfortable life for himself.
Answer : Noun Phrase

2. Prepositional Phrase

This type of phrase uses an object of preposition (noun or pronoun) and a preposition. It uses words like before, after, near, on, above, at, in a, etc.
Examples: 
The cat with him is an expensive pedigree.
Answer: Prepositional Phrase
There are several rare plants by the river.
Answer: Prepositional Phrase

3. Adjective Phrase

This type of phrase acts like an adjective in a sentence. It modifies a noun or a pronoun.
Examples: 
The unicorn has a beautiful blue tail.
Answer: Adjective Phrase
The girl from my town won a scholarship.
Answer: Answer : Adjective Phrase

4. Adverb Phrase

This type of phrase acts like an adverb in a sentence. It modifies a verb, adverb or an adjective. It has words like how, when, where or why.
Examples: 
It’s funny how quickly time passed.
Answer: Answer : Adverb Phrase
He worked from home for a few hours.
Answer: Answer : Adverb Phrase

5. Verb Phrase

This type of phrase has a verb with another helping verb. It uses words like am, is, are, was, were, being, may, might etc.
Examples: 
He may need some help with his homework.
Answer: Answer : Verb Phrase
She did do what she had set out to do.
Answer: Answer : Verb Phase

6. Infinitive Phrase

These type of phrase uses an infinitive which acts like a noun, an adjective or an adverb.
Examples: 
He lives to please others.
Answer: Answer : Infinitive Phrase
I have a desire to drive a car.
Answer: Infinitive Phrase

7. Gerund Phrase

This type of phrase uses a gerund to complete a thought. The gerund phrase functions like a noun.
Examples: 
The cawing crows were such a nuisance.
Answer: Gerund Phrase
We had lots of fun trying to cook outdoors.
Answer: Gerund Phrase

8. Participle Phrase

This type of phrase uses either present participle or past participle verb and acts like an adjective. It uses a comma or commas to punctuate in a sentence.
Examples: 
The young mother, raising her kids, needs extra support.
Answer: Answer : Participle Phrase
The sky, turning a pale shade of pink, was a sight to behold.
Answer: Answer : Participle Phrase

9. Absolute Phrase

This type of phrase is called a nominative phrase. It uses a noun, a pronoun or a participle and tells more about the sentence. It looks like a clause, but doesn’t have a true finite verb. It is separated by a comma in a sentence.
Examples: 
The storm having left, the city calmed down.
Answer: Answer : Absolute Phrase
After the sun had risen, the boys set out on their trek uphill.
Answer: Answer : Absolute Phrase

Try this fun exercise and identify the types of phrase.

He was walking in the forest and came across a small hut made of spun sugar. The house was pink and yellow. He told himself, this must be the hidden kingdom of fairies. He heard hushed laughter. The laugh sounded like that of a fairy. He looked around to a see small fairy playing with the caterpillar. The caterpillar was sad. It was time for him to go into his cocoon. The fairy teased him and said he would come out looking ugly. No one was as pretty as the fairy. The boy walked closer to the fairy. The fairy and the caterpillar disappeared.

  • was walking (Answer : Gerund Phrase)
  • made of spun sugar (Answer : Adjective Phrase)
  • must be (Answer : Verb Phrase)
  • hushed laughter (Answer : Noun Phrase)
  • looked around (Answer : Verb Phrase)
  • playing with the caterpillar (Answer : Participle Phrase)
  • to go (Answer : Absolute Phrase)
  • come out looking ugly (Answer : Prepositional Phrase)
  • pretty as a fairy (Answer : Adjective Phrase)
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There are ghost words that mean nothing! http://mocomi.com/there-are-ghost-words-that-mean-nothing/ http://mocomi.com/there-are-ghost-words-that-mean-nothing/#comments Fri, 25 Aug 2017 08:59:06 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96393 Em: Why are you sitting with such a fat book Emma? I could never read such big books. Emma: It isn’t a book Em, it’s a dictionary, see. Em: Oh! So, tell me which word are you looking for? Emma: I am trying to find if there are any ghost words in it. Em: Hahaha… […]

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There are ghost words that mean nothing!

Em: Why are you sitting with such a fat book Emma? I could never read such big books.
Emma: It isn’t a book Em, it’s a dictionary, see.
Em: Oh! So, tell me which word are you looking for?
Emma: I am trying to find if there are any ghost words in it.
Em: Hahaha… did you just say ghost word? What is that? And if it is a ghost can you really find it? Does the word look scary? Ha ha.

What are ghost words?

Reason: Actually Em, you just answered your question. It is difficult to find a ghost word in a dictionary. But a ghost word is a word which doesn’t have any meaning and has been printed in the dictionary. These words are not used anywhere.
Emma: I know what Em is going to ask now..why put them in a dictionary in the first place?
Em: Exactly. Why print them if these words are not used anywhere?
Reason: Well, believe it or not…sometimes there are some words that have been printed in the dictionary due to a printing mistake or an error like typographical or linguistic confusion. There is one such fake word- dord, which made its way to Webster’s dictionary and remained there for five long years before being discovered.
Emma: There, can you see the ghosts now Em? Do they look scary to you? Eh?

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Nikola Tesla Biography http://mocomi.com/nikola-tesla-biography/ http://mocomi.com/nikola-tesla-biography/#comments Thu, 24 Aug 2017 10:50:00 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96386 If we ask you to look up the encyclopedia and find out who invented the radio or X-rays, neon lights that we use so often in the parties or the microwave that we use every day in the kitchen, you will never find anything about Nikola Tesla there. But the fact is otherwise! It was […]

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Nikola Tesla Biography

If we ask you to look up the encyclopedia and find out who invented the radio or X-rays, neon lights that we use so often in the parties or the microwave that we use every day in the kitchen, you will never find anything about Nikola Tesla there. But the fact is otherwise! It was Nikola Tesla who did the main homework for the development of all the aforementioned things and the technology behind them. Yes, whether you believe it or not, the truth is that even though Tesla lived about a hundred and sixty years ago, he helped in developing technology that is used by all of us every single day. Sadly, he was never given the credit he truly deserved due to some unfortunate circumstances.

Early childhood

Nikola Tesla was born on July 10, 1856 in Smiljan, Croatia. His mother was an inventor and his father was a priest. His parents wanted him to become a priest like his father, but he had a passion for studying Science. He studied Science at the University of Prague and then started working for the Central Telephone Exchange in Budapest.

Tesla and Edison

At the age of 28, Tesla decided to go to America in pursuit of his desire to create new inventions. Upon moving to the United States, Tesla started working with the famous American inventor, Thomas Edison. While working together, a disagreement occurred between Tesla and Edison over Edison’s direct current and Tesla’s alternating current. This was also known as the “war of the currents.” Edison lamps were supplied with direct current which made them weak and inefficient. The direct current could not travel for long distances. On the other hand, Tesla’s alternating current was able to travel long distances on distribution lines, first in one direction, and then in another in multiple waves.

Tesla Electric Light Company

The disagreements created a lot of bitterness between the two scientists and Tesla eventually left Edison to create his own company called the Tesla Electric Light Company. His work caught the attention of another American inventor, George Westinghouse. They joined hands and started working together to generate electricity for the nation. Edison and Tesla were now in direct competition for providing America with energy and power. In 1893, Tesla’s AC electrical system was selected over Edison’s at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It was a big accomplishment for Tesla. But, as luck would have it, Westinghouse ran into financial trouble and Tesla had to walk out of the partnership by selling his patent.

Wireless Broadcasting System

A year later, in 1896, Tesla created the world’s first hydroelectric power plant, which brought power to the city of Buffalo, New York. This invention brought Tesla considerable fame and recognition for a short while. During 1899 to 1900, Tesla continued to experiment with electricity and radio frequency magnetic waves in his laboratory based in Colorado. In 1900, supported by financier J.P. Morgan, Tesla started construction of a “Wireless Broadcasting System” tower on Long Island, New York. The aim of constructing this tower was to connect telephone and telegraph services, as well as broadcast images, reports, and weather information to every corner of the world. But due to certain reasons, J.P. Morgan had to cut funding and the tower had to be sold off.

Research gets stolen!

Tesla never had the gods of destiny working in his favor and there was more to come. During this period of turmoil, Tesla’s research work was stolen and used as their own by his contemporary scientists. Marconi is alleged to have passed off Tesla’s work on long-distance radio transmission as his own. Tesla decided to sue Marconi but it was too late. Though Tesla’s patents were prior to Marconi, the national press was out rightly supporting Marconi and the judge did not know a thing about modern technology. Naturally, Tesla lost his case. Much Later, in 1943, the US Supreme court conducted a detailed investigation, reversed the old decision given by the court and granted recognition to Tesla, nullifying Marconi patents.

Death

You would be surprised to know that Tesla had over 800 different patents to his name, and despite that he was penniless. Ridicule from his own colleagues, lack of recognition by the public, drove him into a life of depression and self-imposed exile. He started jotting down his theories and research activities in his diaries and notebooks instead of getting them published anywhere. It is absolutely ironical that the man who invented the modern world died a pauper in a lonely hotel room on January 7, 1943 at the age of 86. Half a century after his death, scientists are still trying to comprehend and study his various theories. Many of them are just now being proven. It is indeed sad that we never managed to recognize and appreciate a true genius like Tesla in his lifetime. But, now that you know all about him, you can make an endeavor to give Nikola Tesla his due credit, no matter belated it is.

Famous Quotes

  • “I dont care that they stole my idea . . I care that they dont have any of their own.”
  • “My brain is only a receiver, in the Universe there is a core from which we obtain knowledge, strength and inspiration. I have not penetrated into the secrets of this core, but I know that it exists.”
  • “The scientific man does not aim at an immediate result. He does not expect that his advanced ideas will be readily taken up. His work is like that of the planter – for the future. His duty is to lay the foundation for those who are to come, and point the way. He lives and labors and hopes.”
  • “I do not think there is any thrill that can go through the human heart like that felt by the inventor as he sees some creation of the brain unfolding to success . . . Such emotions make a man forget food, sleep, friends, love, everything.”
  • “The scientific man does not aim at an immediate result. He does not expect that his advanced ideas will be readily taken up. His work is like that of the planter—for the future. His duty is to lay the foundation for those who are to come, and point the way.”
  • “All that was great in the past was ridiculed, condemned, combated, suppressed — only to emerge all the more powerfully, all the more triumphantly from the struggle.”

11 Interesting fun facts about Nikola Tesla

  1. Tesla suffered from insomnia and obsessive compulsive behavior (OCD).
  2. Tesla was a genius in the true sense of the word; he could speak 8 languages and had the ability to memorize a large amount of information. You could ask him to recite any portion from anywhere from his book and he would have done it in a jiffy!
  3. He was extremely fond of pigeons.
  4. The International Unit of Magnetic Flux Density is called “Tesla” after him.
  5. Tesla discovered X-ray radiation years before Roentgen was credited with its discovery.
  6. Tesla had proposed to build a radio controlled boat to the U.S. military.
  7. Though Tesla did not invent the light itself, he did find out the way to harness and distribute light over long distances.
  8. He also predicted the internet by once saying: “The household’s daily newspaper will one day be printed ‘wirelessly’ in the home during the night”.
  9. He claimed to have designed a death ray that could electrocute the enemy army from a distance of over 200 miles.
  10. His work with electromagnetic waves resulted in the invention of the radio, radar and the MRI, a type of X-Ray that has enabled us to look inside the human body
  11. During World War I, different countries were desperately looking for ways and means to detect enemy submarines under water. Tesla proposed the use of energy waves – the present day radar system technology – to detect the subs. However, the idea was rejected by all the scientists and military establishments as absurd and far-fetched. Sad, isn’t it? So, what happened thereafter? Well, the world then waited many more years for radars to be re-invented.
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What is a clause? http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-clause/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-a-clause/#comments Wed, 23 Aug 2017 13:19:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96366 Definition of clause A clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a predicate. Every complete sentence is made of atleast one clause. Examples: Michelle runs every morning. The sentence has both : Subject – Michelle Predicate – runs The sentence has one subject – Michelle. It speaks about Michelle, who […]

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What is a clause?

Definition of clause

A clause is a group of words that has both a subject and a predicate. Every complete sentence is made of atleast one clause.

