Mocomi Kids http://mocomi.com Inspiring Curiosity! Fri, 21 Jul 2017 13:23:44 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.2.15 Avoid getting drenched in the rain! http://mocomi.com/avoid-getting-drenched-in-the-rain/ http://mocomi.com/avoid-getting-drenched-in-the-rain/#comments Fri, 21 Jul 2017 13:23:10 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96079 Rain rain go away, come again another day, little Johnny want to play…” Well Johnny is absolutely right in asking the rain to go away, so that he can play. Getting wet in the rain might seem like a fun idea but it can cause a lot of harm. It can lead to cold, cough […]

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Avoid getting drenched in the rain!

Rain rain go away, come again another day, little Johnny want to play…” Well Johnny is absolutely right in asking the rain to go away, so that he can play. Getting wet in the rain might seem like a fun idea but it can cause a lot of harm. It can lead to cold, cough and fever.

How to avoid getting wet in the rain?

If you absolutely must get out in the rain, make sure to carry and wear rain gear like a good raincoat, rain shoes and umbrellas. This will prevent you from falling sick. When you are done, have a good bath with clean and warm water with a few drops of mild antiseptic. This prevents the chances of getting a cold, cough and keeps the bacteria at bay.

Another dreadful thing about rain water is, that when stagnant, it is a breeding ground for mosquitoes that cause malaria and other dreadful diseases. So, make sure you apply a mosquito repellent when you step out in the monsoon season.

It is definitely fun to prance around in the rain, especially the first rain. However, keep in mind the above warnings and precautions before you decide to have your share of fun.

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What makes the Indian Parliament? http://mocomi.com/what-makes-the-indian-parliament/ http://mocomi.com/what-makes-the-indian-parliament/#comments Thu, 20 Jul 2017 06:10:59 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96066 What is a Parliament in India? The Indian Parliament consists of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head. What is the Lok Sabha? As conceived by the Constitution of India, the Lok Sabha or the House of People (Lower House) consists of 552 members made up […]

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What makes the Indian Parliament?

What is a Parliament in India?

The Indian Parliament consists of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head.

What is the Lok Sabha?

As conceived by the Constitution of India, the Lok Sabha or the House of People (Lower House) consists of 552 members made up by elections. 530 members represent States and 20 represent Union Territories and 2 members from the Anglo – Indian community are nominated by the President of India.

Unless dissolved, the Lok Sabha operates for five years from the date of its appointment.

What are the powers of Lok Sabha?

  • Motions of No Confidence can be introduced and passed. If the majority votes, the Prime Minister and the Ministers resign collectively.
  • Money Bills are passed and taken forward to the Rajya Sabha only if passed by the Lok Sabha.
  • Equal powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a Bill for Constitutional Amendment.
  • Equal powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing the motion for the impeachment of the President, by a two third majority.
  • Equal powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a motion for the impeachment of the judges of the Supreme Court and the State High Courts, who are then removed by the President of India.
  • Equal Powers with Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a resolution declaring war or national emergency, by a two third majority voting or constitutional emergency (by simple majority) at State level.
  • The Lok Sabha has almost equal powers as Rajya Sabha, though Lok Sabha has more influence due to the high number of Members.

What is the Rajya Sabha?

According to the Indian Constitution, the Rajya Sabha or the Council of States (Upper House) membership is restricted to 250. The members of Rajya Sabha are elected by state and territorial legislatures using single transferrable votes. The members are in office for six years with one third of members retiring every two years. Twelve members of the Rajya Sabha are selected on the basis of their contribution to arts, science, literature, social science.

Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha cannot be dissolved. Although the President can prorogue the session and adjourn it. The Vice President of India is the ex officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

What are the powers of Rajya Sabha?

  • Same as that of Lok Sabha, except some motions cannot be passed by Rajya Sabha, according to the guidelines of the Constitution of India.
  • The Rajya Sabha member cannot bring about Motion of No Confidence against the government.
  • In Indian federal structure, Rajya Sabha is a representative of the States in the Union legislature and hence is granted powers that protect the rights of States against the Union.
  • The union government cannot make a law on a matter reserved for states without any authorisation from Rajya Sabha.
  • Rajya Sabha, by a two-thirds super majority can pass a resolution empowering the Government of India to create more All-India Services common to both Union and States, including a judicial service.
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Human Body Joints and Movements http://mocomi.com/human-body-joints-and-movements/ http://mocomi.com/human-body-joints-and-movements/#comments Wed, 19 Jul 2017 11:19:10 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96055 What enables movement in human beings? The human body is a complex system of various types of cells, tissues and organs. It is made of 206 bones and this skeletal structure helps in giving it protection, support, shape and movement which is aided by attached muscles. Living bone cells are found on the edges of […]

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Human Body Joints and Movements

What enables movement in human beings?

The human body is a complex system of various types of cells, tissues and organs.
It is made of 206 bones and this skeletal structure helps in giving it protection, support, shape and movement which is aided by attached muscles.
Living bone cells are found on the edges of bones and in small cavities inside the bone matrix. Although these cells make up very little of the total bone mass, they have several very important roles in the functions of the skeletal system. The bone cells allow bones to:

  • Grow and develop
  • Be repaired following an injury or daily wear
  • Be broken down to release their stored minerals

What are bones made of?

The skeleton makes up about 30-40% of an adult’s body mass. The skeleton’s mass is made up of non-living bone matrix and many tiny bone cells. Roughly half of the bone matrix’s mass is water, while the other half is collagen protein and solid crystals of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. The point where two bones meet is known as a joint.

What are the types of joints in a human body?

The human body has three main types of joints; Fibrous (immovable), Cartilaginous (partially movable) and the Synovial (freely movable) joint.

What is Fibrous Joints?

These type of joints are held by ligaments and are immoveable. They are found at :
a. teeth to their bony sockets
b. bones of the skull (sutures)
c. radioulna joints at the elbow and tibiofibula joints at the knee

What is Cartilaginous Joints?

These are partially movable. There are two types of cartilaginous joints : Primary and Secondary
a. Primary : They are found in babies and small children as epiphyseal plates and tend to ossify on adulthood.
b. Secondary : These are permanent joints and made of fibriocartilage. They allow small movements and are found at skeletal midline:
c. ribcage to sternum and manubrium
d. intervertebral discs
e. between the pubic bones

What is Synovial Joints?

These are the most movable joints of the three types. And also more susceptible to damage. There is a synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid between the adjoining bones of this joint to allow movement. The synovial fluid and cartilage tissue prevents wear and tear that these types of joints are more prone to.

There are six types of Synovial Joints.

1. Hinge Joints :

These are found at elbows and knees. They allow movement only in one direction.

Hinge Joint Movement – Flexion and Extension

a. Flexion : This movement is the bending of a body part, or decreasing the angle between two parts. You flex your elbow when you bring your forearm up toward your upper arm, and you flex your spine when you bend your body forward.
b. Extension : The opposite of flexion is extension, the straightening of a part, or increasing the angle between two parts. You extend your elbow when you move your forearm away from your arm to straighten your elbow, and you extend your back when you move from being in a flexed position back upright.

2. Pivot Joints :

These are at the top of the spine.
Pivot Joint Movement – Rotation
Rotation : It is the turning movement of a bone around its own axis. Rotation may occur toward the body midline or away from it. Like the rotation of the neck.

3. Ball and socket Joints :

These are found where the arm joins the shoulder and where the leg joins the hip.

Ball and socket Joint Movements – Adduction and Abduction

a. Adduction : It is the body part’s movement towards the body’s midline. Lowering your raised hand is known as adduction.
b. Abduction : It is the body part’s movement away from the body’s midline. If you raise your arms to your shoulder or above your shoulder or swing your hands to the side.

3. Saddle Joints :

These are found between the trapezium carpel and metacarpel of a finger. They provide support to small bones.

4. Condyloid Joints :

These are found between the radius bone and the carpel bones at the wrist. These provides multiple movements in small spaces.

5. Gliding Joints :

These are found between the tarsal bones of the feet. They provide movement along the plane of the joint ; up – down and left – right.

Combination of movements for different body parts

  • Elevation is the upward movement of structures of the body. If you raise your shoulder joint, it raises the corresponding arm as well.
  • Depression is the downward movement of the structures of the body. If you lower your shoulder joint, it lowers the corresponding arm as well.
  • Circumduction movement is found at the saddle and condyloid joints and ball and socket joints. It is the movement of limb, hand or fingers where the part that is attached to the torso is stationary and the part away from the torso is in a circular movement.
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What is Topography? http://mocomi.com/what-is-topography/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-topography/#comments Tue, 18 Jul 2017 10:29:29 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96041 What does topography mean? Topography is the study of shape and features on the surface of the Earth. These features typically include natural formations such as mountains, rivers, lakes, and valleys, forests, glaciers etc. Manmade features such as roads, dams, and cities may also be included. Where does the word topography originate from? Topography is […]

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What is Topography?

What does topography mean?

Topography is the study of shape and features on the surface of the Earth. These features typically include natural formations such as mountains, rivers, lakes, and valleys, forests, glaciers etc. Manmade features such as roads, dams, and cities may also be included.

Where does the word topography originate from?

Topography is a combination of two Greek words ‘topos’ meaning ‘place’ and ‘graphein’ meaning ‘to write.’ It is extremely important to chart and predict weathers, lay roads and plan other transportation means, to plan architectural constructions, study geology, farming, water body management etc.

What is a topographical map?

Mapping is a crucial part of earth science and are wonderful tools that help us find our way in a street, in a city, in a country, in fact, anywhere on the Earth. There are some maps that show different physical features of the Earth. These maps are called topographic maps. Topographic maps use a particular type of line, known as a contour line, to depict different elevations on a map.

How is information collected to make topographic maps?

There are mainly two primary methods of surveying the landforms – direct survey and indirect survey.

Direct survey –

A direct survey is when a topographer on ground, uses surveying equipment, to measure the location and elevation of the land. Have you ever seen a surveyor along the road sometime taking measurements with the help of a leveling instrument placed on a tripod? They are doing just that!

Indirect survey –

Remote or inaccessible areas on the Earth may be mapped using indirect methods. These methods include satellite images, images taken from aeroplanes, helicopters, radar, and sonar (underwater).

Topographical maps include five categories of elements as following:

  1. Toponymy which includes names of places, water bodies and highways
  2. Vegetation including wooded and non-wooded areas
  3. Reliefs including mountains, hills, valleys and plateaus
  4. Waters, including oceans, lakes, rivers and stream
  5. Culture establishments such as cities, railroads and power lines

How are different topographical features highlighted on the map?

Different colors are used in topographic maps,

  • Black shows buildings, railroads, power lines and geographical elements
  • Red shows transportation routes
  • Orange shows unconstructed roads
  • Brown is used for elevation
  • Green shows forested areas
  • Blue is used to depict different water bodies
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What is the shortest complete sentence in the English language? http://mocomi.com/what-is-the-shortest-complete-sentence-in-the-english-language/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-the-shortest-complete-sentence-in-the-english-language/#comments Fri, 14 Jul 2017 11:57:20 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96023 Em: Hey Emma, I was wondering what is the shortest sentence in the English Language? Emma: I am. Em: Haha… I know you are short but I meant a sentence in English language! Emma: Silly you. ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence in English Language. Doesn’t have to do anything with my height! Em: Is […]

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What is the shortest complete sentence in the English language?

Em: Hey Emma, I was wondering what is the shortest sentence in the English Language?
Emma: I am.
Em: Haha… I know you are short but I meant a sentence in English language!
Emma: Silly you. ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence in English Language. Doesn’t have to do anything with my height!
Em: Is it?

Is I am a complete sentence?

Reason: Yes. To make a complete sentence in English you need a subject and a predicate. The sentence ‘I am’ has both- the subject- I and Predicate- am. It also expresses a complete thought. So ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence.
Emma: I read in an article that ‘Go’ is a short sentence too.
Reason: In case of ‘Go’ as a sentence, the subject is understood as it is said to either singular or plural beings. Thus by emitting ‘you’ it just becomes an ellipsis. ‘Go’ is an imperative sentence. ‘I am’ is a non-imperative short sentence.
Em: Wow! I never knew something short can be so complicated! Oh wait, Emma is a complicated girl too.
Emma: Hey! I am not short!

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Grizzly Bear Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/grizzly-bear-facts/ http://mocomi.com/grizzly-bear-facts/#comments Thu, 13 Jul 2017 10:40:03 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=96011 How do you identify a Grizzly Bear from other bears? Grizzly bears have concave faces, a distinctive hump on their shoulders, and long claws about two to four inches long. Both the hump and the claws are traits associated with a grizzly bear’s exceptional digging ability. Grizzlies are often dark brown, but can vary from […]

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Grizzly Bear Facts and Information

How do you identify a Grizzly Bear from other bears?

Grizzly bears have concave faces, a distinctive hump on their shoulders, and long claws about two to four inches long. Both the hump and the claws are traits associated with a grizzly bear’s exceptional digging ability.

Grizzlies are often dark brown, but can vary from very light cream to black. The long guard hairs on their backs and shoulders frequently have white tips and give the bears a ‘grizzled’ appearance, hence the name ‘grizzly.’ The correct scientific name for the species is ‘brown bear,’ but only coastal bears in Alaska and Canada are referred to as such, while inland bears and those found in the lower 48 states are called grizzly bears.

What is the average life span of a Grizzly Bear?

Grizzly bears often live to be around 20 to 25 years of age Mating occurs from May through July with a peak in mid-June. Female grizzlies begin bearing young at 3 to 8 years of age, and the litter size varies from one to four cubs, with an average litter of two.

What are the living habitats of Grizzly Bears?

Grizzly bears are normally solitary animals. They are often seen together during feeding season, when food is abundant, but are often territorial and aggressive when food is scarce. Most grizzlies become more aggressive during the season just before hibernation. They are stocking up on food for the winter and increase body fat to keep themselves warm. Before winter, other animals are trying to find food for hibernation, so the grizzly is not only competing with other grizzlies, but also with other species, gearing up for harsh winters.

They have good eyesight and excellent senses of hearing and smell. Grizzly bears are active during the day and night, but will often alter their habits to avoid humans in areas of high human use.