Examples: Michelle runs every morning.
The sentence has both :
Subject – Michelle
Predicate – runs
The sentence has one subject – Michelle. It speaks about Michelle, who runs every morning. So the sentence has one clause.

Different types of clauses with examples

Independent clause

These clauses can complete a sentence independently.

Examples
Tara is a marathon runner.
This sentence has one clause. It is a simple sentence. You don’t need another clause, to complete it to speak about Tara’s action.
If we need to describe more about Tara, then we need to add more clauses. This makes the sentence compound, complex or compound – complex. The clause that we add will then be a dependent clause or clauses.

Most sentence we use in our language are complex. These sentences are complex.
Michelle runs every morning, but she has never run a marathon.
Tara runs the marathon, because she is fit and strong.
It has one subject and two clause. Can you find them and identify which is the main clause and which is the sub-ordinate clause?

Michelle runs every morning, but she has never run a marathon.
Michelle runs every morning.
Answer : Main Clause
she has never run a marathon
Answer: Subordinate Clause

Tara runs the marathon, because she is fit and strong.
Tara runs the marathon
Answer : Main Clause
because she is fit and strong.
Answer : Subordinate Clause

Dependent clause

A dependent clause cannot complete a thought to be communicated on its own. It will need another clause to complete the sentence.

Dependent or sub-ordinate clause are of three types:

1. Noun clause

The noun clause plays the role of a noun in a sentence. Noun clauses contain a subject and a verb. They cannot stand on their own because they are not a complete thought and must be paired with the main clause. When using a noun clause, no commas are used.

Noun clause use words like Who, Whom, Whose, Which, Whoever, Whatever, Whenever, Whether, That if, What etc, to complete a thought when a single noun is not enough.

2. Adjective clause

The adjective clause plays the role like an adjective and modifies a noun or pronoun. it contains a subject and a verb that provides a description. Adjective clauses do not change the basic meaning of the sentence. They use commas if they are adding information to the sentence.

Adjective clause use words like That, When, Where, Who, Whom, Whose, Which and Why to provide information that is necessary for identifying the word it modifies. It provides additional meaning to a word which is already clear and always contains a subject and a verb.

3. Adverb clause

The adverb clause plays the role of modifying a verb, a clause, another adverb or any other phrase with the exception of determiners and adjectives that directly modify nouns.

Adverb clauses contain subordinate conjunctions that prevent them from containing complete thoughts and becoming full sentences. Adverb clause always answer the questions When, Why and How in a sentence.

Identify the type of clause

1. Is this the white dress you wore last week?
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – adjective clause

2. The doctor said she was ill and that she should take her medicine.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – noun clause

3. You may practice piano till 7 pm daily.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – adverb clause

4. Whatever you choose will be fine.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – noun clause

5. The house that I once lived in is for sale.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – adjective clause

6. Please sit down whenever you drink water.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – adverb clause

7. The lady who drives the red car lives next door.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – adjective clause

8. The magical frog disappeared whenever someone appeared.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – noun clause

9. They have a cat that likes boiled fish.
· Noun
· Adjective
· Adverb
Answer – adjective clause

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What is the Pythagorean Theorem? http://mocomi.com/what-is-the-pythagorean-theorem/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-the-pythagorean-theorem/#comments Tue, 22 Aug 2017 13:40:09 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96353 Who was Pythagoras? Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher and is a revered mathematician who lived from 570 to 495 BC. As a mathematician, he is known as the father of numbers, or a pure mathematician. He is given credit for the Pythagorean Theorem, though the concept has been recorded by the Babylonians. Pythagorean Theorem Formula […]

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What is the Pythagorean Theorem?

Who was Pythagoras?

Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher and is a revered mathematician who lived from 570 to 495 BC. As a mathematician, he is known as the father of numbers, or a pure mathematician.

He is given credit for the Pythagorean Theorem, though the concept has been recorded by the Babylonians.

Pythagorean Theorem Formula

Pythagorean Theorem states that in a right angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
a2 + b2= c2

What are the Pythagorean Triples?

The Pythagorean Triples are the three integers used in the Pythagorean Theorem, which are a, b and c.

Why is the Pythagorean Theorem important?

  • Pythagorean Theorem is important because you can find out if the triangle is acute, obtuse or a right angle triangle. If the sum of two squared sides is equal to the squared value of the third side, which is the hypotenuse, then, the triangle is a right angle triangle.
  • The Pythagorean Theorem can also help you find missing side lengths of a triangle. You can find the third side length to a right triangle, but also find the missing side lengths to squares and rectangles when the triangles are pushed together. The Pythagoras Theorem can help build rectangles and squares.
  • Builders use the Pythagorean Theorem to help keep right angles and build houses, roofs, stairways etc.
  • Although a very fundamental principle today, the Pythagorean Theorem serves as the basis of the Euclidean distance formula and can be found in almost all aspects of our lives, including calculating the shortest distance between two points, if we are travelling.
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Rabindranath Tagore Biography http://mocomi.com/rabindranath-tagore-biography/ http://mocomi.com/rabindranath-tagore-biography/#comments Mon, 21 Aug 2017 10:40:35 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96338 Rabindranath Tagore was one of the most famous wordsmiths of India. He was also known as “Gurudev” or the “Poet of poets” for having cast an unforgettable impression on the minds and hearts of his readers. Early childhood Rabindranath was the youngest of the thirteen children born to Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. He was […]

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Rabindranath Tagore Biography

Rabindranath Tagore was one of the most famous wordsmiths of India. He was also known as “Gurudev” or the “Poet of poets” for having cast an unforgettable impression on the minds and hearts of his readers.

Early childhood

Rabindranath was the youngest of the thirteen children born to Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. He was born on 7th May 1861 in Calcutta, Bengal. Rabindranath was fondly called “Rabi” by his parents. His father was a well-known Hindu philosopher and social reformer who introduced little Rabi to the world of theatre, music and literature at an early age. A child prodigy, Rabindranath wrote his first poem when he was merely seven. He did his early education at home and spent most of the time in the lap of nature.

Education and work

In 1878, he was sent to Brighton, England, to study law, but he failed to complete his studies and returned to Bengal in 1880. Back in his hometown, he devoted himself completely towards his love for reading and writing. In 1882, he wrote one of his most acclaimed poems, ‘Nirjharer Swapnabhanga’. In 1883, Tagore married Mrinalini Devi and fathered five children. In 1890, his compilation of poems, ‘Manasi’ was released. The period between 1891 and 1895 saw the release of his collection of short stories, ‘Galpaguchchha’.

Santiniketan

In 1901, Rabindranath founded Santiniketan, meaning ‘Abode of Peace’, an international university with an extensive and flexible curriculum suitable for students with different aptitudes and needs. This was perhaps the most glorious and happy period in Rabindranath’s life but things were about to change. Sadly, between 1902 and 1907, Tagore lost his wife, son and daughter. Out of his anguish, emerged some of his most sensitive and critically acclaimed work Gitanjali that was published in 1910. It was authored in traditional Bengali dialect and comprised of 157 poems based on nature, spirituality and complex human emotions.

Gitanjali and Nobel prize

Rabindranath’s popularity grew manifold after the publication of Gitanjali in India as well as abroad, and in 1913, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was the first non-European to win a Nobel Prize in Literature!

In 1915, he was granted knighthood by the British, which he relinquished as a symbol of protest against the 1919 Jalianwala Bagh massacre. During the 1920s and 1930s, he travelled extensively around the world; earning a huge fan-following. “Let us not pray to be sheltered from dangers but to be fearless when facing them”- these inspirational words of Rabindranath Tagore infused new life into the young Indian freedom fighters. He used to deeply admire Mohandas Karamachand Gandhi and it was he who gave him the title “Mahatma”.

Jana Gana Mana – Indian national anthem

Most of Rabindranath’s poems, stories, songs and novels talked about the social evils prevalent during those times such as child marriage and dowry. Tagore had composed about 2,230 songs, which are often referred to as ‘Rabindra Sangeeth’. We are sure that all of you know that it was Rabindranath Tagore who penned the national anthem for India – ‘Jana Gana Mana’, but do you know that he also wrote the Bangladeshi national song – ‘Aamaar Sonaar Banglaa’? Well, it is believed that even the national anthem of Srilanka is based on a Bengali song written by this famous historical figure!

Indian culture and Literature

Rabindranath Tagore loved to travel; during his lifetime, he visited more than thirty countries on five continents and spread the essence of Indian culture and Literature. His works have been translated into many foreign languages also including English, Spanish, German, Dutch etc. Even today, years after his death, this sage-like man, is alive in the hearts of the people of India through his treasured contribution in the realm of literature and music.

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How do we store and retrieve memories? http://mocomi.com/how-do-we-store-and-retrieve-memories/ http://mocomi.com/how-do-we-store-and-retrieve-memories/#comments Fri, 18 Aug 2017 12:47:15 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96321 What is memory? Memory is when something happens or when you learn something or meet someone new; your brain determines whether or not to store this information. Just like a computer that saves the data in files, your brain too saves memories in various parts or files. The human brain has different parts and each […]

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How do we store and retrieve memories?

What is memory?

Memory is when something happens or when you learn something or meet someone new; your brain determines whether or not to store this information. Just like a computer that saves the data in files, your brain too saves memories in various parts or files. The human brain has different parts and each part saves data of various types.

How are memories stored and retrieved in the human brain?

Usually the brain stores memories in two ways…

Long term memory which is stored in a deeper section of the brain. The part that stores the long term memory is the hippocampus and is one of the most important parts of the brain to store and retrieve memories.

Short term memories like the room number of your hotel. Short term memories are sometimes transferred to the hippocampus based on their importance. The brain decides which type of memory is worth remembering.

How do you remember things from the past?

When some information is determined to have long term value or is worth remembering, the hippocampus links significant elements from that event or information, puts the experience together to form a permanent or long term memory.

Information that cannot be stored by the hippocampus cannot be remembered or retrieved. If the hippocampus is damaged then all memories are lost.

An emotional memory is the strongest to recall and retrieve. An excellent performance in an exam, a final dance with that someone special, a goal scored when you were about to lose are some special emotional moments that will be stored as long term memories and are easy to recall or retrieve.

Will you remember this video?

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Standard Units of Measurement http://mocomi.com/standard-units-of-measurement/ http://mocomi.com/standard-units-of-measurement/#comments Fri, 18 Aug 2017 08:28:27 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96314 What is a measurement? Measurement maybe defined as a reference for the determination of quantities and qualities. It is a repetition of a unit amount that maintains its size, within an allowable range of error, no matter which instrument is used and no matter what person or thing being measured is. Why is a standardisation […]

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Standard Units of Measurement

What is a measurement?

Measurement maybe defined as a reference for the determination of quantities and qualities.

It is a repetition of a unit amount that maintains its size, within an allowable range of error, no matter which instrument is used and no matter what person or thing being measured is.

Why is a standardisation of measurements necessary?

Let’s suppose you were blind folded and you had to describe something. How would you do it?
If you know a set of specifications of object or person, you will be able to describe it, or if some one speaks about it, you will understand easily. But if you don’t know the specifications, it will be very difficult to describe or even form an opinion about it.
A standardisation of measurements is necessary because you need a consistent way to communicate size, shape, mass, time, energy, power, speed.

What are the different systems of measurements?

There are essentially three systems of measurements used all over the world. The Imperial or the English System, the US Customary Units and the Metric system.
The Metric System has been adopted as the Standard International Units of Measurement System in most countries.
The Metric system has been adopted because the conversion from lower values to higher values, and the reverse is possible easily and as multiples.

When did the Metric System come into use?

The Metric System came to be in use around the French Revolution, in 1799. The definitions of the base units have been modified since the Metre Convention, in 1875.
In 1960, these were standardised as the International System of Units.

What are the Standard International System of Units?

The standard (metric) units that are in use commonly include:

  • Weight : grams and kilograms
  • Length of Distance : centimetres, metres and kilometres
  • Fluid Mass Measurements : millilitres and litres
  • Temperature : kelvin although fahrenheit and celsius are used for everyday temperatures
  • Time : seconds, minutes and hour
  • Electric Current : ampere and kiloampere
  • Amount of Substance : mole and kilomoles
  • Luminosity : candela and kilocandela

5 Fun facts about measurement

  1. A ruler is a foot long and usually has inch and centimeter marks.
  2. A meter stick is a meter long and usually has foot, inches, and centimeter marks.
  3. Weighing Scales always use pounds, kilograms, ounces.
  4. Measuring cups are normally marked in cups and ounces.
  5. Non – standard measurements use approximate references like cubits, spans etc.

Fun Activity

  • Measure a square or rectangular object like a table, or your friend’s height. First use your arm and then use a measuring tape.
  • Note down how the measurement changes when you use a different hand to measure. Now you will understand why a Standard Unit of Measurement is required.
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Difference between Electrolysis and Electroplating http://mocomi.com/electrolysis-and-electroplating/ http://mocomi.com/electrolysis-and-electroplating/#comments Thu, 17 Aug 2017 07:11:57 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96302 What is electrolysis? You must have heard that metals like iron and copper are extracted from iron ores and copper ores. Electrolysis is the process of separating or extracting the metal from the ore. Electric current is passed through the ore’s electrolyte/solution to result in a chemical change. This chemical change is such that the […]

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Difference between Electrolysis and Electroplating

What is electrolysis?

You must have heard that metals like iron and copper are extracted from iron ores and copper ores. Electrolysis is the process of separating or extracting the metal from the ore. Electric current is passed through the ore’s electrolyte/solution to result in a chemical change.

This chemical change is such that the substance loses or gains an electron. This process is known as Electrolysis.

What is electroplating?

Electroplating is the practical application of electrolytic cells. In this, a thin layer of metal is deposited onto an electrically conductive surface. In electroplating, the idea is to use electricity to cover or coat a relatively boring metal with a thin layer of another precious metal for it to look expensive.

A boring metal like copper can be coated with a thin layer of gold or silver and that is electroplating. Even in electroplating, it is required to pass electric current through a solution called electrolyte and the metal to be coated is dipped in the electrolyte.

Process of electrolysis

Electrolysis requires two oppositely charged poles. The cathode is negatively charged; it is the site of the reduction of positive ions. The anode is positively charged; it is the site of the oxidation of negative ions. In an electrolytic cell, these two poles are connected to an external power source. The circuit is typically completed by a salt solution called the electrolyte. In the production of metal through electrolysis, a layer of metal will form on the cathode.

Hydrogen gas and Oxygen gas are separated similarly from water.

Process of electroplating

Electroplating involves passing an electric current through a solution called an electrolyte. This is done by dipping two electrodes into an electrolyte and connecting it to direct current.

If we are copper plating some brass, we need a copper electrode, a brass electrode, and a solution of a copper-based compound such as copper sulfate solution.

We dip the two electrodes into the solution and connect them up into a circuit so the copper becomes the positive electrode (or anode) and the brass becomes the negative electrode (or cathode). When we switch on the power, the copper sulfate solution splits into ions. Positively charged copper ions are attracted to the negatively charged brass electrode and slowly deposit on it – producing a thin later of copper plate on the brass object to be coated.

What are the uses of electrolysis?

  • An important use of electrolysis is in the production of metals like aluminium, sodium, calcium, magnesium; or even the purification of metals like copper, gold and silver.
  • These days the electrolysis of water is used in the production of hydrogen for fuel or generation of electricity using fuel cells.
  • Our daily life would be very difficult without electrolysis. Example: the alkali used in making soap is produced by the process of electrolysis.
  • Did you know that astronauts and the people who live in submarines get their oxygen through the process of electrolysis?

What are the uses of electroplating?

  • Metals such as gold and silver are plated for decoration purposes. It is cheaper to have gold plated or silver plated jewellery rather than the pure form of gold or silver.
  • Then we have metals such as tin or zinc which are plated to give them a protective layer. This makes such metals resistant to corrosion.
  • Electroplating is also used to increase the layer of thickness in metals. Corrosion protection, wear resistance and lubricity are what electroplating provides to a metal.
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Water Pollution – Types and Effects http://mocomi.com/water-pollution/ http://mocomi.com/water-pollution/#comments Wed, 16 Aug 2017 10:42:18 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96291 Our mothers ask us to drink clean water and not drink water from unreliable sources. What happens when we tend to drink water from the roadside lemonade seller or from that ‘dirty’ roadside ‘gol gappe waala’ whose ‘chaat’ we find so yummy? We get an upset tummy and we have to rush to the doctor. […]

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Water Pollution - Types and Effects

Our mothers ask us to drink clean water and not drink water from unreliable sources. What happens when we tend to drink water from the roadside lemonade seller or from that ‘dirty’ roadside ‘gol gappe waala’ whose ‘chaat’ we find so yummy? We get an upset tummy and we have to rush to the doctor. Why so? Because the water we had was contaminated. It was dirty and had harmful bacteria in it.

What is water pollution?

Water pollution is the process which happens when pollutants contaminate water. Contamination of water bodies like lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater occur when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without any treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution has become a global concern now as many deaths and diseases are caused by drinking impure, dirty water. Many countries like India and China lack adequate amount of safe drinking water and thousands die every day due to drinking contaminated water. Even developed countries like the United States of America suffer from the issue of contaminated water. When water is affected by anthropogenic (caused by humans) contaminants, it is said to be polluted. This means that this water is not safe for drinking purposes.

Who pollutes water?

Earthquakes, volcano eruptions and natural environmental disasters add a large amount of pollution to water bodies. Human and animal waste too, pollute water and make it harmful for consumption.

Every year tonnes of industrial waste and toxic chemicals from factories and manufacturing plants are released directly into water bodies, without proper waste management or recycling, harming the balance of water bodies.

Wastes from humans and animals too pollute water and make it harmful for consumption. Toxic chemicals discharged directly into water bodies without control or contamination management, also pollute water and cause irreparable harm to marine life.

Some common ways water is polluted

  1. Oil spills from huge ships
  2. Leakage of fuel from boats
  3. Chemical waste from industries
  4. Plastics thrown in rivers
  5. Mining
  6. Dumping trash into water bodies
  7. Sewage water produced by households
  8. Burning of fossils fuels like coal and oil
  9. Chemical fertilizers

Types of water pollution

1. Nutrients pollution : Industries throw their wastes like fertilizers, waste water and sewage into river bodies. These make weed and algae grow rapidly in the water, making it unsuitable for drinking while depleting the level of oxygen in the water. This harms the organisms living in water.

2. Surface water pollution : Ground pollutants like chemical wastes, insecticides and other wastes mix with rain water run offs, dissolve and mix with water bodies like streams, rivers and lakes. This is known as surface water pollution.

3. Oxygen depletion : Water contains aerobic and anaerobic organisms, i.e., organisms which need oxygen to grow and which die in oxygen, respectively. With an increase in water pollutants, the oxygen level will deplete, leading to the death/choking of aerobic organisms.

4. Ground water pollution : Chemicals and pesticides are used in growing crops. These harmful substances enter the ground along with rainwater and cause the water table to get contaminated. This is known as groundwater pollution. They also enter lakes and rivers when groundwater spills occur.

Effects of water pollution

The accumulation of garbage in our water bodies come from human activities and neglect and total disrespect for our natural resources. The effects of water pollution are gory and have long term effects which are very difficult to undo.

It makes sea creatures like fishes, sea turtles, seals and even birds die, because materials such as plastic is mistaken as food by animals and eaten. Since it cannot be digested, it sometimes causes death in some cases.

Unclean and contaminated water causes human deaths and diseases. In many places, water comes in contact with industrial and human wastes and people drink such contaminated water. They are prone to deaths and diseases like hepatitis, cholera or typhoid. Water pollution accounts for as many as three million deaths every year, most of which are children.

Water pollution disrupts the food chain on land, water and air. Tiny animals eat toxins along with their food. Bigger animals eat smaller animals. This leads to high levels of chemical toxicity in bigger animals. Toxins accumulation from the lower level to higher level of the food chain occurs.

Things that you can do to conserve water and make it safe :

  • Water is precious, so use water wisely. Do not waste water in the shower and always close taps when not in use.
  • Do not throw paint, oil, medicines or plastic down your toilet drains. Contact your municipal corporation for help with disposing chemicals or medicines.
  • Plant lots and lots of trees around your homes to encourage clean rain water to replenish your water table/ground water and adopt rain water harvesting.
  • Farmers can be encouraged to use Integrated Pest Management techniques to control pests and reduce dependency on chemical pesticides.
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Types of Motion http://mocomi.com/types-of-motion/ http://mocomi.com/types-of-motion/#comments Mon, 14 Aug 2017 09:39:31 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96277 What is the study of mechanics? The relationship between forces, motion and energy is known as mechanics. It is through the study of mechanics that we are able to understand and calculate various important constants and constraints in developing mechanical machinery and tools. What is motion? Motion maybe described as the movement of an object […]

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Types of Motion

What is the study of mechanics?

The relationship between forces, motion and energy is known as mechanics. It is through the study of mechanics that we are able to understand and calculate various important constants and constraints in developing mechanical machinery and tools.

What is motion?

Motion maybe described as the movement of an object or body over distance in time, or it maybe described as the change in position of a body or an object in time.

A body cannot move or come to a halt, if it is already in movement, unless it is acted upon by an external force. This is known as inertia.

What are the laws of motion?

Newton’s three Laws of Motion define the frame work for motion of bodies with mass. It is defined in a 3 dimensional co-ordinate system, that states the position of the body in either a stationary state or in movement.

Newton’s First Law of Motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion states that, a body at rest or in motion, will continue to be at rest or be in movement, unless acted upon by an external force. This means that things cannot move or change direction on their own. This is known as inertia.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that a force acting on a body is equal to the mass of the body, times the acceleration of the body. It means that if the force acts on a stationary body, it will move at the speed the force has acted on it. If it is already in movement, it will either slow down, speed up, or change direction depending on the force that has been applied.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Newton’s Third Law of Motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This law describes that forces work in pairs. When a force acts on an object, an equal force is applied back by the object.

What are the different types of motions?

1. Translatory Motion

Translatory motion maybe described as the movement of an object in a straight line, like a vehicle travelling on a road or an object falling down due to the gravitational pull of the earth.

2. Rotational Motion

Rotational motion is the movement of an object, in a circular path along a fixed point as the appointed centre and the movement is along the circumference of the path, at a regular distance from the centre.

3. Periodic Motion

A motion repeated in equal intervals of time, like a rocking chair or the oscillation of pendulum in a clock.

Degrees of freedom

Degrees of Freedom is an important aspect in the study of mechanics, to determine the latitude/variable of movement in space of a mechanism. It is primarily used in robotics and kinematics to create simulated movements in a defined axis.

What is kinematics?

Kinematics is the science which studies motion of objects. It is used in astro-physics to study the path of celestial bodies, in mechanics to study the possible movement of a joint and assembly of creating moving objects.

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Can sitting too close to the TV damage your eyes? http://mocomi.com/can-sitting-too-close-to-the-tv-damage-your-eyes/ http://mocomi.com/can-sitting-too-close-to-the-tv-damage-your-eyes/#comments Fri, 11 Aug 2017 11:22:25 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96259 While sitting too close to the TV may not permanently damage your eyesight, it sure will affect the health of your eyes in the long run. Eyestrain happens when your eyes suddenly become watery or itchy or red and you feel relaxed when you close them. Don’t sit too close to the TV! Modern TV […]

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Can sitting too close to the TV damage your eyes?

While sitting too close to the TV may not permanently damage your eyesight, it sure will affect the health of your eyes in the long run. Eyestrain happens when your eyes suddenly become watery or itchy or red and you feel relaxed when you close them.

Don’t sit too close to the TV!

Modern TV sets emit very little electromagnetic radiation, but they can be damaging if viewed from an extremely close distance. Some parts of the TV emit more, while others less, frequency radiation. Since the TV’s today are large in size, sitting at a distance is always preferred to get a perfect, complete picture of what you are viewing.

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Chemical Effects of Electric Current http://mocomi.com/chemical-effects-of-electric-current/ http://mocomi.com/chemical-effects-of-electric-current/#comments Fri, 11 Aug 2017 10:14:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96251 What is electric current? An electric current is the flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons, in a wire. It is either Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC). Electric currents cause heating in certain metals like tungsten, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also […]

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Chemical Effects of Electric Current

What is electric current?

An electric current is the flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons, in a wire. It is either Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC).
Electric currents cause heating in certain metals like tungsten, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators.

The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the Ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using a device called an ammeter.

What happens when electric current is passed through a substance?