4 Interesting facts about Grizzly Bears

  1. The first white explorer to see grizzly bears and to record them in his journal was Henry Kelsey. On 20 August 1691, Kelsey mentioned seeing ‘a great sort of bear’ near what is now The Pas, in west-central Manitoba. Henry Kelsey was an English fur trader and an explorer to venture first on the North American Plains. But it wasn’t till 1960s, more information about grizzlies were extensively studied and recorded.
  2. When a female grizzly bear leaves her mother, she often sets up her home range quite close to their mother’s home range. Males will typically range further, but may also remain close by.
  3. Admiralty Island, in southeast Alaska, was known to early natives as Xootsnoowú, meaning ‘fortress of bears’, and is home to the densest grizzly population in North America.
  4. A major food source for grizzlies are army cutworm moths. They can consume upto 20,000 of these moths which cluster on rocks, after feeding on nectar in the early mornings.
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Atacama Desert Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/atacama-desert/ http://mocomi.com/atacama-desert/#comments Wed, 12 Jul 2017 12:49:47 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95999 What is the driest place on earth? Not all dry places are completely dry. Rated among the three most dry places on earth, the Atacama Desert is the most driest. Situated at an altitude of about 4 km above sea level and covering an area of 40,500 sq miles, it experiences an average rainfall of […]

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Atacama Desert Facts and Information

What is the driest place on earth?

Not all dry places are completely dry. Rated among the three most dry places on earth, the Atacama Desert is the most driest. Situated at an altitude of about 4 km above sea level and covering an area of 40,500 sq miles, it experiences an average rainfall of 1 mm per year.

Why is the Atacama desert so dry?

Since it is a part of the Andes Mountain Ranges Volcanic Belt, ground water storage is low, due to extremely high temperatures below the ground. It is also one of the oldest deserts, probably from the Triassic period, atleast 3 million years old. The aridity of the Atacama desert occurs because of its placement between two mountain chains – The Andes and the Chilean Coast Range. These high altitude barriers prevent moisture from the Pacific or Atlantic Oceans to penetrate.

How many countries of South America does the Atacama desert cover?

The Atacama Desert spreads over Chile, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina.

Is it possible for any life to exist in the driest place on the planet?

The Atacama Desert is sparsely populated, with pockets of inhabitations. However it is interesting to note that the oldest mummies in the world have been found in archeological sites dating back to 7020 BC. Which shows that human life has been resilient to survive such extreme conditions even so long back.

Temperatures across various parts of the desert vary and can range from around 40 degrees Celsius to -5 degrees in some places.Though temperatures are moderate, the Atacama Desert remains an extreme environment, due to water scarcity. Only cactuses and tough grasses can survive in the desert, though bromeliads flourish in zones prone to fogs.

Only a few hardy mammals live here, including the Viscacha, the South American Grey Fox and Darwin’s Leaf-Eared Mouse.
Birds are in abundance, from Humboldt Penguins along the coast to Andean Flamingos, which feed on algae and vascular plants in the salt lakes. Some rarities such as the Tamarugo Conebill, Chilean Woodstar and Slender-billed Finch can be spotted in vegetation prone areas.

6 Interesting facts about Atacama desert

  1. The Atacama Desert is so dry that there are very few bacterias which survive.
  2. The region is rich in Copper and Sodium Nitrate. It was one of the world’s largest suppliers of Sodium Nitrate in the 1940s. Some abandoned townships found around Atacama are largely due to this boom. Post the 1940s, synthetic ways of Nitrate manufacture has reduced mining requirements, though Copper is still mined.
  3. Although the Atacama Desert is the driest place in the world, it has snow on its peaks. This is due to the high altitudes.
  4. Due to an almost constant skyline through out the year, without much change in weather, also that it is uninhabited, with no air pollution, or artificial light sources, the Atacama Desert has become one of the most favoured astronomy observatories of the world. The world’s largest telescope, ALMA is situated at the Atacama Desert.
  5. The Atacama Desert plays host to three different kinds of Flamingoes at it’s fragile Soncor Ecosystem, a series of interconnected lagoons. It’s a very important ecosystem, as it is the Andean Flamingos breeding ground.
  6. The Humboldt penguins are the only penguins that live in the desert. To escape the heat, they swim in the Humboldt currents created in the coastal waters of Chile.
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The Gulf of Alaska Facts http://mocomi.com/the-gulf-of-alaska/ http://mocomi.com/the-gulf-of-alaska/#comments Tue, 11 Jul 2017 12:36:09 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95973 What is the Gulf of Alaska? The Gulf of Alaska is famously known as the place where ‘two oceans meet but do not mix’. This is a strange natural phenomenon that has taken place in the Gulf of Alaska over centuries. Map of the Gulf of Alaska The Gulf of Alaska is a wide curve […]

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The Gulf of Alaska Facts

What is the Gulf of Alaska?

The Gulf of Alaska is famously known as the place where ‘two oceans meet but do not mix’. This is a strange natural phenomenon that has taken place in the Gulf of Alaska over centuries.

Map of the Gulf of Alaska

The Gulf of Alaska is a wide curve in the Pacific Ocean. This Gulf defines the south coast of Alaska. It stretches from the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island in the west to the Alexander Archipelago in the east. This is where the Glacier Bay and the Inside Passage are found.

Gulf of Alaska Marine Weather

The Gulf of Alaska is prone to heavy rains and snow storms that engulf southern and south central Alaska. There are strong surface currents and much colder Arctic air as well. This fact helps generate much of the seasonal rainfall along the coastline of British Columbia and in the states of Washington and Oregon.

The Waters of the Gulf

The Gulf of Alaska is famous for having two kinds of water – Natural blue water and heavy sediment – laden water from the side of the Glacier Bay. The cool blue water tries to merge with the dark slate-blue waters. Rivers of Alaska carry with them huge quantities of sediments. They empty themselves in the gulf that carries all the heavy clay and sediment.

The Gulf of Alaska is also said to have ocean water that meet underwater and not above. Horizontal stratification of water is very common but here we see a vertical stratification.

The Gulf of Alaska Ecosystem –

  • The entire shoreline of the Gulf is a combination of forests, mountains and numerous tidewater glaciers.
  • Many deep water corals are found in the Gulf of Alaska. It also has a highly productive marine system influenced by freshwater inputs and wind.
  • The Gulf of Alaska has a Cook Inlet which is an inlet in the Gulf stretching for 310 kilometres southwest to northeast and separates mainland Alaska from Kenai Peninsula.
  • The other feature is the Prince William Sound which is the sound off the Gulf of Alaska, on the south Coast of Alaska in the United States. A sound is a small body of water that comes in from the ocean.
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The Aztec Civilization http://mocomi.com/the-aztec-civilization/ http://mocomi.com/the-aztec-civilization/#comments Thu, 06 Jul 2017 13:37:34 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95940 What is Aztec civilization? Around 1300 CE, a nomadic tribe of Indians wandered into the Valley of Mexico. These people were called the Aztecs. By 1325 CE, the Aztecs arrived and settled in present day Mexico City, and erected a big and immensely powerful city on a small island known as Tenochtitlan. Floating islands at […]

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The Aztec Civilization

What is Aztec civilization?

Around 1300 CE, a nomadic tribe of Indians wandered into the Valley of Mexico. These people were called the Aztecs. By 1325 CE, the Aztecs arrived and settled in present day Mexico City, and erected a big and immensely powerful city on a small island known as Tenochtitlan.

Floating islands at Aztecs

As the population of the Aztecs grew, the island became too small for them. So, they took a conscious decision to make the island bigger by building large wooden rafts. These rafts were then covered with mud and fastened to the lakebed with sturdy stakes. The people slowly started inhabiting these innovative floating pockets of land.

The Aztecs quickly adapted to their environment. They built wooden canoes and started fishing and hunting the birds that lived near the water. They fashioned floating farming areas for growing food. They created more agricultural land by filling in the marshes. The main food crops of their time were maize and beans.

Aztec’s religion and worship

Once the Aztecs were fully settled, they began to conquer the neighbouring tribes. It was mandatory for each vanquished tribe to pay tribute to the Aztecs in the form of food, precious stones, animals, clothing and of course, some men for sacrificing before the gods. In the Aztec society, a lot of emphasis was placed on religion and worship of gods. Aztecs worshipped a large number of gods, including a rain god, fire god, earth goddess and the sun. Aztecs believed that it was imperative for them to offer ‘human payment’—the sacrifice of a human being—to their gods.They constructed huge pyramid type structures for their gods and offered human sacrifices to their gods.

Important ruler for Aztec

The Aztecs called their ruler the ‘Tlatoani’. The Aztec Empire reached the acme of glory and prosperity under the rule of Tlatoani Montezuma I.

Aztecs’ currency

The Aztecs used a barter system to make their purchases; small purchases were made with cacao beans and bigger purchases were made with a special type of cotton cloth known as ‘Quachtli’.

Parenting in Aztec civilization

Aztec children were finely groomed by their parents. The children were motivated to shoulder their responsibilities and learn basic life skills by their parents. The parents warned their children to refrain from the vices of gambling, theft and drinking. If children disobeyed the parents, they were severely punished. One type of punishment was to force them to inhale the spicy smoke produced from chilly and pepper. Now, that was indeed very harsh on the part of Aztec parents!

Education and occupations in Aztec civilization

Children of the noble class of Aztecs attended ‘Calmecac’ (an educational institute) and the children of the workers’ class attended ‘Telpochcalli’ (vocational training institutes) where they were taught various occupational skills. The boys were also trained in warfare, good citizenship, culture and religion. The girls were trained to do household chores and were married at the age of fifteen. The Aztec men mainly engaged in farming, soldiering and trades like carpentry and metalwork. The womenfolk took care of the home, children, cooked food, wove cloth, and sometimes practiced medicine.

Collapse of Aztec empire

Around 1500 CE, Spanish soldiers happened to arrive in the Valley of Mexico. They were amazed to see the flourishing and prosperous Aztec civilization and decided to bring it under their command.

Though the Aztecs were fierce and valiant warriors, they had a slim chance of survival against the modern guns, cavalry and diseases that came along with the Spanish. By the mid-1500s, the Aztec Empire collapsed, and the Spanish took control over the entire region.
Even today, there are more than one million descendants of the ancient Aztecs living and working in Mexico. Thankfully, human sacrifice is no longer part of their rituals!

10 Interesting facts about Aztec civilization

  1. Aztec culture has a deep influence on the present day Mexican foods and recipes. Avocado, chocolate, chili and tomato are all Aztec words. Guacamole, tacos, and tamales that are widely used in Mexican cuisine date back to Aztec times.
  2. When a girl was born in an Aztec household, she was gifted with a small sewing kit. Baby boys were given a miniature shield and four small arrows.
  3. Aztec children played an interesting game known as ‘Tlachtli’. It was a ball game for teams much like a combination of basketball and soccer. Adult Aztecs engaged themselves in ‘Patolli’, a kind of gambling game played with pebbles and dried beans.
  4. The principle food of the Aztecs was tortillas.
  5. When a man tied the end of his dress to that of a woman, they were considered to be married. The woman could marry only once, while the men could marry a number of times.
  6. The Aztecs used to bury their dead. Women were buried with a sewing basket and men were buried with an assortment of weapons.
  7. It is believed that Aztecs sacrificed roughly 20,000 people every year. They often ate the people who were sacrificed as part of the sacrificial ritual.
  8. The Aztec calendar was divided into 18 months. Each month had 20 days. The last five days of the year, were considered as unlucky and the people preferred to stay indoors.
  9. The contemporary Aztec language is known as Nahuatl or Mexicano and is still spoken in various parts of Mexico.
  10. Aztec art is recognized as an integral part of Mexico’s heritage. Aztec painting and sculpture deeply influenced the modern Mexican artists.

Aztec civilization will always be remembered for its extensive religious life, intricate social organization, refined literature, and colossal works of sculpture.

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombing http://mocomi.com/hiroshima-and-nagasaki-bombing/ http://mocomi.com/hiroshima-and-nagasaki-bombing/#comments Wed, 05 Jul 2017 13:44:00 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95951 Why were the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombed by the United States of America? In 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the forces of the United States and her Allies had been at war with Japan. On July 26, 1945, The President of the United States, Harry S. Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration, […]

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Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombing

Why were the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombed by the United States of America?

In 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the forces of the United States and her Allies had been at war with Japan.

On July 26, 1945, The President of the United States, Harry S. Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration, which called for Japan’s unconditional surrender and listed peace terms. The Japanese were warned of the consequences of continued resistance by the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, signed by President Truman and by Prime Minister Clement Attlee of the United Kingdom and with the concurrence of Chiang Kai-Shek, President of the National Government of China.

Little boy explosion

On August 6, 1945, at 9:15 am, Tokyo time, a B-29 plane, the “Enola Gay” piloted by Paul W. Tibbets, dropped a uranium atomic bomb, code named “Little Boy” on Hiroshima, Japan’s seventh largest city. In minutes, half of the city vanished. The impact was upto 40,000 ft high in air. The heat from the bomb was so intense that some people simply evaporated in thin air. The blast destroyed more than ten square kilometres of the city.

According to U.S. estimates :

  • 60,000 to 70,000 people were killed or missing
  • 140,000 were injured
  • 100,000 were affected by immediate radiation in the blast

Fat man bomb explosion

On August 9, 1945, another US bomber plane flew with the weapon of mass destruction loaded on it. The first choice target for this bombing was the Japanese city of Kokura. But, the haze over Kokura made the American authorities change their plans and shift their focus to their second target, Nagasaki. At 11:02 a.m., another atomic bomb was dropped over Nagasaki.

3 Facts about Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing

  1. A month before the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing in August, in July 1945, a bomb had been tested in the New Mexico desert. The bomb was code named ‘Trinity’. It was a part of the Manhattan Project.
  2. Following the two bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was decided to replace the Quebec Agreement (1943) with a more loose form of cooperation on nuclear matters between the three governments, as well as establishing a specialized UN agency on nuclear energy. This draft agreement was approved by the Combined Policy Committee on December 4, 1945 as the basis for the revocation of the Quebec Agreement.
  3. The Quebec Agreement was an agreement that the countries of the United States of America, Great Britain and Canada would not share their knowledge of nuclear power with a third party without each other’s mutual consent, would not use the power against each other, or against a third party without each other’s consent.
    After the war, Hiroshima was resurrected as a peace memorial city and the closest surviving structure to the epicentre was christened as the Hiroshima Peace Memorial. Every year people from around the world congregate to make paper cranes in memory of a two year old named Sadako, who developed leukemia from the radiation. She believed that making paper cranes would help her recover. More than 10 million cranes are offered every year.
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The Bronze Age http://mocomi.com/the-bronze-age/ http://mocomi.com/the-bronze-age/#comments Tue, 04 Jul 2017 11:11:48 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95927 How do you differentiate the different overlapping growth of human civilization? The ages of human civilizations, in history, archeology and anthropology, was a methodical categorisation based on recognisable chronological events. It was initiated in the year, 1816, by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, a Dutch Antiquarian and Curator. He classified the museum collections of the Royal Museum […]

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The Bronze Age

How do you differentiate the different overlapping growth of human civilization?