When electric current is passed through solids, it can either conduct the current, in which case, the material is a good conductor of electricity. At times, either magnetic effect, heat or light is generated.

Example : Iron, Copper, Gold, Platinum, Silver, Tungsten
Incase a solid doesn’t allow the current to pass through, it means it is a bad conductor or insulator of electricity.

Example : Wax, Wood, Plastic, Glass

When electric current passes through gases, light maybe generated.
When electric current is passed through a liquid (electrolyte), it causes a chemical reaction that separates ions. This process is known as Electrolysis.

What is electrolysis?

Electrolysis is the process when a liquid/solution of minerals, salt, etc, undergoes a chemical reaction when electrical current (Direct Current) is passed through it. A chemical reaction maybe defined as an exchange of ions. In this process ions are either absorbed or released.

Who coined the term electrolysis?

The term Electrolysis was coined by Michael Faraday, in 1832. He even discovered the two laws of Electrolysis, known as Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis.

Faraday’s 1st Law of electrolysis

According to this Law, the physical quantity of elements separated by passing electrical current through a molten or dissolved salt is proportional to the quantity of electric charge passed through the circuit.

Faraday’s 2nd Law of electrolysis

According to this Law, when the same amount of current is passed through different electrolytes/elements connected in series, the mass of substance liberated/deposited at the electrodes is directly proportional to their equivalent weight.

What are the uses of electrolysis?

Electrolysis is used in many industrial processes: separation of metals and minerals from ores and mineral salts coating of one metal with another, ie., electroplating

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Prime Meridian Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/prime-meridian-facts/ http://mocomi.com/prime-meridian-facts/#comments Thu, 10 Aug 2017 08:51:06 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96240 What is the Geographic Grid? If you look at a globe, you will notice some lines drawn on it vertically as well as horizontally. These lines are imaginary lines and are known as the geographic grid. This grid system was created in order to easily describe a location on the Earth. The geographic grid is […]

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Prime Meridian Facts and Information

What is the Geographic Grid?

If you look at a globe, you will notice some lines drawn on it vertically as well as horizontally. These lines are imaginary lines and are known as the geographic grid. This grid system was created in order to easily describe a location on the Earth.

The geographic grid is made up of lines of latitude, also known as parallels, and lines of longitude, also known as meridians.

What is the Prime Meridian?

All of us have read that the Equator is an imaginary line that divides the Earth into two parts – Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Similarly, we also have another imaginary line called the Prime Meridian that divides the Earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres. At times, it is also referred to as the Greenwich Meridian.

This imaginary line passes through three continents – Europe, Africa and Antarctica and four major countries – United Kingdom, France, Spain and Western Africa.

The Prime Meridian, as it passes through Greenwich, England, is considered 0 degrees longitude.

What is Greenwich Meridian Time?

We know that the Earth is round and that it takes 24 hours to complete one rotation around the sun. The side facing the sun for half a day / half a rotation is in daylight, while the side facing away has night. People living in different parts of the world cannot have the same time.

Countries all over the world are divided into 24 time zones, based on longitudinal lines. Greenwich Mean Time or GMT is the clock time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London. GMT is now-a-days also referred to as Universal Coordinated Time, or UTC.

When the sun is at its highest point over the Prime Meridian, it is 12:00 noon at Greenwich.

What is the International Date Line?

The longitude at 180 degrees from the Greenwich Time Line is known as International Date Line. It was designated in 1884. If you travel west from the International Date Line, you add a day, and if you travel east from the International Date Line, you subtract a day.

3 Fun fact about the International Date Line

  1. Ferdinand Magellan(Born 1480 – Died 1521), a famous sea explorer set out sail around the Earth. His sailors kept a careful record of time and dates as they traveled. Yet, when they came back to the place from where they had started, they noticed that their calendars were off by one day. What had happened?
  2. Well, the day was not lost at once; it was lost little by little, as they sailed across the planet.
  3. The explanation is simple; if you stay at one place, a day lasts for 24 hours, but if you travel across the Earth, you may add or lose a day in your calendar, depending on the direction in which you are travelling!
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Pure Substances and Mixtures http://mocomi.com/pure-substances-and-mixtures/ http://mocomi.com/pure-substances-and-mixtures/#comments Wed, 09 Aug 2017 07:01:03 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96228 What is matter? Matter can be defined as any substance that has inertia, occupies space and has mass. How is matter classified? Scientists of the world classify matter as solid, liquid or gas, but there is one more interesting way to classify it. Matter can also be classified as pure substances and mixtures. What is […]

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Pure Substances and Mixtures

What is matter?

Matter can be defined as any substance that has inertia, occupies space and has mass.

How is matter classified?

Scientists of the world classify matter as solid, liquid or gas, but there is one more interesting way to classify it. Matter can also be classified as pure substances and mixtures.

What is a pure substance?

A pure substance is a type of matter which exists in its most basic or purest form and cannot be broken down further. Examples of pure substances include water, gases like carbon dioxide, oxygen and metals like platinum, gold and silver.

Each pure substance has its own set of unique chemical and physical properties which helps us in identifying it.

Examples of pure substances

Water has a freezing and melting point of 0°C and a boiling point of 100°C. It is colourless, tasteless and odourless.
Gold is considered pure at 24 karat. It is yellow in color, solid at room temperature and is regarded as a good conductor of electricity. It is also malleable and ductile in nature.

Types of pure substances

Pure substances can be divided into two categories – elements and compounds.
Elements are made up of the same types of atoms. The known elements listed in the periodic table can be considered pure substances. Examples of elements include hydrogen, oxygen, gold, silver
Compounds are made up of different types of atoms joined together by chemical bonds. Examples of compounds include water, glucose, salt and carbon dioxide.

What is a mixture?

Mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances where each substance keeps its own identity upon mixing. Mixtures are present almost everywhere on Earth. Look at rocks, the ocean, rivers or even the atmosphere. All of them are mixtures! In other words, anything that you can mix together is a mixture. Even the foods you eat.

Why is it called a mixture?

It means the fundamental chemical structure of the components in a mixture does not change upon mixing.

Examples of mixtures

Although water is a pure substance, if you put sand into a glass of water, it would turn into a mixture. Each of the components of a mixture can be separated from one another. You can always separate the sand from water by filtering it.

If you take a mixture of salt and water, you can separate it by evaporating the water, to get salt in the container. Air, too, is a mixture of different gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and water vapour etc. Blood is a mixture made up of different types of blood cells and plasma.

Types of mixtures

  1. Homogeneous mixture – The components of a homogeneous mixture have a uniform composition, and cannot be seen separately. The prefix ‘homo’ means same and it tells us that when two substances combine extremely well with one another, they form a uniform mixture. For example, sugar and water do not chemically react and form another compound although the water does turn sweet!
  2. Heterogeneous mixture – The components of a heterogeneous mixture do not have a uniform composition and can be viewed separately without losing their identity. For example, if you mix sulfur powder with iron dust, you can easily see the two separately. You can even separate the iron dust by using a magnet.

How do we differentiate between pure substances and mixtures?

  • A Pure Substance is matter which cannot be separated into its basic components by using a physical or a chemical process. The physical and chemical properties of pure substances are non-changing, if it is on its own without disturbing.
  • A Mixture is made up of a combination of two or more substances that are not united using a chemical reaction. The physical and chemical properties of mixtures vary.
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What is Latitude and Longitude? http://mocomi.com/what-is-latitude-and-longitude/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-latitude-and-longitude/#comments Tue, 08 Aug 2017 10:01:21 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96210 How can we accurately predict our position on our planet? We can accurately know the position of any place on earth with the help of two imaginary lines running across the earth’s surface, called Latitudes and Longitudes. The meeting place where these lines cross each other is known as co-ordinates. How are Latitudes and Longitudes […]

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What is Latitude and Longitude?

How can we accurately predict our position on our planet?

We can accurately know the position of any place on earth with the help of two imaginary lines running across the earth’s surface, called Latitudes and Longitudes. The meeting place where these lines cross each other is known as co-ordinates.

How are Latitudes and Longitudes measured?

  • The Greeks and various people over time, have been credited with calculating the circumference of the earth and include Plato and Archimedes. But the accepted circumference as we know today (40,075 km) has been accurately(with 1% error) calculated by Aryabhata from India(Born in 476 BC) and Eratosthenes from Greece (Born in 270 BC).
  • The imaginary line running around the middle of a spherical earth is known as the equator. Latitudes are horizontal, imaginery lines, running around parallelly and at, equal distances above and below the equator. The distance between them is calculated at degrees, minutes and seconds.
  • The equator is at 0 degrees.
  • The earth is divided into 181 latitudes.
  • Longitudes are imaginery lines running from the North Pole to the South Pole at the earth’s circumference. The lines of longitudes are often called meridians.
  • The earth is divided into 360 longitudes.
  • Greenwich is the designated 0 degrees longitude, since 1884. It was decided after a vote that involved 25 nations. The reason being the Royal Observatory was involved in generating accurate navigational information for 100s of years.

Why are Latitudes and Longitudes important?

  1. For centuries man has been venturing on journeys of discovery into the unknown seas. Latitudes and longitudes help in navigational charts, as the sea has no defined markers. Traveller and navigators through time have used the North Star or the Southern Cross Constellation to accurately pinpoint their position, depending which side of the equator they were on. Latitudes and Longitudes helped prepare maps, based on the positions of constellations.
  2. The latitudes and longitudes help us set time zones for the planet, based on earth’s rotation on it’s axis.
  3. The latitudes and longitudes help us locate an exact place on earth, based on the point where the latitudes and longitudes meet.
  4. Latitudes and longitudes help us predict weather and climatic changes, like for instance, the path of a cyclone or a storm.
  5. Our modern day Global Positioning Systems(GPS) are configured using latitudes and longitudes for satellite mapping of the earth and are used for tracking and route mapping.

Halley meridian and Bradley meridian

There are already two other meridian lines running through Greenwich, which were used before the 1884 conference, in Washington.

The Halley meridian was defined in 1721, by the English astronomer Edmond Halley, while the Bradley meridian of 1750, is still used as the standard definition of zero longitude in modern Ordnance Survey maps, which began in 1801, and have not moved onto the new system.

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Who discovered Fingerprints were unique? http://mocomi.com/who-discovered-fingerprints-were-unique/ http://mocomi.com/who-discovered-fingerprints-were-unique/#comments Fri, 04 Aug 2017 13:54:35 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96192 What are fingerprints? If you have looked closely at your hands, you will notice very fine lines closely placed that are either arched, whorled or in loops. All of your fingers will have a definite pattern. These are unique and only you in this entire world will own this set of fingerprints. Infact it’s one […]

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Who discovered Fingerprints were unique?

What are fingerprints?

If you have looked closely at your hands, you will notice very fine lines closely placed that are either arched, whorled or in loops. All of your fingers will have a definite pattern. These are unique and only you in this entire world will own this set of fingerprints. Infact it’s one of the most foolproof ways to identify a person, that it’s even used in this age of biometric identification.

History of fingerprints

Sir William Herschel, a British Civil Servant, stationed in India in 1858, collected handprints from Indians to prevent forgeries and he discovered that each print was different.

A Scottish physician, Dr. Henry Faulds went to Japan in 1873, as a medical missionary. There he established the Tuskiji Hospital and was also the surgeon superintendent. On his stay there, he got involved in a nearby archaeological site. It was at the archaeological dig, that he observed imprints on clay pottery shards and he became interested in the science of human fingerprints.

He further observed through various experiments that the finger prints grew back the same each time, if a person accidentally lost the skin on his fingerprints.

British Scientist, Sir Francis Galton is also credited with this discovery, although it looks as if his work was based on Faulds’ research.

When were fingerprints first used to solve crimes?

It wasn’t until 1896 that a man named Edward Henry developed a classification system for identification of fingerprints. Henry divided fingerprint patterns up into five different sections. They were: Plain Arches, Tented Arches, Ulnar Loops, Radial Loops, and Whorls.

He coded these patterns and then devised a method for fingerprint mapping. His method made the identification and retrieval of fingerprint data base much easier. This system was adopted by the police of America and Europe. But it was FBI in 1920s that utilised the system and created an archive of fingerprints.