The ages of human civilizations, in history, archeology and anthropology, was a methodical categorisation based on recognisable chronological events. It was initiated in the year, 1816, by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, a Dutch Antiquarian and Curator. He classified the museum collections of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities, Copenhagen. He classified the artifacts based on what materials they were made of; as Stone, Bronze and Iron Age objects. Before this, these artifacts were simply presented as objects of evolution and lacked a clear placement, in the evolution of human development with their environment.

What are the three ages of human civilization?

1. The Age of Stone

Period when weapons and implements were made of stone, wood, bone, or some such material, and during which very little or nothing at all was known of metals.

2. The Age of Bronze

Period in which weapons and cutting implements were made of copper or bronze, and nothing at all, or but very little was known of iron or silver.

3. The Age of Iron

The third and last period of the evolution of modern man, in which iron was used for those articles to which that metal is eminently suited, and in the fabrication of which it came to be employed as a substitute for bronze.

What are the other developments in the Age of Bronze?

The Bronze Age can be defined as second phase of material and human development of the modern man. It dates from :

  • Early Bronze Age (3500-2000 BC)
  • Middle Bronze Age (2000-1600 BC)
  • Late Bronze Age (1600-1200 BC)

Unsettled nomadic man from the Stone Age, started to settle into colonies which went on to form highly evolved civilizations. He started creating objects from copper and a mixture of copper and tin. Cast metal work evolved during this period. This can be deduced from clay casts of arrow heads. The organisation of mining, smelting and casting allowed the development of skilled labour and the organisation of settlements and developments in the field of farming, animal breeding, building and architecture, arts and design. The earliest writings, the cunieform writing on clay tablets, was developed by the Sumerians.

The Egyptians developed their own form of writing, the hieroglyphic and the hieratic script, soon after.

Another parallel development was transportation over long distances developed due to trading and mining. Elaborate ships were designed and built to transport materials over long distances.

Which were the great Bronze Age civilizations?

  1. Mesopotamia circa 3700 BC(end of the Neolithic period)
  2. Egypt circa 3300 BC
  3. Indus Valley circa 2500 BC
  4. India circa 1700 BC
  5. China circa 1600 BC
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Discovery of Planetary Motion http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-planetary-motion/ http://mocomi.com/discovery-of-planetary-motion/#comments Thu, 29 Jun 2017 13:41:06 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95909 Who discovered planetary motion? In the early 1600s, Johannes Kepler created three laws of planetary motion. While it was Nicolaus Copernicus who discovered that the planets revolve around the Sun, it was Kepler who correctly defined their orbits. And this gave birth to Kepler’s first law, Law of Ellipses. What is Law of Ellipses? While […]

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Discovery of Planetary Motion

Who discovered planetary motion?

In the early 1600s, Johannes Kepler created three laws of planetary motion. While it was Nicolaus Copernicus who discovered that the planets revolve around the Sun, it was Kepler who correctly defined their orbits. And this gave birth to Kepler’s first law, Law of Ellipses.

What is Law of Ellipses?

While assisting a wealthy astronomer, Tycho Brahe, Kepler was asked to define orbit of Mars. For many years, he struggled to make Brahe’s observations of the motions of Mars match up with a circular orbit which was the common conclusion by many philosophers of that time.

Through Brahe’s astronomical measurements and Kepler’s own drawings of the geometrical relationship between the Sun and Mars in various parts of the planet’s orbit, Kepler eventually discovered that planets moved faster when they were closer to the Sun. From this realization, he concluded that the orbit of Mars was elliptical, not circular.

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Shaheed Bhagat Singh http://mocomi.com/shaheed-bhagat-singh/ http://mocomi.com/shaheed-bhagat-singh/#comments Wed, 28 Jun 2017 10:25:32 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95899 Who was Shaheed Bhagat Singh? Shaheed Bhagat Singh, was born on the 28th of September, 1907 in the district of Lyallpur in Punjab to a Sikh family. An important person in India’s struggle movement against the British Raj, he was hanged at the age of 23, by the British. Why is Jallianwala Bagh a significant […]

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Shaheed Bhagat Singh

Who was Shaheed Bhagat Singh?

Shaheed Bhagat Singh, was born on the 28th of September, 1907 in the district of Lyallpur in Punjab to a Sikh family. An important person in India’s struggle movement against the British Raj, he was hanged at the age of 23, by the British.

Why is Jallianwala Bagh a significant event to Bhagat Singh?

Coming from a family of freedom fighters, Bhagat was a witness to the Jallianwala Massacre, at age 12. This violent act by the authoritites of the British Raj, where about 2000 Hindu, Muslim and Sikhs were cordoned off and open fired on, completely disturbed the young mind.

What influenced Bhagat Singh?

He was greatly attracted towards socialism. Believed to be one of India’s earliest Marxists, Bhagat Singh was one of the leaders and founders of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Though he participated in the non-cooperation movement, he was disappointed when M K Gandhi called off the agitation after the Chauri Chaura incident. He studied at the National College in Lahore where he came into contact with other revolutionaries such as Bhagwati Charan, Sukhdev and others. He fled from home to escape early marriage and became a member of the organisation Naujawan Bharat Sabha.

What were the incidents leading to Bhagat Singh becoming a martyr?

In 1928, Bhagat Singh along with another freedom fighter Chandrashekhar Azad protested against the Simon Commission. In February 1928, The Simon Commission, a committee from England visited India. This commission was to decide the fate of Indians, the continuing rule of the British over India and other laws on governance and taxes and rights of Indians, without their say, including the right to living as secular people. The Indians mass boycotted and protested against this Commission.

Lala Lajpat Rai

During this protest Lala Lajpat Rai was killed in a lathi charge. This angered Bhagat Singh, who along with two other revolutionaries, Sukhdev and Rajguru decided to kill James A Scott but killed the British assistant superintendent, Saunders instead.

In April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw bombs in the Central Assembly Hall. They did not flee after bombing the assembly and were arrested. Bhagat Singh refused to hire a defence council for himself.

On the 23rd of March 1931 Bhagat Singh was sentenced to death along with Rajguru and Sukhdev. Bhagat Singh was given the title ‘Shaheed’ meaning martyr.

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The Battle of Stalingrad http://mocomi.com/battle-of-stalingrad/ http://mocomi.com/battle-of-stalingrad/#comments Tue, 27 Jun 2017 09:07:51 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95863 What is the battle of Stalingrad and who fought it? The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August, 1942 – 2 February, 1943) was a major battle on the Eastern Front of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern […]

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The Battle of Stalingrad

What is the battle of Stalingrad and who fought it?

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August, 1942 – 2 February, 1943) was a major battle on the Eastern Front of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe. Stalingrad was strategically situated and was where the Russian Army manufactured tanks and ammunitions.

Why is the battle of Stalingrad a turning point in world history?

It is considered by many historians to have been the turning point in World War II in Europe. The Battle of Stalingrad was a huge defeat from which the German Army never recovered. One of the ironies of the World War II, is that the German Sixth Army need not have gotten entangled in Stalingrad.The initial objectives in the region around Stalingrad were the destruction of the industrial capacity of the city and the deployment of forces to block the Volga River. The river was a key route from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to central Russia. Its capture would disrupt commercial river traffic. The Germans cut the pipeline from the oilfields when they captured Rostov on 23 July, 1942. The capture of Stalingrad would make the delivery of Lend Lease supplies via the Persian Corridor much more difficult.

How long did the battle of Stalingrad last?

Marked by fierce close quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians by air raids, it is often regarded as one of the single largest (nearly 2.2 million personnel) and bloodiest (1.7–2 million wounded, killed or captured) battles in the history of warfare.

The German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August, 1942, using the German 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army. The attack was supported by intensive Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble. The fighting degenerated into house-to-house fighting, and both sides poured reinforcements into the city. By mid-November,1942, the Germans had pushed the Soviet defenders back at great cost into narrow zones along the west bank of the Volga River.

Who won the battle of Stalingrad?

On 19 November, 1942, the Red Army launched Operation Uranus, a two-pronged attack targeting the weaker Romanian and Hungarian armies protecting the German 6th Army’s flanks. The Axis forces on the flanks were overrun and the 6th Army was cut off and surrounded in the Stalingrad area. Adolf Hitler ordered that the army stay in Stalingrad and make no attempt to break out; instead, attempts were made to supply the army by air and to break the encirclement from the outside. Heavy fighting continued for another two months. By the beginning of February, 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad had exhausted their ammunition and food. The remaining units of the 6th Army surrendered. The battle lasted five months, one week, and three days.

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Australia is drowning in Plastic Bags! http://mocomi.com/australia-is-drowning-in-plastic-bags/ http://mocomi.com/australia-is-drowning-in-plastic-bags/#comments Tue, 27 Jun 2017 09:07:47 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=89985 Plastic is one of the worst threats our planet faces. It is part of our daily lives and we have been using plastic since over 50 years. Plastic is not only killing life in our oceans, but is also threatening our very existence on this planet. Australia gets top marks for being the worst hit […]

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Australia is drowning in Plastic Bags!

Plastic is one of the worst threats our planet faces. It is part of our daily lives and we have been using plastic since over 50 years. Plastic is not only killing life in our oceans, but is also threatening our very existence on this planet.

Australia gets top marks for being the worst hit by the plastic mania.

How many Plastic Bags are used every year in Australia?

Australia alone accounts for 14 billion or 606 bags per Australian per year! Heavy duty plastic bags are handed out by retailers and they don’t even get recycled.

Plastic Bags harming Marine Life!

These plastic bags are dumped in the ocean and are found inside the stomach of poor marine creatures. Turtles mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and then they are choked to death. Sea birds are also dying due to an increase in such toxic waste.

Recycling bags is seen as a hassle in Australia, thus these bags are just dumped. Australia throws away almost 7000 plastic bags per minute!

Wake up Australia! Its time to make the planet a better place…

Australia is drowning in Plastic Bags!

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Read food nutrition labels carefully! http://mocomi.com/food-nutrition-labels/ http://mocomi.com/food-nutrition-labels/#comments Thu, 22 Jun 2017 11:47:02 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95871 Our body is all we have. But are we really aware of all that which goes inside our body? Basics of food nutrition labels Every packaged item of food has nutritional label behind it. They tell you what’s inside the food you’re eating and list its parts. Fresh food that doesn’t come prepackaged sometimes has […]

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Read food nutrition labels carefully!

Our body is all we have. But are we really aware of all that which goes inside our body?

Basics of food nutrition labels

Every packaged item of food has nutritional label behind it. They tell you what’s inside the food you’re eating and list its parts. Fresh food that doesn’t come prepackaged sometimes has nutrition facts, too.
Most nutrients are measured in grams, also written as g. Some nutrients are measured in milligrams, or mg. Milligrams are very tiny — there are 1,000 milligrams in 1 gram.

Determining the serving size

The nutrition label always lists a serving size, which is an amount of food, such as 1 cup of cereal, two cookies, or five pretzels. The label also tells you how many servings are contained in the particular package of food.

How to read food nutrition labels?

The key nutritional ingredients to look out for are the amounts of total fat, saturated fat, sugar and sodium/salt.
You can refer to following proportion to understand the amount of intake that is considered to be healthy.

  • Total fat 0-3g (best), 3.1-20g (okay), 20g+ (sometimes)
  • Saturated Fat 0-1.5g (best), 0-1.6g (okay), 5g+ (sometimes)
  • Sugar 0-5g (best), 5.1-15g (okay), 15g+ (sometimes)
  • Sodium 0-120mg (best), 121-600mg (okay), 600mg+ (sometimes)
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Eating Habits of Animals http://mocomi.com/eating-habits-of-animals/ http://mocomi.com/eating-habits-of-animals/#comments Wed, 21 Jun 2017 11:05:53 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95840 Do you know how and what animals eat helps to classify them in the animal kingdom? All living organisms need food to grow and remain healthy. Food gives us energy to work and play. What is feeding? Feeding is the process by which an animal obtains its food. The method used and how the food […]

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Eating Habits of Animals

Do you know how and what animals eat helps to classify them in the animal kingdom?

All living organisms need food to grow and remain healthy. Food gives us energy to work and play.

What is feeding?

Feeding is the process by which an animal obtains its food. The method used and how the food is assimilated in the body after ingesting, the digestive process and the process of elimination are all extremely important processes that determine evolution of living organisms. Infact it is so important, it determines a living organism’s presence and role in the food chain and also in the ecology of the planet.

What is a food chain?

A food chain is a linear sequence or order of living things, which are dependent on the other for food. In this order one living thing depends on the other for its food. All food chains begin with a green plant or a plant like organism, which uses available atmospheric conditions to manufacture its own food. Except the first organism, every other organism is a consumer.

Grass — butterfly — frog —- snake —-eagle or any similar ones

What is the difference between herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and scavengers?

Herbivores : Animals like cows , buffaloes , sheep etc., that eat plants.
Carnivores : Animals like lions, tigers, etc., that prey on and eat other animals.
Omnivores : Animals like bears, crows etc., that eat both plants and animals.
Scavengers : Animals like vultures and jackals that eat dead and left over animals generally preyed on by carnivores.

Feeding habits of different animals

Let us enter the animal world and see how some animals eat their food.

  • Animals like squirrels, rabbits and rats feed on hard grains and nuts. They bite these hard nuts with very sharp front cutting teeth. This is called Gnawing.
  • Animals like snakes do not have chewing teeth, they do not chew their food instead they swallow their food whole.
  • Animals like frogs have a long sticky tongue to catch its prey. When a frog spots an insect, it sticks out its tongue and catches its prey, then it rolls back its tongue back into its mouth.
  • Insects like bees and butterflies have a long tube to suck nectar from plants.
  • Animals like cows and buffaloes have a special way of eating their food, they first swallow their food whole and fill their stomach, later they bring it back into their mouth and keep chewing it for hours. This is known as chewing the cud.
  • Dogs and cats use their tongue to lap up their food.
  • There are some animals like giraffe that use their long necks and the elephant that uses it trunk to take in food.
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Aryabhata – The Indian mathematician http://mocomi.com/aryabhata-mathematician/ http://mocomi.com/aryabhata-mathematician/#comments Tue, 20 Jun 2017 10:31:58 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95842 Who is Aryabhata? Aryabhata was a great Indian mathematician and astronomer. It is believed that he was born in 476 AD in Patliputra which is now modern Patna in Bihar. It is also believed by some that he was born in Kerala, South of India, however there is no proper evidence of his place of birth. He […]

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Aryabhata - The Indian mathematician

Who is Aryabhata?

Aryabhata was a great Indian mathematician and astronomer. It is believed that he was born in 476 AD in Patliputra which is now modern Patna in Bihar. It is also believed by some that he was born in Kerala, South of India, however there is no proper evidence of his place of birth.

He is said to have written his famous works the ‘Aryabhata – Siddhanta’ and ‘Aryabhatiya’ in Magadha. It is these works that gives us information about this famous Indian born scientist and mathematician.

What is Aryabhata’s contribution to mathematics and astronomy?

Aryabhata studied at the ancient University of Nalanda, now a UNESCO site, in Bihar. One of his major works is ‘Aryabhatiya’ written in 499 AD, which covers astronomical and mathematical theories. It includes topics like arithmetic, trigonometry, algebra, tables of sines and fractions and is written in verse form and consists of 108 verses divided into four chapters.

Aryabhata authored three astronomical texts and was the first to find the radius of the earth with 1% error and also find the volume of the earth along with ancient Greeks and Romans. ‘Aryabhatiya’ was translated into Latin in the 13th century.

Aryabhata’s work has been translated and adopted by the Greeks and Arabs.

What did Aryabhata discover?

  • The Place Value System
  • Concept of Zero, which was his biggest contribution in the field of mathematics.
  • He discovered that earth rotates on its axis, contrary to the belief in the olden days that it was the sky that moved while earth remained still.
  • He mentioned about the elliptical movement of the planets rather than the earlier belief of circular movement of planets.
  • Solar and lunar eclipses.
  • He discovered that the moon shines because of the reflection of the sun.

4 Interesting facts about Aryabhata

  1. The Hindu Calendar that is used today was based on Aryabhata’s calculations and is followed for the fixing of the ‘Panchangam’.
  2. India’s first satellite and the lunar crater, ‘Aryabhata’ were named after him.
  3. The Aryabhata Research Institute of Observational Sciences near Nainital, in the North of India, set up for research in astrophysics, astronomy and atmospheric sciences, has been named after him.
  4. He is considered as the greatest genius of all times and his contributions in the field of mathematics and astronomy are used world over to this day.
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Ancient Greek Gods and Goddesses http://mocomi.com/greek-gods-and-goddesses/ http://mocomi.com/greek-gods-and-goddesses/#comments Mon, 19 Jun 2017 09:26:35 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95828 List of Greek gods and goddesses of Greek mythology The Greeks worshipped their Gods devoutly as they strongly believed that the Gods could change their lives for the better. The Gods lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. Temples were built, with richly carved statues and majestic grandeur, to honor the Gods and […]

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Ancient Greek Gods and Goddesses

List of Greek gods and goddesses of Greek mythology

The Greeks worshipped their Gods devoutly as they strongly believed that the Gods could change their lives for the better. The Gods lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. Temples were built, with richly carved statues and majestic grandeur, to honor the Gods and Goddesses.

1. Zeus – God of Sky

Zeus was the King of Gods. Zeus was very powerful and could transform himself to whomever and whatever creature he wished for. He could imitate the voice of anyone he wished. Zeus would hurl lightning when he would get angry. He had married his sister Hera. Zeus had many children as he had many affairs with young women who he would come to visit on Earth. Zeus had originally married Titan Metis but feared their son would be stronger than him; so he had consumed her. Zeus punished those who broke their oaths. Zeus was the only son who was not gobbled up by his father.

2. Hera – Queen of the gods, and goddess of marriage, women, childbirth

Hera was the wife of Zeus. She was feared by all because of her terrible anger and wrath over her husband’s innumerous affairs. It is believed Hera had created the Milky Way. Hera was worshipped by women as she guarded marriage and childbirth. She was the granddaughter of Earth and Sky. She was a very beautiful woman whose chariot, throne and sandals were made of gold. Antigone had once bragged of how she was more beautiful than Hera; Hera had transformed her hair into snakes.

3. Poseidon – God of Sea

Poseidon rules one of the three realms of the universe, as king of the sea and the waters. He was very hot tempered; and would cause earthquakes and flood when he was angry. He would assume the form of a bull during these times. He had made a horse from a rock. His palace, under the sea, was lit at night by thousands of glow worms. He had a golden chariot drawn by two white horses and hooves made from brass.

4. Hades – Ruler of the Underworld.

Hades was the God of Wealth as precious metals like silver, rubies, diamonds and gold are mined from the ground. He could become invisible if he wished. Hades made sure everyone had a proper burial. The Elysian Fields, a pleasant place underground, was a place where those who led a good life on Earth, were allowed to stay.

5. Ares – God of War

The son of Zeus and Hera, Ares was always involved in bloody battles. The month of March is named after him. He possessed every weapon used in war. He was the first God to be taken to trial in a Greek court for charges of murder.

6. Aphrodite – Goddess of love and beauty

It is believed that she was born out of foam. She is depicted by the dove, swan and sparrow.

7. Apollo – God of sunlight, music and dance.

Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and the twin brother of Artemis. Myth has it that once Apollo was defeated in a music contest and he was transformed into a mountain stream. He invented the luke, a musical instrument made of strings. He was very handsome and had golden colored hair. He brought good health to his devotees.

8. Artemis – Goddess of the hunt and wilderness

Artemis highly guarded her chastity. She carried a silver bow and arrows. She was also considered as goddess of light, as she carried a torch and guided everyone in darkness.

16 Interesting facts about other Greek gods and goddesses

  1. The Olympics were hosted in Greece to honor Zeus.
  2. Goddess Hebe could restore beauty to all who lost it.
  3. Nike was the Goddess of strength, swiftness and triumph in various sports competitions.
  4. Persephone was the Goddess of Spring.
  5. God Deimos brought horror, distress and disorder to battlefields.
  6. The God Pan was the god of shepherds, and had pointed ears and furry legs of a goat.
  7. Hecate was the Goddess and Queen of Ghosts as she spread witchcraft and magic everywhere.
  8. Hestia was the most gentlest of Gods and was the Goddess of the Fireplace.
  9. Hermes was the trickster and messenger God. He had invented the sport of boxing and gymnastics.
  10. Dionysus was the God of Wine. He had taught men on how to make wine from grapes. He would change the pirates into dolphin when they were drowning in the waters.
  11. Prometheus would steal from the Gods.
  12. At a music contest, one of the contestants had played very badly; and Apollo had changed the contestant’s ears to donkey ears.
  13. Cerberus was a dog with three heads and who guarded the entrance to Hades palace.
  14. Iris was the Goddess of Rainbow.
  15. Hephaestus was the only God who limped. People believe that his father Zeus had got angry and had thrown him off a mountain.
  16. Eros was the son of the goddess of love. If he threw an arrow towards someone, the next day the person would fall in love with the first person he/she saw.
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The Bill of Rights http://mocomi.com/the-bill-of-rights/ http://mocomi.com/the-bill-of-rights/#comments Fri, 16 Jun 2017 09:11:22 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95817 The Bill of Rights is the name given to the first ten amendments found in the Constitution of the United States. When and why was the bill of rights added to the constitution? Every country has its own Constitution. A constitution is a set of fundamental principles and rules according to which a state or […]

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The Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights is the name given to the first ten amendments found in the Constitution of the United States.

When and why was the bill of rights added to the constitution?

Every country has its own Constitution. A constitution is a set of fundamental principles and rules according to which a state or any organization is to be governed.
It was on March 4, 1789 when United States was established as a free nation governed by the people. America officially adopted the United States Constitution. George Washington was the first President of the United States who served in its office from 30th April 1789 till March 4, 1797. The Bill of Rights was however adopted before he became the President.

The American Constitution however needed some changes. Many of the rights and liberties which the Americans have access to- like speech, religion, the right to trial were not listed in the original Constitution. Thus the Constitution needed some amendments and these amendments came to be known as the Bill of Rights.

What is the Bill of Rights?

The Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. The idea of this bill was to ensure certain freedom and rights to the American citizens. It put some limits on what the government could and could not do. The freedoms protected under the Bill of Rights would be the freedom of religion, speech, assembly, the right to bear arms, unreasonable search and seizure of homes, a right to speedy trial and more. Many people were not willing to sign the constitution without a Bill of Rights.

It was James Madison, the most important architect of the Constitution, who wrote 12 amendments and presented it to the Congress in 1789. George Mason (who also wrote the Virginia’s Declaration of Rights) was also credited with the subsequent changes in the Constitution. The Bill of Rights was drafted in New York City where the Federal government was operating out of the Federal Hall. 10 out of those 12 amendments were passed and made part of the Constitution and came to be known as the Bill of Rights.

The Congress commissioned 14 copies of the bill of Rights, one for the federal Government and one for each of the 13 states.

The 10 amendments to the Constitution

  1. The first amendment states that Congress shall make no law preventing the establishment of any religion or prohibiting its free exercise. It also protects the freedom of speech, press, assembly and the right to petition the Government for a redress of grievance.
  2. The second amendment protects a citizen’s right to bear arms.
  3. The third amendment prevents the government from placing troops in private homes, which was a major issue during the American Revolutionary war.
  4. The fourth amendment prevents the government from unreasonable search and seizure of property of the US citizens. The government needs to have a warrant, issued by a judge based on a probable cause.
  5. The Fifth Amendment gives people the right to choose not to testify themselves in court, if they feel their own testimony will incriminate them.
  6. The sixth amendment guarantees a speedy trial by a jury of one’s peer. An accused need to be informed of the crimes they are charged with and have the right to confront the witness bought by the government.
  7. The seventh amendment provides that the civil cases will be tried by the jury.
  8. The eighth amendment prohibits excessive bail, excessive fines, cruel and unusual punishments.
  9. The ninth amendment states that the people still have all the rights that are not listed.
  10. The tenth amendment gives all powers which are not specifically given to the United States government in the Constitution to either the State or its people.

The bill of Rights officially went into effect after Virginia’s approval in 1791.

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What letter starts the most words in the english language? http://mocomi.com/what-letter-starts-the-most-words-in-the-english-language/ http://mocomi.com/what-letter-starts-the-most-words-in-the-english-language/#comments Thu, 15 Jun 2017 11:59:00 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95799 More English words begin with the letter ‘S’ than any other letter of the alphabet Em: Hey Emma, now that you seem to spend so much time with that dictionary of yours, can I ask you a question? Emma: I am enjoying my ice cream, but go ahead. Em: Which alphabet in the English language […]

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What letter starts the most words in the english language?

More English words begin with the letter ‘S’ than any other letter of the alphabet

Em: Hey Emma, now that you seem to spend so much time with that dictionary of yours, can I ask you a question?
Emma: I am enjoying my ice cream, but go ahead.
Em: Which alphabet in the English language has the most words starting with it?
Emma: Tell me which alphabet do you think it is?
Em: Well… umm….I think it is ‘E’?
Emma: I think it is ‘A’.
Reason: No, not even close. It is the alphabet ‘S’ which has more English words starting with it than any other letter. The reason being, there are more clusters of words that begin with ‘sc’, ‘sh,’, ‘sp’, or ‘st’. These clusters also act as independent words.
Emma: Hmm… Yes, now that i I think about it there are so many words with S… School, Shut, Special, String, Straight, Shun, spatula, scan…wow!
Reason: Samuel Morse, the inventor of the Morse code was the first one who had the curiosity in knowing the answer to this question. So he used his techniques of using codes to frequently used letters. Later an analysis of the concise dictionary revealed ‘S’ as the letter having most words.
Em: ‘S’ sure is a winner! Now finish your ice cream, its melting.

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Europe Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/europe-facts/ http://mocomi.com/europe-facts/#comments Thu, 15 Jun 2017 08:49:07 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95790 Where is Europe located? Europe is the sixth largest continent in the world. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and Asia to the east. The continent of Europe has varied geographical features and experiences a varied climate. History of Europe The continent of Europe has […]

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Europe Facts and Information

Where is Europe located?

Europe is the sixth largest continent in the world. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and Asia to the east. The continent of Europe has varied geographical features and experiences a varied climate.

History of Europe

The continent of Europe has been the home to some of the greatest civilizations of the world—from Ancient Greece to the Roman Empire. It is also known as the birthplace of modern democracy. Europe has been the focal point of two of the biggest wars in the history: World War I and II. Recently, 27 countries of Europe joined hands and formed a common union known as the European Union. This union allows the use of one currency in all the independent European countries and it is also bestowed with the authority to combine the economic and military power of these countries.

16 Interesting Facts About Europe

  1. It is believed that the continent is named after ‘Europa’, a Phoenician Princess from Greek Mythology.
  2. The population of Europe is more than 800 million, making it the third most populated continent.
  3. Europe is made up of more than 40 different countries.
  4. The continent of Europe covers just 2% of the Earth’s surface.
  5. There are no deserts in Europe!
  6. There are three time zones in Europe: Eastern European Time Zone, Central European Time Zone and Western European Time Zone.
  7. The Vatican City of Europe is the world’s smallest country.
  8. The currency of Europe is called the Euro.
  9. London is the most densely inhabited city in Europe.
  10. The highest point in the continent is the Caucasus Mountains.
  11. The longest river on this continent is the Volga River.
  12. It is also sometimes known as ‘the cradle of Western culture’. Most of the events that shaped the modern world took place in Europe.
  13. The Industrial Revolution took birth in Europe and then spread to the whole world.
  14. Europe is connected to Asia, and together they are known as Eurasia. It is, however, separated from Asia by the Ural and Caucasus mountains and, to some degree, by the Caspian Sea and Ural River. Russia, the world’s largest country, is partly located in Europe and partly in Asia. World’s largest country, Russia, and world’s smallest country, Vatican City, are both located in Europe.
  15. There are over 60,000 different species of animals found on the European continent.
  16. Europe is the wealthiest of all continents in the world.
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Cold Blooded and Warm Blooded Animals http://mocomi.com/cold-blooded-and-warm-blooded-animals/ http://mocomi.com/cold-blooded-and-warm-blooded-animals/#comments Wed, 14 Jun 2017 12:12:06 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95776 With a few exceptions, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded while all reptiles, arachnids, insects, amphibians and fish are cold-blooded. Now, what does it mean to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded? What are cold blooded animals? Cold-blooded animals’ body temperature is regulated by the environment. They become ‘hot-blooded’ when their environment is hot and ‘cold-blooded’ when […]

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Cold Blooded and Warm Blooded Animals

With a few exceptions, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded while all reptiles, arachnids, insects, amphibians and fish are cold-blooded. Now, what does it mean to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded?