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Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn http://mocomi.com/tropics-of-cancer-and-capricorn/ http://mocomi.com/tropics-of-cancer-and-capricorn/#comments Thu, 03 Aug 2017 12:38:04 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96135 What is a solstice? The word solstice is derived from the Latin sol – sun and sistere – to stand still; at the solstices, the seasonal movement of the Sun’s path (as seen from Earth) comes to a stop before reversing direction. June 21st is the Summer Solstice and December 21st is the Winter Solstice. […]

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Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn

What is a solstice?

The word solstice is derived from the Latin sol – sun and sistere – to stand still; at the solstices, the seasonal movement of the Sun’s path (as seen from Earth) comes to a stop before reversing direction. June 21st is the Summer Solstice and December 21st is the Winter Solstice. June 21st is the longest day and December 21st is the shortest day in the Northern Hemisphere.

Why are the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn important?

The word Tropic comes from the Greek word Tropos, meaning turn; referring to the fact that the sun appears to turn back at the solstices. The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn are the two most important latitude lines made, apart from the equator.

They match the orientation of the Earth’s rotational axis to the ecliptical plane around the sun.

These are the latitudes at which the sun’s rays hit the Earth’s surface at a right angle both during Summer and Winter Solstice. At the start of winter in the northern hemisphere the sun’s rays are only hitting the Earth’s surface at a right angle (meaning the sun is directly overhead) at the Tropic of Capricorn. During the northern hemisphere’s summer the sun is directly overhead if you were standing at the Tropic of Cancer.

What is the Tropic of Cancer?

Also known as the Northern Tropic, the Tropic of Cancer is the parallel latitude that lies 23 degrees and 26′ north of the Equator. This is the exact location where the Sun is overhead on June 21st known as the June solstice. The location has been shifting and will keep changing over the years by a few minutes.

It is the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of winters in the Southern hemisphere. North of the Tropic of Cancer is the subtropics and the Northern Temperate Zones. South of the Tropic of Cancer are the Tropics. This area does not experience distinctly changing seasons because the sun is always high in the sky.

Which countries, continents and water bodies lie along the Tropic of Cancer?

There are 16 countries, 3 continents and 6 water bodies that the Tropic of Cancer passes through.
Continents : North America, Africa and Asia
Countries: Mexico, Bahamas (Archipelago), Niger, Algeria, Mauritania, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Western Sahara, Myanmar, Oman, Bangladesh, India, Saudi Arabia, China, United Arab Emirates, United States of America and Taiwan.
Water bodies: Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Taiwan Strait, Red Sea and Gulf of Mexico.

What is the Tropic of Capricorn?

Also known as the Southern Tropic, the Tropic of Capricorn lies 23 degrees 5′ south of the Equator. It is the farthest southern latitude at which the sun can reach or appear directly overhead. North of this latitude are the Tropics and below the Tropic of Capricorn are the Southern Temperate Zones. The sun appears directly over this latitude during the winter solstice, when the sun was entering the zodiac sign of Capricorn. December 21st is the day of winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere.

Which countries, continents and water bodies lie along the Tropic of Capricorn?

There are 10 countries, 3 continents and 3 water bodies that pass through the Tropic of Capricorn.
Continents: South America, Africa, Australia
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar and Australia
Water Bodies: Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.

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Swami Vivekananda Chicago Speech http://mocomi.com/swami-vivekananda-chicago-speech/ http://mocomi.com/swami-vivekananda-chicago-speech/#comments Wed, 02 Aug 2017 12:45:05 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96172 Swami Vivekananda at the World’s Parliament of Religions Chicago | 11 September, 1893 Sisters and Brothers of America, It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us. I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the […]

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Swami Vivekananda Chicago Speech

Swami Vivekananda at the World’s Parliament of Religions

Chicago | 11 September, 1893

Sisters and Brothers of America,

It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you have given us.

I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of monks in the world; I thank you in the name of the mother of religions; and I thank you in the name of the millions and millions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.

My thanks, also, to some of the speakers on this platform who, referring to the delegates from the Orient, have told you that these men from far-off nations may well claim the honor of bearing to different lands the idea of toleration.

I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true.

I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth.

I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites, who came to the southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny.

I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation.

I will quote to you, brethren, a few lines from a hymn which I remember to have repeated from my earliest boyhood, which is every day repeated by millions of human beings:

“As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee.”

The present convention, which is one of the most august assemblies ever held, is in itself a vindication, a declaration to the world, of the wonderful doctrine preached in the Gita:

“Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths which in the end lead to Me.”

Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization, and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now.

But their time has come; and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honor of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal.

Project

The parliament of World Religions was an attempt at global dialogue between religious leaders from around the world. Bring together a group of your friends from different religions, and invite other people including your parents and other friends to debate the various aspects of your faith and theirs.

For more such inspirational speeches for kids, don’t forget to visit our Speeches for Kids category page.

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Parliament of India http://mocomi.com/parliament-of-india/ http://mocomi.com/parliament-of-india/#comments Wed, 02 Aug 2017 10:57:43 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96162 What is a Parliament? A Parliament is an important part of any democratic country. In modern political history, it is the elected legislative body of the country.  Generally, a modern parliament has three functions : representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. Historically Parliaments include deliberative, consultative, and judicial […]

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Parliament of India

What is a Parliament?

A Parliament is an important part of any democratic country. In modern political history, it is the elected legislative body of the country.  Generally, a modern parliament has three functions : representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. Historically Parliaments include deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies.

What are the functions of the Parliament?

The Parliament in a democracy has immense powers. It is representative of the people. A country is divided into numerous constituencies and a member from each of these constituencies is elected to be representative in the Parliament.

The candidates who contest elections usually belong to different political parties. Once elected, these candidates become Members of Parliament or MPs. These MPs together make up the Parliament.

Who are the people who make the Indian Parliament?

The Indian Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the Indian Republic. The Indian Parliamentary system is a Republic, which means, that the country is not under the rule of a monarch, and the offices of state are elected or appointed and not inherited. The elected individuals represent the citizen body.

How does the Indian Parliament work?

The Indian Parliament consists of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head.

What is the Lok Sabha?

As conceived by the Constitution of India, the Lok Sabha or the House of People(Lower House) consists of 552 members made up by elections. 530 members represent States and 20 represent Union Territories and 2 members from the Anglo – Indian community are nominated by the President of India.

Unless dissolved, the Lok Sabha operates for five years from the date of its appointment.

What is the Rajya Sabha?

According to the Indian Constitution, the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States(Upper House) membership is restricted to 250. The members of Rajya Sabha are elected by state and territorial legislatures using single transferrable votes. The members are in office for six years with one third of members retiring every two years. Twelve members of the Rajya Sabha are selected on the basis of their contribution to arts, science, literature, social science.

Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved. Although the President can prorogue the session and adjourn it. The Vice President of India is the ex officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

What is a zero hour?

The time allocated post the Question hour, at 12 Noon, where members can raise matters of importance without the procedural 10 day notice period, is known as Zero Hour.

Where is Parliament of India located?

The Parliament House is in Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi. It was designed by the British architect Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker in 1912-1913 and construction began in 1921 and ended in 1927. The opening ceremony of the Parliament House, then called the Central Legislative Assembly, was performed on 18 January, 1927 by Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India.

The third session of Central Legislative Assembly was held in this house on 19 January, 1927.

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Testing New Ad Tags Single Page http://mocomi.com/testing-new-ad-tags-single-page/ http://mocomi.com/testing-new-ad-tags-single-page/#comments Tue, 01 Aug 2017 10:16:17 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96159 How to make Cheesy Potato Bake What You Need 4 potatoes 2 onions ½ cup grated cheese ½ tsp pepper powder ½ cup milk butter to grease the baking dish Steps to make Cheesy Potato Bake Preheat the over for 10 minutes at 180 degrees C. Peel the potatoes and onions. Cut them in thin […]

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How to make Cheesy Potato Bake

What You Need

  • 4 potatoes
  • 2 onions
  • ½ cup grated cheese
  • ½ tsp pepper powder
  • ½ cup milk
  • butter to grease the baking dish

Steps to make Cheesy Potato Bake

  1. Preheat the over for 10 minutes at 180 degrees C.
  2. Peel the potatoes and onions. Cut them in thin slices.
  3. Use butter to grease the bottom and sides of a baking dish.
  4. Sprinkle half the pepper and grated cheese on the potatoes.
  5. Put the sliced onions on top of the potatoes.
  6. On top of this, pour the milk.
  7. Put the dish in the oven and bake for half an hour.
  8. Check that the potatoes are cooked and then take the dish out from the oven.

For more interesting recipes for kids, go to Recipes for Kids category.

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What is citizenship? http://mocomi.com/what-is-citizenship/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-citizenship/#comments Tue, 01 Aug 2017 09:02:56 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96138 What is a society? A society is a large group of people who live together in an organised way. What is a citizen? A citizen maybe defined as an inhabitant of a city or town or country, entitled to the rights and privileges of a free person to engage in the society of the city, […]

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What is citizenship?

What is a society?

A society is a large group of people who live together in an organised way.

What is a citizen?

A citizen maybe defined as an inhabitant of a city or town or country, entitled to the rights and privileges of a free person to engage in the society of the city, town or country.

What does citizenship really mean?

A citizenship maybe defined as a recognised/legal member of a sovereign state or nation.

What is the difference between nationality and citizenship?

The nationality of a person, reveals an individual’s place of birth, or the place of origin. A person can be a national of only one place as it is by birth or origin.
On the contrary, citizenship is granted to an individual by the government of the country, when they comply with the legal formalities of the said country. A person in some countries can have dual/multiple citizenships. The Indian Republic does not allow dual citizenship.

What is citizenship education?

Citizenship education maybe defined as educating and training individuals to be aware of their rights (human, civil, judicial), their moral and ethical behaviour towards the country. They are also educated on their social behaviour towards another citizen of the country or towards another individual from another country.
A democratic country encourages a citizen to be an important, contributing member of society.

Characteristics of a good citizen

A good citizen should be :

  • Respectful to his community and the civic rules of society
  • Give back to the community and country
  • Educate and help encourage education
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Separation of Substances http://mocomi.com/separation-of-substances/ http://mocomi.com/separation-of-substances/#comments Thu, 27 Jul 2017 13:18:45 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96114 What is Separation of Substances? Many of the substances that we use every day were once a part of some or the other mixture. Separating substances from mixtures is a vital part of Chemistry and modern industry. This is done to separate the useful substances from a mixture, and also to remove non-useful or harmful […]

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Separation of Substances

What is Separation of Substances?

Many of the substances that we use every day were once a part of some or the other mixture. Separating substances from mixtures is a vital part of Chemistry and modern industry. This is done to separate the useful substances from a mixture, and also to remove non-useful or harmful components.

Methods of separation of substances

1. Filtration

Filtration is one of the most common methods used for separating substances. Filters are used everywhere. You use them in your houses to filter impurities from the water and also to filter dust out of the air you breathe.

2. Distillation?

Distillation is a technique that uses boiling to separate components of liquid solutions. Different substances in a mixture have different boiling points, and distillation just works on that. For example, if you heat salt water in a container, the water in the solution will boil way before the salt. The water will evaporate leaving behind the salt. When the substances in a solution have similar boiling points, a more complex type of distillation called fractional distillation is used. Crude oil is separated into gasoline, jet-fuel, diesel-fuel, propane and heating oil etc.

Centrifuges are mechanical devices that revolve at very high speeds and are used to separate substances. At these high speeds, the heavier particles move to the outside of the cylinder and are separated from the mixture. This technique is used for separating blood into plasma and red cells, and also for separating cream from milk.

3. Threshing

In Threshing process, bunches of crop plants are beaten against a hard thing like a stone or floor to separate the grains from the stalks. When the quantity of grains is small, threshing is done manually, and when it is large, it is either done with the help of animals or machines.

4. Sieving

In this method, particles of different sizes are run through a sieve which separates them. The bigger particles are retained by the sieve while the smaller ones easily pass through it. All of you would have seen your moms running the prepared tea from the sieve before serving. It is done to separate the tea leaves from the tea.

5. Winnowing

It is the process which uses the wind to separate the lighter particles from the heavier ones. The farmers drop the mixture of wheat and husk from a height. The blowing wind carries the husk with it and the grains fall down on the ground.

6. Sedimentation

In a given mixture, the insoluble and heavier particles settle down at the bottom. This process is known as sedimentation. For example, if you dissolve some sand in a glass of water, after some time it will settle down at the bottom of the glass. It happens because sand is insoluble in water and the particles are heavier. Decantation is the removal of the clear layer of the liquid on the top without disturbing the underlying settled solids.

7. Evaporation

Evaporation is the process of liquids turning into to a gas or vapor. This technique is used to separate salt from water. Sea water is collected in shallow pits and the water is allowed to evaporate in the heat of the sun. Once the water has evaporated, the salt crystals are left behind in the pit and collected.

8. Condensation

The process of conversion of water vapor into its liquid form is known as condensation. For example, water vapor in the clouds condenses in form of rain. If you pour cold water in a glass, you will see that water droplets will form on the outer surface of the glass. This is due to the condensation of water vapor present in the atmosphere.

9. Paper Chromatography

This method is mostly used in the food industry for identifying chemicals or coloring agents in different food items. You can think of chromatography as a race; all the runners start together from the starting line but finish the race at the different times because of their different abilities. Similarly, if you drop a mixture at a paper chromatograph, different chemicals in it would travel at different speeds over the chromatograph because of their different chemical properties and get separated from one another.

10. Magnetism

Magnetism is ideal for separating mixtures in which one component has magnetic properties. Some metals like iron, nickel and cobalt have magnetic properties whiles gold, silver and aluminum do not.

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Reproduction in Plants http://mocomi.com/reproduction-in-plants/ http://mocomi.com/reproduction-in-plants/#comments Wed, 26 Jul 2017 11:23:18 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96104 What is reproduction in living organisms? Reproduction is the process by which new organisms are generated from older generations. It is a fundamental feature of all living beings. Sometimes a cell may produce another of its kind and that is also defined as reproduction. Like regenerating a part of tissue, or the healing of a […]

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Reproduction in Plants

What is reproduction in living organisms?

Reproduction is the process by which new organisms are generated from older generations. It is a fundamental feature of all living beings. Sometimes a cell may produce another of its kind and that is also defined as reproduction. Like regenerating a part of tissue, or the healing of a wound.

Reproduction to produce another independent living organism, can either be sexual or asexual, in the plant or animal kingdom.

How do plants undergo reproduction?

Plants can undergo two kinds of reproduction. – 1. Asexual Reproduction 2. Sexual Reproduction

What is asexual reproduction?

  •  It involves one parent only
  •  No gametes are produced (Gametes – male and female, are the reproductive cell or sex cells)
  •  Parent and offspring are identical
  •  Faster with no variation from the parent plant

Example :

  • Budding in yeast cells
  • Budding in potato and other tubers, bulbs etc.
  • Runners(stem-like growths) in herbs like peppermint, strawberry etc.

What is sexual reproduction?

To reproduce sexually, plants have both male and female reproductive organs in their flowers.

What is the function of a stamen in a flower?

  • The male part is called Stamen.
  • The Stamen is the pollen producing part of the flower. It consists of an Anther and Filament. The pollen on the anther is produced by the microsporangia. Pollen grains contain the male gametophyte and are responsible for pollination.

What is the function of a carpel of a flower?

  • The female part is called Carpel.
  • A carpel is the innermost part of a flower. It is usually surrounded by male reproductive stamens. A carpel consists of a Stigma, Style and Ovary which contains the Ovule. A flower can have more than one carpel and a cluster of carpels is called a Pistil.

What is pollen and pollination?

To reproduce sexually, pollen from the male part is transferred to the female part, stigma, from where it descends into the Ovary, where fertilisation occurs to form a zygote, which eventually turns into a seed. This seed will germinate and sprout to become a new plant.

There are two types of pollination :

  1. Self Pollination – fertilisation is with the same flower
  2. Cross Pollination – pollen from one flower travels to fertilise the ovary of another flower

What are the methods of pollination?

Pollination may occur by either wind or water. This is known as Abiotic Pollination.
They may also be suitably adapted to be transferred by animals, birds and insects, including human. This is known as Biotic Pollination.

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Difference between Solution Solute and Solvent http://mocomi.com/solution-solute-and-solvent/ http://mocomi.com/solution-solute-and-solvent/#comments Tue, 25 Jul 2017 06:29:39 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96092 What is a solution? A solution is a homogeneous mixture of solutes, dissolved in a solvent. A homogeneous solution is a mixture of two or more components that have a uniform appearance and composition. Examples of solutions Seawater (Solid in Liquid) Vinegar (Liquid in Liquid) Carbonated Drinks (Gas in Liquid) Air (Gas in Gas) What […]

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Difference between Solution Solute and Solvent

What is a solution?

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of solutes, dissolved in a solvent. A homogeneous solution is a mixture of two or more components that have a uniform appearance and composition.

Examples of solutions

  • Seawater (Solid in Liquid)
  • Vinegar (Liquid in Liquid)
  • Carbonated Drinks (Gas in Liquid)
  • Air (Gas in Gas)

What is a solute?

A solute is defined as the substance that is dissolved in a fluid to make a solution. The concentration of the solute is a deciding factor to generally determine the state of the solution; solid, liquid or gaseous.

Examples of solute

  • Almost all metallic salts
  • Sugar
  • Edible Salt

What is a solvent?

A solvent is usually a liquid used to dissolve a solute.

Classification of solvents

Solvents can be classified into Polar (example Water) and Non Polar (example Hydrocarbons).

Polar and Non-Polar Solvents

Polar solvents encourage the formation of ions. Non Polar solvents do not form ions. The capacity of a solvent to form ions is known as dielectric constant. The dielectric constant for water is very high. The large dielectric constant of water means that substances whose molecules contain ionic bonds will tend to dissociate in water yielding solutions containing ions.

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Avoid getting drenched in the rain! http://mocomi.com/avoid-getting-drenched-in-the-rain/ http://mocomi.com/avoid-getting-drenched-in-the-rain/#comments Fri, 21 Jul 2017 13:23:10 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96079 Rain rain go away, come again another day, little Johnny want to play…” Well Johnny is absolutely right in asking the rain to go away, so that he can play. Getting wet in the rain might seem like a fun idea but it can cause a lot of harm. It can lead to cold, cough […]

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Avoid getting drenched in the rain!

Rain rain go away, come again another day, little Johnny want to play…” Well Johnny is absolutely right in asking the rain to go away, so that he can play. Getting wet in the rain might seem like a fun idea but it can cause a lot of harm. It can lead to cold, cough and fever.

How to avoid getting wet in the rain?

If you absolutely must get out in the rain, make sure to carry and wear rain gear like a good raincoat, rain shoes and umbrellas. This will prevent you from falling sick. When you are done, have a good bath with clean and warm water with a few drops of mild antiseptic. This prevents the chances of getting a cold, cough and keeps the bacteria at bay.

Another dreadful thing about rain water is, that when stagnant, it is a breeding ground for mosquitoes that cause malaria and other dreadful diseases. So, make sure you apply a mosquito repellent when you step out in the monsoon season.

It is definitely fun to prance around in the rain, especially the first rain. However, keep in mind the above warnings and precautions before you decide to have your share of fun.

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What makes the Indian Parliament? http://mocomi.com/what-makes-the-indian-parliament/ http://mocomi.com/what-makes-the-indian-parliament/#comments Thu, 20 Jul 2017 06:10:59 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96066 What is a Parliament in India? The Indian Parliament consists of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head. What is the Lok Sabha? As conceived by the Constitution of India, the Lok Sabha or the House of People (Lower House) consists of 552 members made up […]

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What makes the Indian Parliament?

What is a Parliament in India?

The Indian Parliament consists of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head.

What is the Lok Sabha?

As conceived by the Constitution of India, the Lok Sabha or the House of People (Lower House) consists of 552 members made up by elections. 530 members represent States and 20 represent Union Territories and 2 members from the Anglo – Indian community are nominated by the President of India.

Unless dissolved, the Lok Sabha operates for five years from the date of its appointment.

What are the powers of Lok Sabha?

  • Motions of No Confidence can be introduced and passed. If the majority votes, the Prime Minister and the Ministers resign collectively.
  • Money Bills are passed and taken forward to the Rajya Sabha only if passed by the Lok Sabha.
  • Equal powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a Bill for Constitutional Amendment.
  • Equal powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing the motion for the impeachment of the President, by a two third majority.
  • Equal powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a motion for the impeachment of the judges of the Supreme Court and the State High Courts, who are then removed by the President of India.
  • Equal Powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a resolution declaring war or national emergency, by a two third majority voting or constitutional emergency (by simple majority) at State level.
  • The Lok Sabha has almost equal powers as Rajya Sabha, though Lok Sabha has more influence due to the high number of Members.

What is the Rajya Sabha?

According to the Indian Constitution, the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States (Upper House) membership is restricted to 250. The members of Rajya Sabha are elected by state and territorial legislatures using single transferrable votes. The members are in office for six years with one third of members retiring every two years. Twelve members of the Rajya Sabha are selected on the basis of their contribution to arts, science, literature, social science.

Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved. Although the President can prorogue the session and adjourn it. The Vice President of India is the ex officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

What are the powers of Rajya Sabha?

  • Same as that of Lok Sabha, except some motions cannot be passed by Rajya Sabha, according to the guidelines of the Constitution of India.
  • The Rajya Sabha member cannot bring about Motion of No Confidence against the government.
  • In Indian federal structure, Rajya Sabha is a representative of the States in the Union legislature and hence is granted powers that protect the rights of States against the Union.
  • The union government cannot make a law on a matter reserved for states without any authorisation from Rajya Sabha.
  • Rajya Sabha, by a two-thirds super majority can pass a resolution empowering the Government of India to create more All-India Services common to both Union and States, including a judicial service.
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Human Body Joints and Movements http://mocomi.com/human-body-joints-and-movements/ http://mocomi.com/human-body-joints-and-movements/#comments Wed, 19 Jul 2017 11:19:10 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96055 What enables movement in human beings? The human body is a complex system of various types of cells, tissues and organs. It is made of 206 bones and this skeletal structure helps in giving it protection, support, shape and movement which is aided by attached muscles. Living bone cells are found on the edges of […]

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Human Body Joints and Movements

What enables movement in human beings?

The human body is a complex system of various types of cells, tissues and organs.
It is made of 206 bones and this skeletal structure helps in giving it protection, support, shape and movement which is aided by attached muscles.
Living bone cells are found on the edges of bones and in small cavities inside the bone matrix. Although these cells make up very little of the total bone mass, they have several very important roles in the functions of the skeletal system. The bone cells allow bones to:

  • Grow and develop
  • Be repaired following an injury or daily wear
  • Be broken down to release their stored minerals

What are bones made of?

The skeleton makes up about 30-40% of an adult’s body mass. The skeleton’s mass is made up of non-living bone matrix and many tiny bone cells. Roughly half of the bone matrix’s mass is water, while the other half is collagen protein and solid crystals of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. The point where two bones meet is known as a joint.

What are the types of joints in a human body?

The human body has three main types of joints; Fibrous (immovable), Cartilaginous (partially movable) and the Synovial (freely movable) joint.

What is Fibrous Joints?

These type of joints are held by ligaments and are immoveable. They are found at :
a. teeth to their bony sockets
b. bones of the skull (sutures)
c. radioulna joints at the elbow and tibiofibula joints at the knee

What is Cartilaginous Joints?

These are partially movable. There are two types of cartilaginous joints : Primary and Secondary
a. Primary : They are found in babies and small children as epiphyseal plates and tend to ossify on adulthood.
b. Secondary : These are permanent joints and made of fibriocartilage. They allow small movements and are found at skeletal midline:
c. ribcage to sternum and manubrium
d. intervertebral discs
e. between the pubic bones

What is Synovial Joints?

These are the most movable joints of the three types. And also more susceptible to damage. There is a synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid between the adjoining bones of this joint to allow movement. The synovial fluid and cartilage tissue prevents wear and tear that these types of joints are more prone to.

There are six types of Synovial Joints.

1. Hinge Joints :

These are found at elbows and knees. They allow movement only in one direction.

Hinge Joint Movement – Flexion and Extension

a. Flexion : This movement is the bending of a body part, or decreasing the angle between two parts. You flex your elbow when you bring your forearm up toward your upper arm, and you flex your spine when you bend your body forward.
b. Extension : The opposite of flexion is extension, the straightening of a part, or increasing the angle between two parts. You extend your elbow when you move your forearm away from your arm to straighten your elbow, and you extend your back when you move from being in a flexed position back upright.