What are cold blooded animals?

Cold-blooded animals’ body temperature is regulated by the environment. They become ‘hot-blooded’ when their environment is hot and ‘cold-blooded’ when their environment is cold.

6 Interesting facts about cold blooded animals

  1. Cold-blooded animals remain active and alert in warm environments and become very slow and lazy in cold environments. This is because the activity of their muscles depends on chemical reactions that take place quickly when it is hot and slowly when it is cold. Most of the food that cold-blooded animals eat gets converted into body mass.
  2. Cold-blooded animals like reptiles and amphibians do not have any special adaptation mechanisms. They bank on their environment to regulate their body temperature. If their body temperature rises, they must move into the shade or into water to cool down, and if their body temperature drops down, they must move into the sun to warm up.
  3. When it becomes too cold outside, cold blooded creatures like snakes and lizards do some ‘sunbathing’ to warm themselves up. While basking, these clever reptiles lie at right angles in the direction of the sun to receive maximum amount of sunlight. Once warmed up, the metabolism of these animals accelerates, resulting in producing more energy and heat. When it is hot, these animals lie parallel to the sun’s rays, take refuge in a shady area or burrow into cool soil.
  4. In winters, fish move to deeper waters or migrate to warmer waters. Insects like honeybees stay warm by ganging up together and moving their wings to generate heat. Some fish have a special protein in their body which does not allow their blood to freeze and helps them survive very cold water temperatures.
  5. Broadly speaking, the bulk of cold-blooded animals like snakes, lizards, toads, frogs and turtles prefer to just find a cozy corner and snooze till the winters are over. This is also known as hibernation.
  6. Cold blooded animals become really sluggish and unfit to hunt, mate or reproduce, if their body temperature goes down a minimum level

What are warm blooded animals?

Warm-blooded creatures are smart enough to regulate their own body temperature. Warm-blooded animals try to keep the internal temperature of their bodies constant by either generating their own heat when they are in a cooler environment or by cooling themselves when they are in a hotter environment.

8 Interesting facts about warm blooded animals

  1. To produce heat in the body, warm-blooded animals convert the food that they eat into energy. Only a small amount of the food that a warm-blooded animal eats is converted into body mass; most of the food is used to maintain a constant body temperature.
  2. Warm-blooded animals have special organs and methods for maintaining their body temperature. If we are too hot, we can sweat to cool down, and if we are too cold, we can shiver to warm up, keeping our body temperature at a constant level. In other words, our own body has the ability to keep us at 98.6*F. The dogs that you see panting on the streets in summers are also actually busy in cooling themselves off.
  3. It is interesting to note that only mammals can sweat. Primates, such as humans and monkeys have sweat glands all over their bodies while dogs and cats have sweat glands only on their feet. But, surprisingly they never seem to have stinky feet! Some mammals do not have any sweat glands, like the whale that lives in the water. Why? Because they live in water, for heaven’s sake, why would they need sweat glands?
  4. Large mammals like elephants, however, do face difficulty in bringing their body temperature down. That is why they love to bathe in ponds and lakes for long hours. It is for this reason that hippos are extremely fond of wallowing in wet mud. Mammals that live in colder regions of the world have a thick coat of hair to help them in keeping warm. In summers, they shed their hair and maintain their body temperature.
  5. There are many advantages to being warm-blooded. Warm-blooded animals can live almost everywhere on the Earth, be it in the continent of Antarctica or the Death Valley in California.
  6. A major disadvantage of being warm-blooded is that warm-blooded bodies are more susceptible to infections and diseases. Bacteria, virus and other germs prefer living in the bodies of the warm-blooded animals rather than living in the bodies of cold-blooded animals. Cold-blooded animals are spared by most of the disease-causing germs because they constantly change their body temperatures and make it difficult for the invaders to survive.
  7. However, to combat this problem, warm-blooded animals have a strong immune system. Without it, it would really have been difficult for all the warm-blooded animals to counter the wide variety of disease-causing germs present in the environment.
  8. Both warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals have unique abilities and strategies to keep themselves alive in their environments. Neither is better than the other; it is all about surviving against all odds!
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Adaptations in Plants http://mocomi.com/adaptations-in-plants/ http://mocomi.com/adaptations-in-plants/#comments Tue, 13 Jun 2017 06:26:30 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95760 What is adaptations in plants? Plants adapt or adjust to their surroundings. This helps them to live and grow. A particular place or a specific habitat calls for specific conditions and adapting to such conditions helps the plants to survive. This is the reason why certain plants are found in certain areas. You would not […]

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Adaptations in Plants

What is adaptations in plants?

Plants adapt or adjust to their surroundings. This helps them to live and grow. A particular place or a specific habitat calls for specific conditions and adapting to such conditions helps the plants to survive. This is the reason why certain plants are found in certain areas. You would not see a cactus growing in Iceland nor would you see tall trees in grasslands. A tree that lives in the rainforest would die in a desert area. A cactus that lives in the deserts would not survive in a water lily pad. Thus plants adapt to their surroundings and climates. If the habitat changes drastically the plant species must adapt, otherwise they would not survive.

Adaptations of plants in different habitats

1. Plant adaptations in the desert

The desert is a dry area with scarcity of waters thus the plants there have small leaves and many spines which help them to conserve water. The leaves have thick waxy skins which help to retain water for a long time. There are leafless plants that store water in their green stems. Roots are near the soil surfaces that soak up water before it evaporates. The growth is slow as the plants do not have to make much food.

Example: different types of Cactus, Joshua tree etc.

2. Plant adaptations in the tropical rainforest

Such places have hot climate but have heavy rains. So the plants here have drip tips and waxy surfaces on leaves to shed the excess water. Plants have prop roots that help support them in the shallow soils. There is abundance growth of plants and some plants grow on top of the other to reach the sunlight. These plants collect rainwater through a central reservoir and have hair on them to absorb water.

Example: Bromeliads, lianas, different rainforest trees etc.

3. Plant adaptations in the temperate forests

Such forests see four distinct seasons and have harsh winters. These forests are made of layers of plants from very tall trees to small plants carpeting the forest floors. Wild flowers grow in the forest floors during spring. Most big trees here have thick barks to protect them against the cold winters. Trees have broad leaves that capture a lot of sunlight. But these leaves can weigh down the trees in winters thus in the autumn deciduous trees drop their leaves to minimize the water loss.

Example: Lichen, moss, ferns, etc.

4. Plant adaptations in the grasslands

These are also called prairies and have hot summers and cold winters with uncertain rains and many droughts. The plants here have deep roots to survive the prairie fires. Some trees have thick barks to survive the fires. Roots extend deep into the ground to absorb water. They have narrow leaves as these lose less water. Soft stems enable the prairie grass to bend in the wind.
Example: buffalo grass, needle grass, foxtail etc.

5. Plant adaptations in water

There are some floating plants that are found in water bodies. They have floating leaves in which chlorophyll is restricted only on the top surface which is green in colour. Beneath is the reddish colour of the leaves. Underwater leaves and stems help plants to move with the current. Roots and root hair are absent as there is no need to absorb water. Underwater plants have leaves with large air pockets to absorb oxygen from water. Some plants produce floating seeds as well.

Example: water lily, lotus, duckweed, giant salvinia etc.

Related Article:  Learn more about the major types of biomes on earth.

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History of the Atlas http://mocomi.com/history-of-the-atlas/ http://mocomi.com/history-of-the-atlas/#comments Mon, 12 Jun 2017 10:20:40 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95745 Who doesn’t know the importance of maps and atlas in our lives? Without the atlas, the world of cartographers and geographers would come to a standstill! What is an Atlas? An atlas is an encyclopedia of the geographical, political and other educational information regarding each part of the world which serves a number of purposes. […]

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History of the Atlas

Who doesn’t know the importance of maps and atlas in our lives? Without the atlas, the world of cartographers and geographers would come to a standstill!

What is an Atlas?

An atlas is an encyclopedia of the geographical, political and other educational information regarding each part of the world which serves a number of purposes. The world atlas that is today easily accessible in libraries and bookstores has had a very vivid history.

Story of Atlas the titan

Let us first acquaint you with an interesting ancient Greek tale. Greek mythology consists of innumerable tales about giant beings known as Titans.  One such Titan was Atlas. Once upon a time, it so happened that the Titans waged a war against the Greek gods and lost. All the Titans who participated in the war, then, had to face the gods’ wrath. Atlas’s punishment was to hold the sky on his shoulders.  Atlas had no choice but to keep holding the sky up for years and years.

One day, a hero named Hercules came to see him.  Hercules was looking for certain golden apples and only Atlas knew where they grew. So, Hercules requested Atlas to go and get the golden apples and offered to hold the sky in his absence. Atlas consented to help Hercules and went in search of the golden apples after shifting the sky on Hercules’ shoulders. He soon came back with the golden apples, but refused to take the sky back on his shoulders from Hercules.  Seriously, who would want to take back a job like that?  Hercules then thought of a trick and requested Atlas to hold the sky for a while so that he could just put some pads on his shoulders to be more comfortable. Atlas agreed to do so and as soon as Atlas took back the sky, Hercules vamoosed from there with the golden apples. And, thus, Atlas was once again forced to hold the sky on his shoulders till eternity.

About 500 years ago, in 1585, Gerardus Mercator, a renowned cartographer from Germany made a book of maps.  On the first page of the book, this famous story of Atlas was narrated.  Ever since then, a book of maps has been called an Atlas.

Story of Atlas the king

Another popular belief is that the land of Mauritania (In the continent of Africa) was once ruled by King Atlas, who was a great mathematician, philosopher and astronomer who had invented the first celestial globe. Gerardus Mercator first called his collection of maps as an ‘Atlas’ to honour this legendary king.

Whatever may be the truth, one thing is sure that the word ‘Atlas’ owes its origin to either of the above stories. Now let us proceed further to know how the ancient maps came into existence.

Story of ‘Atlas’ the book

It is said that the first printed collection of maps was produced in AD 150 by the renowned geographer of those times, Claudius Ptolemy. It contained 27 hand-drawn maps. Over a period of time, early cartographers and geographers started introducing corrections and reforms in the further reproductions of the maps. But the students of geography and cartography (art of making maps) faced a lot of problems while studying these maps because of the lack of uniformity of sizes of various maps. It was a tedious job to study maps as rolling and unrolling of large maps was very difficult.

Even in the early 1500s, the geography of the globe was rarely known to anyone. It was not clear whether America was a part of Asia, if there was a vast body of sea at the top of the world or if Australia was connected to Antarctica. The invention of airplanes was several centuries away, so there was no easy way of finding out what the world looked like from above.

Cartographers had to garner, assimilate and coordinate the geographical information provided by explorers and sailors who kept sailing around the world. They used to imagine themselves floating in the air, and looking down at the world from the heights of heaven. This earned them the ire of several religious sects. Maps were ripped apart, cartographers’ homes were vandalized and their lives were threatened. Some brave heart cartographers boldly faced such challenges and strove relentlessly to devise new ways of making maps.

Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius

Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius were two such men. They were German from origin and worked together as associates. Mercator was a mathematician and cartographer who was skilled in the art of making maps and had a penchant for creative thinking. Ortelius was a trained and highly skilled artist/craftsman. In 1554, they ventured into the business of buying and selling maps. Mercator used to collect and study the maps while Ortelius decorated their borders and mounted them on silk and rendered them in colour.

Mercator soon came up with his world map, but it had one nasty drawback. It was huge! It was meant only to be hung on a wall and was not portable. Every ancient map was more or less like that! In order to include the names of the smallest of places and make them readable as well, the map had to be large in size. It so happened that one day a client named Hooftman came to meet Mercator and Ortelius and asked them to devise a way to chop the huge silken sheets into smaller pieces and publish the map of the world in a book.

Theatrum Orbis Terrarum

Ortelius collected the best maps around with the help of Mercator and created the book that their client Hooftman had asked for. In 1570, Ortelius made the first Atlas. However, he did not name it ‘Atlas’ at first. He called it ‘Theatrum Orbis Terrarum’ (theatre of the round world) and it had 53 uniform-sized maps in it.

This book of maps sold like hot cakes and several improved versions of this book soon hit the market. Ortelius became famous and people started respecting him for his cartography skills.
In 1585, Mercator published the first volume of his own world map in book form and titled this new book as ‘Atlas, or Cosmographical Meditations upon the Creation of the Universe’. The story of the mythological Atlas, as mentioned before, was written on the first page of this book. Now you know how the small book of maps that you every day carry in your school bag, was born.

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Don’t talk with your mouth full http://mocomi.com/dont-talk-with-your-mouth-full/ http://mocomi.com/dont-talk-with-your-mouth-full/#comments Fri, 09 Jun 2017 13:03:46 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95723 Why should you not talk when your mouth is full? You should not talk with your mouth full! It can cause choking. What is choking? To understand what is choking, you first need to understand what happens to the food that you eat. When you chew the food, it passes through your throat to get […]

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Don’t talk with your mouth full

Why should you not talk when your mouth is full?

You should not talk with your mouth full! It can cause choking.

What is choking?

To understand what is choking, you first need to understand what happens to the food that you eat. When you chew the food, it passes through your throat to get into your body.

The food and air travels through the same tube for a short distance until the tube divides into two tubes – the oesophagus which carries food down into the stomach, and the trachea (windpipe) which carries air to the lungs. Sometimes food slips into the windpipe – which can block the windpipe. That’s why you choke.

How to avoid choking?

  1. Make sure to chew every mouthful of food until it is small and soft enough to swallow.
  2. Sit down, take small bites, and don’t talk or laugh with your mouth full!
  3. Do not put anything in your mouth that is not food or drink.
  4. Be extra careful while eating nuts, grapes, raw carrots, popcorn, and hard or gooey candy.