2. Pivot Joints :

These are at the top of the spine.
Pivot Joint Movement – Rotation
Rotation : It is the turning movement of a bone around its own axis. Rotation may occur toward the body midline or away from it. Like the rotation of the neck.

3. Ball and socket Joints :

These are found where the arm joins the shoulder and where the leg joins the hip.

Ball and socket Joint Movements – Adduction and Abduction

a. Adduction : It is the body part’s movement towards the body’s midline. Lowering your raised hand is known as adduction.
b. Abduction : It is the body part’s movement away from the body’s midline. If you raise your arms to your shoulder or above your shoulder or swing your hands to the side.

3. Saddle Joints :

These are found between the trapezium carpel and metacarpel of a finger. They provide support to small bones.

4. Condyloid Joints :

These are found between the radius bone and the carpel bones at the wrist. These provides multiple movements in small spaces.

5. Gliding Joints :

These are found between the tarsal bones of the feet. They provide movement along the plane of the joint ; up – down and left – right.

Combination of movements for different body parts

  • Elevation is the upward movement of structures of the body. If you raise your shoulder joint, it raises the corresponding arm as well.
  • Depression is the downward movement of the structures of the body. If you lower your shoulder joint, it lowers the corresponding arm as well.
  • Circumduction movement is found at the saddle and condyloid joints and ball and socket joints. It is the movement of limb, hand or fingers where the part that is attached to the torso is stationary and the part away from the torso is in a circular movement.
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What is Topography? http://mocomi.com/what-is-topography/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-topography/#comments Tue, 18 Jul 2017 10:29:29 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96041 What does topography mean? Topography is the study of shape and features on the surface of the Earth. These features typically include natural formations such as mountains, rivers, lakes, and valleys, forests, glaciers etc. Manmade features such as roads, dams, and cities may also be included. Where does the word topography originate from? Topography is […]

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What is Topography?

What does topography mean?

Topography is the study of shape and features on the surface of the Earth. These features typically include natural formations such as mountains, rivers, lakes, and valleys, forests, glaciers etc. Manmade features such as roads, dams, and cities may also be included.

Where does the word topography originate from?

Topography is a combination of two Greek words ‘topos’ meaning ‘place’ and ‘graphein’ meaning ‘to write.’ It is extremely important to chart and predict weathers, lay roads and plan other transportation means, to plan architectural constructions, study geology, farming, water body management etc.

What is a topographical map?

Mapping is a crucial part of earth science and are wonderful tools that help us find our way in a street, in a city, in a country, in fact, anywhere on the Earth. There are some maps that show different physical features of the Earth. These maps are called topographic maps. Topographic maps use a particular type of line, known as a contour line, to depict different elevations on a map.

How is information collected to make topographic maps?

There are mainly two primary methods of surveying the landforms – direct survey and indirect survey.

Direct survey –

A direct survey is when a topographer on ground, uses surveying equipment, to measure the location and elevation of the land. Have you ever seen a surveyor along the road sometime taking measurements with the help of a leveling instrument placed on a tripod? They are doing just that!

Indirect survey –

Remote or inaccessible areas on the Earth may be mapped using indirect methods. These methods include satellite images, images taken from aeroplanes, helicopters, radar, and sonar (underwater).

Topographical maps include five categories of elements as following:

  1. Toponymy which includes names of places, water bodies and highways
  2. Vegetation including wooded and non-wooded areas
  3. Reliefs including mountains, hills, valleys and plateaus
  4. Waters, including oceans, lakes, rivers and stream
  5. Culture establishments such as cities, railroads and power lines

How are different topographical features highlighted on the map?

Different colors are used in topographic maps,

  • Black shows buildings, railroads, power lines and geographical elements
  • Red shows transportation routes
  • Orange shows unconstructed roads
  • Brown is used for elevation
  • Green shows forested areas
  • Blue is used to depict different water bodies
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What is the shortest complete sentence in the English language? http://mocomi.com/what-is-the-shortest-complete-sentence-in-the-english-language/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-the-shortest-complete-sentence-in-the-english-language/#comments Fri, 14 Jul 2017 11:57:20 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96023 Em: Hey Emma, I was wondering what is the shortest sentence in the English Language? Emma: I am. Em: Haha… I know you are short but I meant a sentence in English language! Emma: Silly you. ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence in English Language. Doesn’t have to do anything with my height! Em: Is […]

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What is the shortest complete sentence in the English language?

Em: Hey Emma, I was wondering what is the shortest sentence in the English Language?
Emma: I am.
Em: Haha… I know you are short but I meant a sentence in English language!
Emma: Silly you. ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence in English Language. Doesn’t have to do anything with my height!
Em: Is it?

Is I am a complete sentence?

Reason: Yes. To make a complete sentence in English you need a subject and a predicate. The sentence ‘I am’ has both- the subject- I and Predicate- am. It also expresses a complete thought. So ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence.
Emma: I read in an article that ‘Go’ is a short sentence too.
Reason: In case of ‘Go’ as a sentence, the subject is understood as it is said to either singular or plural beings. Thus by emitting ‘you’ it just becomes an ellipsis. ‘Go’ is an imperative sentence. ‘I am’ is a non-imperative short sentence.
Em: Wow! I never knew something short can be so complicated! Oh wait, Emma is a complicated girl too.
Emma: Hey! I am not short!

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Grizzly Bear Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/grizzly-bear-facts/ http://mocomi.com/grizzly-bear-facts/#comments Thu, 13 Jul 2017 10:40:03 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96011 How do you identify a Grizzly Bear from other bears? Grizzly bears have concave faces, a distinctive hump on their shoulders, and long claws about two to four inches long. Both the hump and the claws are traits associated with a grizzly bear’s exceptional digging ability. Grizzlies are often dark brown, but can vary from […]

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Grizzly Bear Facts and Information

How do you identify a Grizzly Bear from other bears?

Grizzly bears have concave faces, a distinctive hump on their shoulders, and long claws about two to four inches long. Both the hump and the claws are traits associated with a grizzly bear’s exceptional digging ability.

Grizzlies are often dark brown, but can vary from very light cream to black. The long guard hairs on their backs and shoulders frequently have white tips and give the bears a ‘grizzled’ appearance, hence the name ‘grizzly.’ The correct scientific name for the species is ‘brown bear,’ but only coastal bears in Alaska and Canada are referred to as such, while inland bears and those found in the lower 48 states are called grizzly bears.

What is the average life span of a Grizzly Bear?

Grizzly bears often live to be around 20 to 25 years of age Mating occurs from May through July with a peak in mid-June. Female grizzlies begin bearing young at 3 to 8 years of age, and the litter size varies from one to four cubs, with an average litter of two.

What are the living habitats of Grizzly Bears?

Grizzly bears are normally solitary animals. They are often seen together during feeding season, when food is abundant, but are often territorial and aggressive when food is scarce. Most grizzlies become more aggressive during the season just before hibernation. They are stocking up on food for the winter and increase body fat to keep themselves warm. Before winter, other animals are trying to find food for hibernation, so the grizzly is not only competing with other grizzlies, but also with other species, gearing up for harsh winters.

They have good eyesight and excellent senses of hearing and smell. Grizzly bears are active during the day and night, but will often alter their habits to avoid humans in areas of high human use.

4 Interesting facts about Grizzly Bears

  1. The first white explorer to see grizzly bears and to record them in his journal was Henry Kelsey. On 20 August 1691, Kelsey mentioned seeing ‘a great sort of bear’ near what is now The Pas, in west-central Manitoba. Henry Kelsey was an English fur trader and an explorer to venture first on the North American Plains. But it wasn’t till 1960s, more information about grizzlies were extensively studied and recorded.
  2. When a female grizzly bear leaves her mother, she often sets up her home range quite close to their mother’s home range. Males will typically range further, but may also remain close by.
  3. Admiralty Island, in southeast Alaska, was known to early natives as Xootsnoowú, meaning ‘fortress of bears’, and is home to the densest grizzly population in North America.
  4. A major food source for grizzlies are army cutworm moths. They can consume upto 20,000 of these moths which cluster on rocks, after feeding on nectar in the early mornings.
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Atacama Desert Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/atacama-desert/ http://mocomi.com/atacama-desert/#comments Wed, 12 Jul 2017 12:49:47 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95999 What is the driest place on earth? Not all dry places are completely dry. Rated among the three most dry places on earth, the Atacama Desert is the most driest. Situated at an altitude of about 4 km above sea level and covering an area of 40,500 sq miles, it experiences an average rainfall of […]

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Atacama Desert Facts and Information

What is the driest place on earth?

Not all dry places are completely dry. Rated among the three most dry places on earth, the Atacama Desert is the most driest. Situated at an altitude of about 4 km above sea level and covering an area of 40,500 sq miles, it experiences an average rainfall of 1 mm per year.

Why is the Atacama desert so dry?

Since it is a part of the Andes Mountain Ranges Volcanic Belt, ground water storage is low, due to extremely high temperatures below the ground. It is also one of the oldest deserts, probably from the Triassic period, atleast 3 million years old. The aridity of the Atacama desert occurs because of its placement between two mountain chains – The Andes and the Chilean Coast Range. These high altitude barriers prevent moisture from the Pacific or Atlantic Oceans to penetrate.

How many countries of South America does the Atacama desert cover?

The Atacama Desert spreads over Chile, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina.

Is it possible for any life to exist in the driest place on the planet?

The Atacama Desert is sparsely populated, with pockets of inhabitations. However it is interesting to note that the oldest mummies in the world have been found in archeological sites dating back to 7020 BC. Which shows that human life has been resilient to survive such extreme conditions even so long back.

Temperatures across various parts of the desert vary and can range from around 40 degrees Celsius to -5 degrees in some places.Though temperatures are moderate, the Atacama Desert remains an extreme environment, due to water scarcity. Only cactuses and tough grasses can survive in the desert, though bromeliads flourish in zones prone to fogs.

Only a few hardy mammals live here, including the Viscacha, the South American Grey Fox and Darwin’s Leaf-Eared Mouse.
Birds are in abundance, from Humboldt Penguins along the coast to Andean Flamingos, which feed on algae and vascular plants in the salt lakes. Some rarities such as the Tamarugo Conebill, Chilean Woodstar and Slender-billed Finch can be spotted in vegetation prone areas.

6 Interesting facts about Atacama desert

  1. The Atacama Desert is so dry that there are very few bacterias which survive.
  2. The region is rich in Copper and Sodium Nitrate. It was one of the world’s largest suppliers of Sodium Nitrate in the 1940s. Some abandoned townships found around Atacama are largely due to this boom. Post the 1940s, synthetic ways of Nitrate manufacture has reduced mining requirements, though Copper is still mined.
  3. Although the Atacama Desert is the driest place in the world, it has snow on its peaks. This is due to the high altitudes.
  4. Due to an almost constant skyline through out the year, without much change in weather, also that it is uninhabited, with no air pollution, or artificial light sources, the Atacama Desert has become one of the most favoured astronomy observatories of the world. The world’s largest telescope, ALMA is situated at the Atacama Desert.
  5. The Atacama Desert plays host to three different kinds of Flamingoes at it’s fragile Soncor Ecosystem, a series of interconnected lagoons. It’s a very important ecosystem, as it is the Andean Flamingos breeding ground.
  6. The Humboldt penguins are the only penguins that live in the desert. To escape the heat, they swim in the Humboldt currents created in the coastal waters of Chile.
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The Gulf of Alaska Facts http://mocomi.com/the-gulf-of-alaska/ http://mocomi.com/the-gulf-of-alaska/#comments Tue, 11 Jul 2017 12:36:09 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95973 What is the Gulf of Alaska? The Gulf of Alaska is famously known as the place where ‘two oceans meet but do not mix’. This is a strange natural phenomenon that has taken place in the Gulf of Alaska over centuries. Map of the Gulf of Alaska The Gulf of Alaska is a wide curve […]

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The Gulf of Alaska Facts

What is the Gulf of Alaska?

The Gulf of Alaska is famously known as the place where ‘two oceans meet but do not mix’. This is a strange natural phenomenon that has taken place in the Gulf of Alaska over centuries.