Look out for the little ones

Babies and toddlers love to put things in their mouths, so help keep them safe by:

  1. Cutting up and dividing their food into small pieces.
  2. Picking up anything off the floor that might be dangerous to swallow — like deflated balloons, pen caps, coins, beads, and batteries.
  3. Never share your food or candy with a baby unless an adult says it’s OK.

What do you do when someone is choking?

If you see someone coughing while eating and going breathless, wait and see if they can cough the food up. If the person can then breathe normally, usually nothing more needs to be done – but get a grownup to check that the person is okay.

If the person is not able to breathe normally get help as soon as possible.

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Difference between Algae and Fungus http://mocomi.com/algae-and-fungus/ http://mocomi.com/algae-and-fungus/#comments Fri, 09 Jun 2017 08:33:34 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95715 What is a fungus? A fungus is a living being, which does not contain chlorophyll, and is not green. We share a love hate relationship with fungus. The yeast we use to make pizza dough and bread is a also a fungus; so it is our hero then. Other fungi grow to huge size, right […]

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Difference between Algae and Fungus

What is a fungus?

A fungus is a living being, which does not contain chlorophyll, and is not green. We share a love hate relationship with fungus. The yeast we use to make pizza dough and bread is a also a fungus; so it is our hero then. Other fungi grow to huge size, right before our eyes, like mushrooms. But most mushrooms are poisonous, so now we hate fungus.

How does fungi grow?

Does your mother throw away old, stale bread? Fungi get their nourishment by feeding off decaying life matter. Have you seen your stale and forgotten bread become icky and greenish white? The fungus (mold) produces furry, thread-like, spore producing hyphae, which feed on food. They are the size of 10 micrometer and you would need a microscope to see them.

Mushrooms and toadstools are those types of fungi; which like the seeds of an apple, will generate more fungi. Fungus have been in existence since 450 million years (oldest fossil called Prototaxite and 30 feet tall).
Have you wondered what the green slimy stuff in your fish tank is?

What is algae?

Algae is the green moss that grows in your fish tank when you neglect it and don’t clean it. It’s a general term used to describe a group of simple organisms that range from being unicellular to multicellular and are photosynthetic in nature. They thrive in either water or damp environment.

Water and carbon dioxide are used by the algae to photosynthesize and produce sugar which acts as food for them and the oxygen is used by the fishes to breathe.

Types of algae

Chlamydomonas – A chlamydomonas is a single celled algae that looks like a worm, with its two flagella (legs) protruding out.

Volvox – Volvox is a multi-cellular algae that looks that a circular galaxy system filled with algal cells instead of stars.

Spirogyra – The Spirogyra, is a rectangular algae.

Macrocystis – Macrocystis algae is the largest algae, that grows to 60 meters in length; and provides a dense shelter to fishes from prey. And whales and shrimps love to feast on algae as it is loaded with protein.

Algae produces 87% of the Earth’s oxygen, as a photosynthetic biproduct.

6 Interesting fun facts about algae and fungus

  1. The red tide which is a seasonal algal bloom is kms wide and travels to coasts. Some varieties may end up choking marine life through depletion of oxygen, production of toxins which can damage nervous systems of larger marine mammals and bird life.
  2. Red squirrels hang mushrooms to dry to eat during winter.
  3. Truffles are the most expensive fungi and considered a delicacy.
  4. Fungus is used to decompose industrial wastes.
  5. The first antibiotic penicillin is extracted from fungus.
  6. Wine and cheese are fermented using fungus.
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Can we measure beauty? http://mocomi.com/can-we-measure-beauty/ http://mocomi.com/can-we-measure-beauty/#comments Thu, 08 Jun 2017 13:34:39 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95703 To understand if beauty is measurable, let us first understand the terms, ‘measure’ and ‘beauty’. What is measurement? Measurement means, to define something in a clear and precise way. What is beauty? Beauty refers to the quality of being pleasing, especially to look at. What makes something or someone beautiful? The debate on ‘What makes […]

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Can we measure beauty?

To understand if beauty is measurable, let us first understand the terms, ‘measure’ and ‘beauty’.

What is measurement?

Measurement means, to define something in a clear and precise way.

What is beauty?

Beauty refers to the quality of being pleasing, especially to look at.

What makes something or someone beautiful?

The debate on ‘What makes something or someone beautiful’ has been going on for centuries. (thinker)

Western theory of beauty

The earliest Western theory of beauty can be found in the works Greek philosopher Pythagoras who saw a strong connection between mathematics and beauty.

This was the time when It was believed that proportionate and symmetrical objects were more attractive.

This definition is still held as relevant by many, so in that manner we can say that beauty can be measured.

The question then arises of whether beauty is universal.

The painting of Monalisa by Leonardo da Vinci is considered beautiful and so is Van Gogh’s Sunflowers. What do they have in common? What makes them both beautiful despite the lack of symmetry here?

The Taj Mahal is considered beautiful and so is Beethoven’s ninth symphony. What element that could describe beauty is common here? In this case it definitely cannot be measured by math.

A combination of qualities, such as shape, colour, or form, arrangement that pleases the senses, be it sight or sound makes something beautiful.

It is also found that people around the world find different music, visual art, performance, and physical attributes to be beautiful. It’s on the basis of those considerations that many believe that beauty is a label we attach to different sorts of experiences based on a combination of cultural and personal preferences.

So the saying, ‘Beauty is in the eye of the beholder,’ used to express the fact that not all people have the same opinions about what is attractive and pleasing, holds true.

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Biodegradable and Non Biodegradable Waste http://mocomi.com/biodegradable-and-non-biodegradable/ http://mocomi.com/biodegradable-and-non-biodegradable/#comments Thu, 08 Jun 2017 09:50:01 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95691 Before the Industrial Revolution, waste generated by our needs was low and mainly agricultural waste. Agricultural waste was further converted to either products like ropes, baskets, mats, roofing, fencing or animal feed and soil nutrients. Industrial revolution and its requirements caused urbanisation, birth of cities and migration to cities. Growth in population in selected areas […]

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Biodegradable and Non Biodegradable Waste

Before the Industrial Revolution, waste generated by our needs was low and mainly agricultural waste. Agricultural waste was further converted to either products like ropes, baskets, mats, roofing, fencing or animal feed and soil nutrients.

Industrial revolution and its requirements caused urbanisation, birth of cities and migration to cities. Growth in population in selected areas gave rise to excessive consumption, which in turn caused excessive generation of waste from factories which churned out products to meet our needs and from the work force employed to man factories in cities.

The huge quantities of waste generated over a period of time which could not be disposed has also been the cause of several epidemics.

Which leads us to ask several questions.

What is biodegradable waste?

Materials or Objects capable of being broken down or decomposed to smaller products by the action of living things (such as animals or microorganisms).

After being broken down they are easily absorbed into the soil to become nutrients or elements.

Identifying biodegradable waste

It is generally of plant, animal or mineral origin. It can be easily disposed by the action of microorganisms or animals. It can be broken down to base elements and is easily absorbed by the environment without damaging it.

Examples of biodegradable items

  • Food Waste
  • Animal And Human Excrement
  • Manure
  • Sewage
  • Slaughterhouse waste
  • Most paper products
  • Egg shells
  • Grasss
  • Flower/brush clippings

What is non biodegradable waste?

Materials or Objects not capable of being broken down or decomposed to smaller products by the action of living things (such as animals or microorganisms).

Since they cannot be broken down or decomposed they clutter the earth’s surface and and natural resources and are termed as POLLUTANTS.

Identifying non biodegradable waste

It is not of plant or animal origin or is of plant and animal origin but is processed and modified to change it’s basic natural composition. And hence cannot be broken down or decomposed to smaller products by the action of living things (such as animals or microorganisms).

Examples of non biodegradable items

  • Plastic Cups
  • Styrofoams Cups and Plates
  • Plastic bottles

What is waste management?

Waste management is collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage and other waste products. Waste management involves the process of treating solid wastes and recycling items that don’t belong to trash. It is about how garbage can be used as a valuable resource.
Reduce Reuse Recycle plays a very important part in waste management.

These are some of the things that can be recycled and reused.

  • Cardboard
  • Cooking Oil
  • Earth and Rubble
  • Electrical Appliances
  • Small Electrical Appliances and Electronic Products
  • Garden Waste
  • Glass Bottles & Jars
  • Household Batteries
  • Lead Acid (Vehicle) Batteries
  • Mixed Recycling
  • Mobile Phones
  • Oil
  • Paper
  • Pressurised Containers (gas bottles, fire extinguishers, etc)
  • Scrap Metal
  • Textiles
  • Tyres
  • Wood

Waste that cannot be Reduced, Reused or Recycled generally becomes a part of the environment and is around for 100s of years.

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Genghis Khan – Founder of Mongol Empire http://mocomi.com/genghis-khan/ http://mocomi.com/genghis-khan/#comments Wed, 07 Jun 2017 09:15:11 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95680 Who were the Mongols? The Mongols were illiterate, religiously shamanistic and perhaps no more than 700,000 in number. They were herdsmen on the grassy plains north of the Gobi Desert, south of Siberia’s forests. Before the year 1200 AD, the Mongols were fragmented, moving about in small bands headed by a chief, or khan, and […]

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Genghis Khan - Founder of Mongol Empire

Who were the Mongols?

The Mongols were illiterate, religiously shamanistic and perhaps no more than 700,000 in number. They were herdsmen on the grassy plains north of the Gobi Desert, south of Siberia’s forests. Before the year 1200 AD, the Mongols were fragmented, moving about in small bands headed by a chief, or khan, and living in portable felt dwellings. The Mongols endured frequent deprivations and sparse areas for grazing their animals. They frequently fought over turf, and during hard times they occasionally raided, interested in goods rather than bloodshed. They did not collect heads or scalps as trophies.

Who is Genghis Khan?

Genghis Khan was a nomad from a Mongol tribe, who went on to become one of the world’s greatest conquerors. He was born as Temujin, around 1162 AD in a small village near the border of Mongol and Siberia. Early childhood for young Temujin, who later grew up to be Genghis Khan was violent and unpredictable.

Temujin’s father had been a minor chieftain of a noble clan, but he was murdered (poisoned) by a tribal rival Tatar before Temujin turned 10. The family was deserted by other members of their clan/tribe and they became social outcasts. Young Temujin, one of seven siblings with their mother had to survive in the harsh Mongolian Steppes hunting and foraging for survival.

A difficult and hard childhood shaped Temujin to become a strong and formidable warrior and leader by his 20s. Between 1206 AD and his death in 1227 AD, the Mongol leader Genghis Khan conquered nearly 12 million square miles of territory—more than any individual in history. Followed by Alexander the Great.

Although known for the brutality of his campaigns and conquests, he brought the Silk Road under one cohesive political structure. The Silk Road was important in connecting the trade routes between European and Eurasian, Persian, Chinese, Indian and some African Civilisations.

5 Interesting fun facts about Genghis Khan

  1. There is no definitive record of what he looked like! Although it has been said he had red hair and green eyes, although the Mongols were of ethnic diversity.
  2. Most of his most trusted generals were former enemies he had defeated over time in conquests.
  3. While conquering he never killed skilled crafts people.
  4. He created one of the first international postal systems. A resting place was organised at regular intervals to keep horses refreshed. As they were used as modes of mobility.
  5. He issued a diplomatic passport to merchants to ensure safe passage during trading. These diplomatic passports were called paizi and were medallions issued from his empire.
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Cell Structure and Function http://mocomi.com/cell-structure/ http://mocomi.com/cell-structure/#comments Tue, 06 Jun 2017 07:17:26 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95654 What is a cell? A cell is the smallest functional unit of any living organism. It is the smallest part of any organism which is capable of existing and functioning independently. It was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1653. Matthias Schleiden, a German botanist and Theodor Schwann, a German zoologist have been credited with […]

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Cell Structure and Function

What is a cell?

A cell is the smallest functional unit of any living organism. It is the smallest part of any organism which is capable of existing and functioning independently.
It was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1653. Matthias Schleiden, a German botanist and Theodor Schwann, a German zoologist have been credited with The Cell Theory, 1839.

Examples of unicellular and multicellular organisms

Single – celled Organisms : Amoeba, Bacteria and Yeast.
Multi – celled Organisms : Almost all plants and animals and fungus.

Cell anatomy and physiology

The living parts of the cell:

1. The cell membrane and cell wall

A cell is surrounded by a cell membrane or plasma membrane. The cell membrane has fine pores through which it allows selective substances to pass through.
The cell wall is found in plant cells and surrounds the cell membrane. It is made up of cellulose. This cell wall gives shape and makes it rigid, it also allows the free flow of substances.

2. Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm is a colourless, semi liquid substance found within the cell membrane. Cell organelles are suspended within it. It is the site of many biochemical reactions.

The cytoplasm has the following cell organelles –

  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Ribosomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosomes
  • Centrosome and centrioles
  • Plastids

3. Nucleus

The nucleus is the largest cell organelle, it is dense and spherical present in the center of the cytoplasm. It’s main function is the regulation of cell functions and contains the chromosomes. It regulates all the hereditary activities of the cell.

It consists of

  • Nuclear Membrane
  • Nucleolus
  • Chromatin fibers.

The non – living parts of the cell:

1. Granules

These are small crystal particles present in the cytoplasm. They contain starch and glycogen.

2. Vacuoles

These are certain clear places filled with water present in the cytoplasm. The fluid in them is called cell sap. Vacuoles give turgidity to the cells.

Related Article: Do you know the difference between plant cell and animal cell?

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North America Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/facts-about-north-america/ http://mocomi.com/facts-about-north-america/#comments Mon, 05 Jun 2017 13:12:57 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95642 Where is North America located? North America is the third largest of the seven continents. Together with South America and Oceania, North America makes up the ‘New World’. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North America takes pride in having three of the largest […]

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North America Facts and Information

Where is North America located?

North America is the third largest of the seven continents. Together with South America and Oceania, North America makes up the ‘New World’. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North America takes pride in having three of the largest and most prosperous countries in the world: the United States, Canada and Mexico. It is home to a population of over 529 million people, representing about 7.5% of the total human population of the world.

History of North America

Though Columbus is generally credited for having discovered America, there were a lot of people already living in North America much before the arrival of the Europeans. The first people to inhabit the continent of North America were the Paleoindians. In the due course of time, they branched out into a number of diverse communities and cultures across the continent. The largest and most advanced civilizations in North America were the Aztec civilization in Mexico, and the Mayans in Central America. In the 1600’s, the Europeans began to arrive in North America and took over much of the continent. The colonization by the Europeans wiped out the native populations and commenced an era of European dominance. Today, people from every corner of the globe live in the continent of North America, making it an international ‘melting pot’ of inhabitants, traditions and cultures.

15 Interesting facts about North America

  1. It is believed to have been named after an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci.
  2. Encompassing around 4.8% of the total surface of the Earth, North America holds the reputation of being the third largest continent.
  3. North America stands fourth in terms of population.
  4. A total of 24 countries, including the United States of America, jointly form the continent of North America.
  5. Area wise, the largest country in North America is Canada.
  6. It is the sole continent that has every type of climate.
  7. The city with the maximum population in this continent is Mexico City, Mexico.
  8. The longest river on this continent is the Mississippi River.
  9. The largest freshwater lake, Lake Superior, is located in North America.
  10. The biggest island on the planet, Greenland, is also located in North America.
  11. Death Valley in California is the lowest point in the continent. Death Valley also holds the record for being the hottest and the driest region on the planet.
  12. Athletes of North America have won the maximum number of Olympic medals in the world so far.
  13. Some of the main animals found in North America are Brown Bears, Hummingbirds, Bald Eagles and Bullfrogs.
  14. It is the largest exporter of wheat in the world.
  15. Cuba, a country in North America, is the world’s largest exporter of sugar and is also known as the sugar bowl of the world.
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Amphibians Facts and Characteristics http://mocomi.com/facts-about-amphibians/ http://mocomi.com/facts-about-amphibians/#comments Fri, 02 Jun 2017 09:06:12 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95629 What are Amphibians? The word ‘amphibian’ owes its origin to a Greek word that means ‘double life’. Amphibians generally spend the first part of their life in water and the latter part on land. How are Amphibians classified? Some members of this animal class are frogs, toads, salamanders, newts and caecilians. Amphibians are four footed […]

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Amphibians Facts and Characteristics

What are Amphibians?

The word ‘amphibian’ owes its origin to a Greek word that means ‘double life’. Amphibians generally spend the first part of their life in water and the latter part on land.

How are Amphibians classified?

Some members of this animal class are frogs, toads, salamanders, newts and caecilians.
Amphibians are four footed and have a bony skeleton with a backbone and are classified under vertebrates.
They are tetrapods (4 limbs) that facilitate moving about on land – these limbs evolved from the pectoral and pelvic fins.
The skin is thin, soft, glandular and lacks scales except in the caecilians; caecilians have skin with scales similar to those of fish.
Amphibians are ectothermic, which means they are unable to control or generate body heat and rely on external sources to moderate their body temperature.
They breathe usually with gills in the larval stage, replaced by lungs in the adult; and cutaneous(skin) respiration in many.
They have a three-chambered heart with two atria and one ventricle, a nervous system capable of perceiving pain and a well developed digestive and excretory system.

Why do Amphibian have thin and moist skin?

Most amphibians stay or grow near water. This is the reason their skin is moist and permeable. Their skin allows cutaneous respiration and the oxygen they receive this way allows it to travel directly to the bloodstream. This method of respiration is especially useful when the amphibian has to stay in burrows during unfavourable conditions or hibernation, generally during low water situation or seasonal changes.

What is the difference between Amphibian eggs and other vertebrates that lay eggs?

The eggs of amphibians are typically laid in water and hatch into free-living larvae that complete their development in water and later transform into either aquatic or terrestrial adults (metamorphosis). In many species of frog and in most lungless salamanders (Plethodontidae), direct development takes place, the larvae growing within the eggs and emerging as miniature adults.

7 Interesting facts about Amphibians

  1. Amphibians are a crucial link in the evolutionary chain between water dwelling fish and land dwelling vertebrates. They also have a primitive lung compared to other vertebrates, connecting them to the evolution of early vertebrates.
  2. The first amphibians appeared on earth more than 370 million years ago during the Devonian period.
  3. The Chinese giant salamander is the largest known amphibian reaching 180 cms.
  4. The smallest amphibian is a frog known as the Paedophryne amauensis measuring 7.7 mm.
  5. There are more than 6,000 species of known amphibians alive today.
  6. The branch of science that studies reptiles and amphibians is known as Herpetology.
  7. Amphibians are one of the most affected species due to water and air pollution and global warming because of their permeable skin.
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Canada Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/facts-about-canada/ http://mocomi.com/facts-about-canada/#comments Thu, 01 Jun 2017 11:37:41 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95614 Would you like to see thousands of red sided garter snakes slithering away in spring? Or visit an underground laboratory where you study physics? Or how about the first UFO pad? A highway exclusive for animals! Then visit Canada, the second largest country covered with 50% forests, with the largest coastline of 202,080 kilometers and […]

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Canada Facts and Information

Would you like to see thousands of red sided garter snakes slithering away in spring? Or visit an underground laboratory where you study physics? Or how about the first UFO pad? A highway exclusive for animals! Then visit Canada, the second largest country covered with 50% forests, with the largest coastline of 202,080 kilometers and boasting of 30,000 lakes; and freezing temperatures of -63 °C in winter, located in North America.

Jacques Cartier had met the Canadian natives, who had invited him to their Kanata which means a village in Iroquoian language; and he thought it meant that the country was called Canada.

What is Canada famous for?

Canada has the longest street in the world which stretches over 2,000 kilometers. It has 6 time zones. Canada has a meager population of 30 million people. Ottawa is the capital of Canada, hosting the Canadian Tulip Festival and being the cleanest city.

Quebec, the oldest city in Canada, with 95% speaking French has the beautiful Chateau Frontenac Hotel which is the most photographed hotel. It is the only walled city in North America.

The greatest Canadian invention

Canadians invented the Electric Cooking Range, Kerosene, Insulin, IMAX Film System, the Blackberry Phone, the Snow Mobile, Baseball Glove and Wood Fibers (used to make paper.)

National dish of Canada

One authentic Canadian food is French Fries covered with greasy gravy and cheese curds. Peanut Butter Nanaimo bars are chocolate bars with custard in the middle. Canada produces the most amount of maple syrup, hence maple shaped chocolate maple cookies are popular amongst kids. It also produces 3, 50,000 tons of 35 kinds of cheese every year.

Canadian National Tower

The largest tower in the world, the Canada National Tower, at 1,815 feet; prides itself of having a revolving restaurant at around 1,500 feet, giving an unobstructed 360 view of the city of Toronto. At 1,122 feet, you can stand on the highly safe glass floor and look down at the street below. Rogers Center is an attractive stadium with a retractable cover to watch events like ice hockey. Once 46 puffed up Hot Air Balloons were on display here. 743 Indian elephants can comfortably sit on the field here.

Niagara Falls

The breathtaking Niagara Falls in Canada, formed in the Ice Age, has a height of 167 feet and freezes in winter, creating an ice bridge to walk over. Superman was pictured at rescuing a boy from the Falls. The amount of water that falls every second could fill one million bathtubs in one minute. It means thundering of the water. The Falls stopped once as a massive chunk of ice was blocking its path.

10 Interesting facts about Canada

1. Montreal city has more churches than houses.
2. Quebec City has a hotel called The Hotel De Glace, made of ice every winter.
3. Thousands of red sided garter snakes emerge from underground lairs, in Narcisse, in the largest snake gathering in the world for the mating season in May, every year.
4. Canada’s national flag was formed a century after its birth.
5. Basketball game was founded by Canadian James Naismith.
6. Canada has won the maximum number of gold medals at the Winter Olympics.
7. Half of the total numbers of polar bears on Earth live in Nunavat, Canada.
8. Canada Post has a special postal code for letters to Santa Claus!
9. Canada does not own the North Pole!!
10. Canada’s only desert is a sensitive ecosystem, home to a 100 rare plants and 300 animal and birds found no where else in Canada.

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Who invented clothes and how did they make them? http://mocomi.com/who-invented-clothes/ http://mocomi.com/who-invented-clothes/#comments Thu, 25 May 2017 13:22:34 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95535 When were clothes invented? The first evidence of clothes has been found to be used 100,000 years ago. History and development of clothing Neanderthals used to tan animal skins to clothe themselves. They used to tan buckskin, fur and inner hides by painstakingly scrapping it off and soaking it in pulverized deer brains. They then […]

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Who invented clothes and how did they make them?

When were clothes invented?

The first evidence of clothes has been found to be used 100,000 years ago.

History and development of clothing

Neanderthals used to tan animal skins to clothe themselves. They used to tan buckskin, fur and inner hides by painstakingly scrapping it off and soaking it in pulverized deer brains. They then wrung, stretched and hung it to dry and smoked it to make it waterproof.
But lack of stitching tools such as needles caused them to either drape the clothes or tie it, which was not always comfortable or convenient.
It was only 30,000 years ago that simple needles were created out of animal bone which helped the early humans to sew leather and fur garments.

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The Fall of Berlin Wall http://mocomi.com/the-berlin-wall/ http://mocomi.com/the-berlin-wall/#comments Thu, 25 May 2017 09:04:26 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95594 What is the Berlin Wall? The Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, was a wall that separated the communist Eastern side of Berlin from the democratic Western side. The wall was built in 1961 and stood for nearly 28 years. It all started after the World War II, when Germany was divided into […]

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The Fall of Berlin Wall

What is the Berlin Wall?

The Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, was a wall that separated the communist Eastern side of Berlin from the democratic Western side. The wall was built in 1961 and stood for nearly 28 years. It all started after the World War II, when Germany was divided into two parts – East Germany Zone and West Germany Zone, among the four allies that defeated the Nazis.

West Germany Zone

West Germany zone was controlled by France, Great Britain and America. It was known as the Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

East Germany Zone

East Germany was controlled by the Soviet Union and was known as the Deutsche Demokratische Republik. Berlin, being the capital city, was divided among the four allies. Thus, the Soviet Union controlled East Berlin, while France, Great Britain and America controlled West Berlin.

Why was the Berlin Wall built?

The conditions between the two parts of Berlin became very different. The Western part was growing as their economy began to rise and become better day by day, while in the East the Soviets had full control with limited freedom to the citizens. Thus, the people living in East Germany did not want to live under the control of the Soviets and started to move towards the Western part. These people were known as defectors. Few were stopped at the border, while other made their way to the West and kept in warehouses. By the early 1960’s, more than 2 million people had defected from the East to West. East Berlin had lost a great number of their workforce. Now, the East became desperate to stop this immigration. Citizen from the East used to commute daily to the West to look for better job opportunities. The East and the West finally had enough, and decided to build a wall around Berlin to prevent people from defecting. On August 13, 1961 the communist of the East started building the wall dividing East Berlin and West Berlin. In a matter of days a low concrete wall was created between the two sides.

What were the effects of the Berlin Wall?

The wall separated families and cut people off from their daily jobs. People from the East side peered through their dilapidated apartments into the prospering West side. Many East Germans tried to climb the wall or use the tunnels to get to the West in desperation. But they were killed by the East German guards who regarded such people as traitors. The Western side was very different. They started calling the Berlin Wall a ‘wall of shame’. The East continued to rebuild the wall and kept adding onto it, making it further long. It reached a length of 103 miles, 4 feet high and 12 feet high. Guards and dogs were then added at check points to keep a watch on anyone trying to cross the wall. Did this keep the East Germans at bay? No, they still made attempts to cross the wall- simple and planned ones. This continued till the 1970’s and 1980’s.

When was the Berlin Wall demolished?

It was on June 12, 1987, when President Ronald Reagan gave a speech in Berlin directed to the Soviet Union leader, Mikhail Gorbachev and asking him to tear down this wall of shame. By this time, the communists were also beginning to weaken and losing their hold on East Germany. It was on November 9, 1989 that an announcement was made which said that relocation on the two sides can be done through all border checkpoints. People rushed to see if the borders were opened. People from the West side celebrated the end of divided Germany by chipping off and tearing down the wall with hammers. It was only on October 3, 1990 that Germany was officially recognized as one and was unified as a single country.

5 Interesting facts about the Berlin Wall

1. The West side of the Berlin Wall was fully covered with colorful graffiti while the East side was totally barren.
2. People staying in the Western side of Berlin started considering the East as a garbage point and started throwing rubbish over the wall.
3. The Berlin wall had underground subways and train stations. Many trains were not allowed to stop at the East side station. These stations were heavily guarded and dimly lit and were known as ‘ghost stations’. The Ghost stations were reopened after the wall was demolished.
4. During the 28 years when the wall stood, almost 5000 people had crossed to the Western side, either over or through the wall.
5. The most famous checkpoint was Checkpoint Charlie. After the demolition the guard house of this checkpoint is now situated in the Allied Museum in Berlin.

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What is an ecosystem? http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-ecosystem/ http://mocomi.com/what-is-an-ecosystem/#comments Wed, 24 May 2017 09:41:07 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95580 In an ecosystem, each organism has its role to play. A forest has trees, herbivorous animals, carnivorous animals, birds, reptiles and insects. How ecosystem works? We know that the lions feast on deer, zebras and other small animals. We also know that humans are fond of hunting lions and tigers; though hunting has been banned […]

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What is an ecosystem?

In an ecosystem, each organism has its role to play. A forest has trees, herbivorous animals, carnivorous animals, birds, reptiles and insects.

How ecosystem works?

We know that the lions feast on deer, zebras and other small animals. We also know that humans are fond of hunting lions and tigers; though hunting has been banned by law, some poachers are still out there killing lions and tigers illegally.

What will happen if we take out lions and tigers completely from the forest ecosystem?

The population of the herbivorous animals will multiply in leaps and bounds and they will plunder the grasslands for food. The lack or absence of vegetation will result in soil erosion, lowering down the quality and fertility of the soil which will eventually affect us.

How non living things affect an ecosystem?

It is not just the presence or absence of the living organisms that affects the functioning of the ecosystem, but the abiotic or the non-living factors also play an important role in the ecosystem.

Industrialization and excessive use of fossil fuels for energy has resulted in serious environmental threats like global warming, ozone hole and pollution. Because of human intervention, our environment has changed, our climate has changed. Any disturbance or disruption to an ecosystem can be fatal to all organisms within the ecosystem.