Map of the Gulf of Alaska

The Gulf of Alaska is a wide curve in the Pacific Ocean. This Gulf defines the south coast of Alaska. It stretches from the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island in the west to the Alexander Archipelago in the east. This is where the Glacier Bay and the Inside Passage are found.

Gulf of Alaska Marine Weather

The Gulf of Alaska is prone to heavy rains and snow storms that engulf southern and south central Alaska. There are strong surface currents and much colder Arctic air as well. This fact helps generate much of the seasonal rainfall along the coastline of British Columbia and in the states of Washington and Oregon.

The Waters of the Gulf

The Gulf of Alaska is famous for having two kinds of water – Natural blue water and heavy sediment – laden water from the side of the Glacier Bay. The cool blue water tries to merge with the dark slate-blue waters. Rivers of Alaska carry with them huge quantities of sediments. They empty themselves in the gulf that carries all the heavy clay and sediment.

The Gulf of Alaska is also said to have ocean water that meet underwater and not above. Horizontal stratification of water is very common but here we see a vertical stratification.

The Gulf of Alaska Ecosystem –

  • The entire shoreline of the Gulf is a combination of forests, mountains and numerous tidewater glaciers.
  • Many deep water corals are found in the Gulf of Alaska. It also has a highly productive marine system influenced by freshwater inputs and wind.
  • The Gulf of Alaska has a Cook Inlet which is an inlet in the Gulf stretching for 310 kilometres southwest to northeast and separates mainland Alaska from Kenai Peninsula.
  • The other feature is the Prince William Sound which is the sound off the Gulf of Alaska, on the south Coast of Alaska in the United States. A sound is a small body of water that comes in from the ocean.
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The Aztec Civilization http://mocomi.com/the-aztec-civilization/ http://mocomi.com/the-aztec-civilization/#comments Thu, 06 Jul 2017 13:37:34 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95940 What is Aztec civilization? Around 1300 CE, a nomadic tribe of Indians wandered into the Valley of Mexico. These people were called the Aztecs. By 1325 CE, the Aztecs arrived and settled in present day Mexico City, and erected a big and immensely powerful city on a small island known as Tenochtitlan. Floating islands at […]

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The Aztec Civilization

What is Aztec civilization?

Around 1300 CE, a nomadic tribe of Indians wandered into the Valley of Mexico. These people were called the Aztecs. By 1325 CE, the Aztecs arrived and settled in present day Mexico City, and erected a big and immensely powerful city on a small island known as Tenochtitlan.

Floating islands at Aztecs

As the population of the Aztecs grew, the island became too small for them. So, they took a conscious decision to make the island bigger by building large wooden rafts. These rafts were then covered with mud and fastened to the lakebed with sturdy stakes. The people slowly started inhabiting these innovative floating pockets of land.

The Aztecs quickly adapted to their environment. They built wooden canoes and started fishing and hunting the birds that lived near the water. They fashioned floating farming areas for growing food. They created more agricultural land by filling in the marshes. The main food crops of their time were maize and beans.

Aztec’s religion and worship

Once the Aztecs were fully settled, they began to conquer the neighbouring tribes. It was mandatory for each vanquished tribe to pay tribute to the Aztecs in the form of food, precious stones, animals, clothing and of course, some men for sacrificing before the gods. In the Aztec society, a lot of emphasis was placed on religion and worship of gods. Aztecs worshipped a large number of gods, including a rain god, fire god, earth goddess and the sun. Aztecs believed that it was imperative for them to offer ‘human payment’—the sacrifice of a human being—to their gods.They constructed huge pyramid type structures for their gods and offered human sacrifices to their gods.

Important ruler for Aztec

The Aztecs called their ruler the ‘Tlatoani’. The Aztec Empire reached the acme of glory and prosperity under the rule of Tlatoani Montezuma I.

Aztecs’ currency

The Aztecs used a barter system to make their purchases; small purchases were made with cacao beans and bigger purchases were made with a special type of cotton cloth known as ‘Quachtli’.

Parenting in Aztec civilization

Aztec children were finely groomed by their parents. The children were motivated to shoulder their responsibilities and learn basic life skills by their parents. The parents warned their children to refrain from the vices of gambling, theft and drinking. If children disobeyed the parents, they were severely punished. One type of punishment was to force them to inhale the spicy smoke produced from chilly and pepper. Now, that was indeed very harsh on the part of Aztec parents!

Education and occupations in Aztec civilization

Children of the noble class of Aztecs attended ‘Calmecac’ (an educational institute) and the children of the workers’ class attended ‘Telpochcalli’ (vocational training institutes) where they were taught various occupational skills. The boys were also trained in warfare, good citizenship, culture and religion. The girls were trained to do household chores and were married at the age of fifteen. The Aztec men mainly engaged in farming, soldiering and trades like carpentry and metalwork. The womenfolk took care of the home, children, cooked food, wove cloth, and sometimes practiced medicine.

Collapse of Aztec empire

Around 1500 CE, Spanish soldiers happened to arrive in the Valley of Mexico. They were amazed to see the flourishing and prosperous Aztec civilization and decided to bring it under their command.

Though the Aztecs were fierce and valiant warriors, they had a slim chance of survival against the modern guns, cavalry and diseases that came along with the Spanish. By the mid-1500s, the Aztec Empire collapsed, and the Spanish took control over the entire region.
Even today, there are more than one million descendants of the ancient Aztecs living and working in Mexico. Thankfully, human sacrifice is no longer part of their rituals!

10 Interesting facts about Aztec civilization

  1. Aztec culture has a deep influence on the present day Mexican foods and recipes. Avocado, chocolate, chili and tomato are all Aztec words. Guacamole, tacos, and tamales that are widely used in Mexican cuisine date back to Aztec times.
  2. When a girl was born in an Aztec household, she was gifted with a small sewing kit. Baby boys were given a miniature shield and four small arrows.
  3. Aztec children played an interesting game known as ‘Tlachtli’. It was a ball game for teams much like a combination of basketball and soccer. Adult Aztecs engaged themselves in ‘Patolli’, a kind of gambling game played with pebbles and dried beans.
  4. The principle food of the Aztecs was tortillas.
  5. When a man tied the end of his dress to that of a woman, they were considered to be married. The woman could marry only once, while the men could marry a number of times.
  6. The Aztecs used to bury their dead. Women were buried with a sewing basket and men were buried with an assortment of weapons.
  7. It is believed that Aztecs sacrificed roughly 20,000 people every year. They often ate the people who were sacrificed as part of the sacrificial ritual.
  8. The Aztec calendar was divided into 18 months. Each month had 20 days. The last five days of the year, were considered as unlucky and the people preferred to stay indoors.
  9. The contemporary Aztec language is known as Nahuatl or Mexicano and is still spoken in various parts of Mexico.
  10. Aztec art is recognized as an integral part of Mexico’s heritage. Aztec painting and sculpture deeply influenced the modern Mexican artists.

Aztec civilization will always be remembered for its extensive religious life, intricate social organization, refined literature, and colossal works of sculpture.

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombing http://mocomi.com/hiroshima-and-nagasaki-bombing/ http://mocomi.com/hiroshima-and-nagasaki-bombing/#comments Wed, 05 Jul 2017 13:44:00 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95951 Why were the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombed by the United States of America? In 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the forces of the United States and her Allies had been at war with Japan. On July 26, 1945, The President of the United States, Harry S. Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration, […]

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombing

Why were the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombed by the United States of America?

In 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the forces of the United States and her Allies had been at war with Japan.

On July 26, 1945, The President of the United States, Harry S. Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration, which called for Japan’s unconditional surrender and listed peace terms. The Japanese were warned of the consequences of continued resistance by the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, signed by President Truman and by Prime Minister Clement Attlee of the United Kingdom and with the concurrence of Chiang Kai-Shek, President of the National Government of China.

Little boy explosion

On August 6, 1945, at 9:15 am, Tokyo time, a B-29 plane, the “Enola Gay” piloted by Paul W. Tibbets, dropped a uranium atomic bomb, code named “Little Boy” on Hiroshima, Japan’s seventh largest city. In minutes, half of the city vanished. The impact was upto 40,000 ft high in air. The heat from the bomb was so intense that some people simply evaporated in thin air. The blast destroyed more than ten square kilometres of the city.

According to U.S. estimates :

  • 60,000 to 70,000 people were killed or missing
  • 140,000 were injured
  • 100,000 were affected by immediate radiation in the blast

Fat man bomb explosion

On August 9, 1945, another US bomber plane flew with the weapon of mass destruction loaded on it. The first choice target for this bombing was the Japanese city of Kokura. But, the haze over Kokura made the American authorities change their plans and shift their focus to their second target, Nagasaki. At 11:02 a.m., another atomic bomb was dropped over Nagasaki.

3 Facts about Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing

  1. A month before the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing in August, in July 1945, a bomb had been tested in the New Mexico desert. The bomb was code named ‘Trinity’. It was a part of the Manhattan Project.
  2. Following the two bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was decided to replace the Quebec Agreement (1943) with a more loose form of cooperation on nuclear matters between the three governments, as well as establishing a specialized UN agency on nuclear energy. This draft agreement was approved by the Combined Policy Committee on December 4, 1945 as the basis for the revocation of the Quebec Agreement.
  3. The Quebec Agreement was an agreement that the countries of the United States of America, Great Britain and Canada would not share their knowledge of nuclear power with a third party without each other’s mutual consent, would not use the power against each other, or against a third party without each other’s consent.
    After the war, Hiroshima was resurrected as a peace memorial city and the closest surviving structure to the epicentre was christened as the Hiroshima Peace Memorial. Every year people from around the world congregate to make paper cranes in memory of a two year old named Sadako, who developed leukemia from the radiation. She believed that making paper cranes would help her recover. More than 10 million cranes are offered every year.
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The Bronze Age http://mocomi.com/the-bronze-age/ http://mocomi.com/the-bronze-age/#comments Tue, 04 Jul 2017 11:11:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95927 How do you differentiate the different overlapping growth of human civilization? The ages of human civilizations, in history, archeology and anthropology, was a methodical categorisation based on recognisable chronological events. It was initiated in the year, 1816, by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, a Dutch Antiquarian and Curator. He classified the museum collections of the Royal Museum […]

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The Bronze Age

How do you differentiate the different overlapping growth of human civilization?

The ages of human civilizations, in history, archeology and anthropology, was a methodical categorisation based on recognisable chronological events. It was initiated in the year, 1816, by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, a Dutch Antiquarian and Curator. He classified the museum collections of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities, Copenhagen. He classified the artifacts based on what materials they were made of; as Stone, Bronze and Iron Age objects. Before this, these artifacts were simply presented as objects of evolution and lacked a clear placement, in the evolution of human development with their environment.

What are the three ages of human civilization?

1. The Age of Stone

Period when weapons and implements were made of stone, wood, bone, or some such material, and during which very little or nothing at all was known of metals.

2. The Age of Bronze

Period in which weapons and cutting implements were made of copper or bronze, and nothing at all, or but very little was known of iron or silver.

3. The Age of Iron

The third and last period of the evolution of modern man, in which iron was used for those articles to which that metal is eminently suited, and in the fabrication of which it came to be employed as a substitute for bronze.

What are the other developments in the Age of Bronze?

The Bronze Age can be defined as second phase of material and human development of the modern man. It dates from :

  • Early Bronze Age (3500-2000 BC)
  • Middle Bronze Age (2000-1600 BC)
  • Late Bronze Age (1600-1200 BC)

Unsettled nomadic man from the Stone Age, started to settle into colonies which went on to form highly evolved civilizations. He started creating objects from copper and a mixture of copper and tin. Cast metal work evolved during this period. This can be deduced from clay casts of arrow heads. The organisation of mining, smelting and casting allowed the development of skilled labour and the organisation of settlements and developments in the field of farming, animal breeding, building and architecture, arts and design. The earliest writings, the cunieform writing on clay tablets, was developed by the Sumerians.

The Egyptians developed their own form of writing, the hieroglyphic and the hieratic script, soon after.

Another parallel development was transportation over long distances developed due to trading and mining. Elaborate ships were designed and built to transport materials over long distances.

Which were the great Bronze Age civilizations?

  1. Mesopotamia circa 3700 BC(end of the Neolithic period)
  2. Egypt circa 3300 BC
  3. Indus Valley circa 2500 BC
  4. India circa 1700 BC
  5. China circa 1600 BC
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The Bronze Age

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