Codependency in ecosystem

All the members of an ecosystem share a unique relationship with each other and depend on one another in order to get energy to survive. The energy flow in an ecosystem starts with the sun. Plants use the sun’s energy in the process of photosynthesis for manufacturing their food. These plants are eaten by herbivorous animals and the sun’s energy, in form of carbohydrates, flows from the plants to these animals.

When the herbivorous animals become food for the carnivorous animals, the energy of the sun stored in their bodies gets transferred to the carnivorous animals. The carnivorous animals may again be eaten by larger animals and when this happens, another energy transfer takes place. This pattern continues until the living organism dies and it is time for the bacterial decomposers to do their work.

Food chain in ecosystem

This ‘who eats whom’ list that also shows the path of transfer of sun’s energy in an ecosystem is known as a food chain. In an ecosystem, multiple food chains may exist. A collection of several complex food chains is known as a food web.

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Science of Chemical Bonding http://mocomi.com/chemical-bonding/ http://mocomi.com/chemical-bonding/#comments Tue, 23 May 2017 10:27:05 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95569 You know that atoms are the basic building blocks of all types of matter. Everything around you—the food you eat, the water you drink, your pets, your toys and even your bodies—is made up of atoms. In nature, these atoms combine with other atoms through chemical bonds which are a result of the strong attractive […]

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Science of Chemical Bonding

You know that atoms are the basic building blocks of all types of matter. Everything around you—the food you eat, the water you drink, your pets, your toys and even your bodies—is made up of atoms. In nature, these atoms combine with other atoms through chemical bonds which are a result of the strong attractive forces that exist between the atoms.

These atoms are so very tiny that you can only see them under a microscope. Now how can a tiny thing like an atom be useful to us? Well, just like the Lego blocks, these miniscule atoms make themselves useful by combining themselves with each other.

What is chemical bonding?

When two atoms combine with each other, the chemical process that takes place is known as chemical bonding. The electrons that help in the formation of chemical bonds are known as valence electrons, the ones that are found in an atom’s outermost shell. When two atoms come close to each other, the valence electrons in their outer shell interact with each other. Though electrons repel each other, they are attracted to the protons in the nuclei of atoms. Due to the interaction of forces, some atoms form bonds with each other and stick together.

Types of chemical bonding

There are two main types of bonds formed between atoms: ionic bonds (also known as electrovalent bonds) and covalent bonds. An ionic bond is formed when one atom either accepts or donates one or more of its valence electrons to another atom. A covalent bond is formed when instead of donating or accepting electrons, the atoms share valence electrons. When the atoms do not share the electrons equally, a polar covalent bond is formed. When metallic atoms share their electrons, a metallic bond is formed.

Why do atoms form bonds?

Now that you have understood how the atoms combine together, you must also know why these atoms need to bind together. The answer is : all atoms want to be happy, just like you! And what makes them happy is having their shells full. There is a specific 2-8-8 rule that can make them happy. The first shell should be filled with 2 electrons, the second with 8 electrons, and the third one also with 8 electrons.

Some atoms have extra electrons in their shells. These atoms are very generous and always ready to give up their electrons. Some atoms have a few electrons less in their shells. These are the greedy ones, always looking to bag some electrons from other atoms.

Examples of chemical bonds

Let us study some elements, sodium and fluorine for starters, to comprehend the concept of chemical bonding better. Sodium (Na) has 3 shells and only one electron in its outer shell. Now this sodium atom can do either of the two things: it can donate one electron in its third shell to some other atom and have two complete shells, with 8 electrons in each orbit or it can can keep looking for some benevolent atom with extra electrons to meet it someday sometime and fill up its third shell. Which option sounds easier to you? Obviously, it is the first one! It is much easier for the atoms to give away the electrons rather than keep waiting to receive some extra ones.

The atom of another element, fluorine (F) has 7 electrons in its outer shell, i.e. it is one electron shy of becoming ‘happy’. So, what these two atoms do is that they give and take electrons from their outer shells and become happy. In other words, the sodium atom gives away the extra electron in its outer shell to the fluorine atom and then both have a total of 8 electrons in their outermost shell. Such a bond is known as ionic bond. When an atom gives up an electron, it develops a positive charge like sodium (Na+) and when an atom receives an extra electron, it becomes negatively charged like fluorine (F-). The positive and negative charges attract each other like magnets and this is what helps in the formation and maintenance of the bond.

Bonding of Oxygen and Fluorine

Now let us learn more about the covalent bonds with the help of oxygen (O) and fluorine (F). Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell and fluorine has 7. Fluorine needs one electron and oxygen needs a couple of electrons to have a completely filled up shell. Both these elements have innermost shells that are complete with two electrons, but their second shells want to have more! If they agree to share their electrons with atoms of other elements, they can share electrons and make covalent bonds with those elements. They can also decide to make an ionic bond if they prefer to borrow electrons from some other atom rather than sharing. Whether by sharing, donating or borrowing electrons, the atoms of an element reach the happy state of having eight electrons in their outer shells by bonding with other atoms. After all, everyone wants to be happy, right?

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Fun Facts about Temperature http://mocomi.com/facts-about-temperature/ http://mocomi.com/facts-about-temperature/#comments Mon, 22 May 2017 09:57:24 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95405 We often say today’s temperature is 34 degree centigrade or 40 degree centigrade. But what do we mean by the terms temperature or centigrade? What is temperature? Temperature can be defined as an objective comparative measure of hot or cold (heat energy). Units of temperature Centigrade is the unit of measuring temperature. There are different […]

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Fun Facts about Temperature

We often say today’s temperature is 34 degree centigrade or 40 degree centigrade. But what do we mean by the terms temperature or centigrade?

What is temperature?

Temperature can be defined as an objective comparative measure of hot or cold (heat energy).

Units of temperature

Centigrade is the unit of measuring temperature. There are different scales and units which are used for measuring temperature. Among them the most common are Celsius or centigrade (°C), Fahrenheit (°F) and Kelvin (K). Kelvin is considered as the basic unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI). Generally, Celsius scale is used widely in which 0°C and 100°C correspond the freezing and boiling points of water respectively at sea level. Temperature is measured by thermometer. In Fahrenheit scale, 32°F and 212°F correspond to the freezing and boiling points of water. This scale is mainly used in United States.

11 Interesting facts about temperature

  1. In universe temperatures range from about 3,500,000,000 Kelvin (a supernova) to 3 Kelvin (space).
  2. Sun is known to be a class G yellow star .The average surface temperature of Sun is 5,600 Kelvin.
  3. Absolute zero is the coldest theoretical temperature. Reaching this temperature substance does not possess any heat energy. It has been defined as zero Kelvin (0 Kelvin) which is found to be equivalent to -273.16 degrees Celsius and -459.69 degrees Fahrenheit.
  4. The temperature of a substance has been defined as a result of the speed at which its molecules move. The theory states that faster the molecules will move, higher the temperature of the substance will be.
  5. A very notable fact is that Fahrenheit and Celsius are equal at -40 degrees.
  6. Temperature affects physical properties of materials whether it is solid, liquid, gaseous or plasma: density; solubility; vapour pressure and electrical conductivity.
  7. It affects rate and extent to which chemical reactions take place.
  8. Temperature affects the amount as well as properties of thermal radiation which emits from the surface of an object.
  9. 57.8 °C (136 °F) is the hottest temperature ever recorded on Earth. It was recorded on September 13, 1922 in Al ‘Aziziyah located in Libya.
  10. −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) is the coldest temperature ever recorded on Earth. It was recorded at Vostok Station located in Antarctica on July 21, 1983.
  11. Conduction (occurs in solid), convection (occurs in liquid) and radiation (takes place through space) are the three processes of transferring heat from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature.
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Types of fruits and vegetables http://mocomi.com/types-of-fruits-and-vegetables/ http://mocomi.com/types-of-fruits-and-vegetables/#comments Fri, 19 May 2017 13:20:44 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95487 Fruits and vegetables form an important part of our daily diet. They contain essential vitamins and minerals which keep us healthy and protect us from diseases. At least five servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits are recommended daily. What is a fruit? A fruit is a seed bearing structure and develops from a […]

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Types of fruits and vegetables

Fruits and vegetables form an important part of our daily diet. They contain essential vitamins and minerals which keep us healthy and protect us from diseases. At least five servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits are recommended daily.

What is a fruit?

A fruit is a seed bearing structure and develops from a flowering plant. A fruit is a sweet and fleshy product of a tree or a plant and can be eaten as food, without cooking.

  • Apples and pears
  • Citrus – oranges, grapefruits, mandarins and limes
  • Stone fruit – nectarines, apricots, peaches and plums
  • Tropical and exotic – bananas and mangoes
  • Berries – strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, kiwifruit and passion fruit
  • Melons – watermelons, rock melons and honeydew melons
  • Tomatoes and avocados.

What is a vegetable?

A vegetable is any part of a plant that is eaten as food such as roots, stems, leaves and even flower buds.
Some common types of vegetable are:

  • Leafy green – lettuce, spinach and silverbeet
  • Cruciferous – cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts and broccoli
  • Marrow – pumpkin, cucumber and zucchini
  • Root – potato, sweet potato and yam
  • Edible plant stem – celery and asparagus
  • Allium – onion, garlic and shallot.

Fruits example:

Apples – Red, Green, Golden…there are thousands of varieties of apples. You can have them raw and even cook them into delicious jam, sauces or a sweet dish.

Vegetables example:

Broccoli – This veggie is a close relative of cabbage and one of the essential greens in a diet. Have it steamed, stir-fried or in a salad, it is full of nutritional value.

Note – To know the difference between fruits and vegetables, click here.

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Exercise regularly, keep healthy! http://mocomi.com/exercise-regularly/ http://mocomi.com/exercise-regularly/#comments Thu, 18 May 2017 12:26:21 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95516 Exercise is very important to stay active. But it does not have to be only at gym class. It can be something fun too. Playing is not just fun but also keeps you physically active. Benefits of exercise There are a lot of benefits from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: have stronger muscles and […]

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Exercise regularly, keep healthy!

Exercise is very important to stay active. But it does not have to be only at gym class. It can be something fun too. Playing is not just fun but also keeps you physically active.

Benefits of exercise

There are a lot of benefits from regular exercise. Kids who are active will:

  1. have stronger muscles and bones
  2. be less likely to become overweight
  3. decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes
  4. lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels
  5. have a better outlook on life

Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They’re also better able to handle physical and emotional challenges — from running to catch a bus to studying for a test.

The three elements of fitness

The three elements of fitness in action when kids play in the playground are:
1. Endurance: When a child is chasing or being chased by another child at play.
2. Strength: When a child crosses a monkey bar.
3. Flexibility: Bending down to tie their shoes.

Regular aerobic activity helps a child to build good endurance levels. Aerobic exercise causes the heart to beat faster and a person breathes harder. Regular aerobic activity strengthens the heart and improves the body’s ability to deliver oxygen to all its cells.

Following are some fun aerobic activities

  • basketball
  • bicycling
  • ice skating
  • soccer
  • swimming
  • tennis
  • walking
  • jogging
  • running

Improving strength doesn’t have to be only from only lifting weights instead, kids can do push-ups, stomach crunches, pull-ups, and other exercises to help tone and strengthen muscles. They also improve their strength when they climb, do a handstand, or wrestle.

Stretching exercises helps a child improve flexibility, allowing muscles and joints to bend and move easily through their full range of motion. Simplest activities like reaching out for a toy or practicing a split or doing a cartwheel are fun ways to stretch and build one’s flexibility.

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Animal brain size comparison http://mocomi.com/animal-brain-size/ http://mocomi.com/animal-brain-size/#comments Thu, 18 May 2017 09:28:25 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95507 Are humans the most intelligent species on earth? Scientists believe that humans are the most intelligent creatures on earth. Thus, it is concluded that human brain is the largest brain among all living beings on planet earth. The human brain weighs 1.1 kg to 1.4 kg. What animals have the biggest brains? Let us look […]

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Animal brain size comparison

Are humans the most intelligent species on earth?

Scientists believe that humans are the most intelligent creatures on earth. Thus, it is concluded that human brain is the largest brain among all living beings on planet earth. The human brain weighs 1.1 kg to 1.4 kg.

What animals have the biggest brains?

Let us look at the size of brains of other living creatures on earth:

  • Sperm Whale – It is the largest toothed predator and has the largest brain weighing 7 kg. Compare it with the largest whale, the blue whale which has a brain of 5 kg.
  • Elephant – It has a brain size of 4.78 kg. The brain of an elephant makes up less than 0.1% of its body weight.
  • Mountain Gorilla – They are considered to have a good amount of intelligence with a brain that weighs 430 g. Brainy than a monkey whose brain size is only 22 g.
  • Chimpanzee – Compared to its body size, a chimpanzee has a brain size of 350 g. The brains of early humans were similar to those of chimpanzees.
  • Walrus – It has a brain size of 1.1 kg. This brain size comes very close to a human brain size. One half of the walrus brain remains active while it sleeps.
  • Dolphin – Positioned next to humans, a dolphin’s brain size is 2 kg. If trained, dolphins are sufficiently intelligent to grasp and learn several tasks.
  • Octopus – It is considered as the most intelligent invertebrate as its brain is made of the largest brain cells or neurons, found in nature. Its brain is made up of 500 million large neurons. Each of the eight arms of the octopus carries, a neuron package and its intelligence can be compared to that of a chimp.
  • Cats and Dogs – The brain of a cat is only 30 g in size. But cats learn by observation and have better short term memory. Dogs though have longer memory but their brain size is 30% lighter than those of wolves.
  • Alligator – One of the most ferocious predators, the reptilian alligator’s brain weighs only 8 g. They are roughly the size of three olives!
  • Giraffe – These tall animals have a brain half the size of humans. Their brains weigh only 680 g.
  • Rat – The size of a rat brain is only 2 g, while its body weight is 400 g. Rats have the ability to predict events and avoid danger and are experts in obtaining basic resources.
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Germany Facts and Information http://mocomi.com/germany-facts/ http://mocomi.com/germany-facts/#comments Wed, 17 May 2017 10:03:09 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95499 10 Interesting facts about Germany 1. Germany is known as Deutschland in the German language. 2. The capital city of Deutschland is Berlin. 3. Germany has the largest economy in Europe. 4. Football is the most popular sport in Germany. 5. The first book was printed in the German language. 6. German is the third […]

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Germany Facts and Information

10 Interesting facts about Germany

1. Germany is known as Deutschland in the German language.
2. The capital city of Deutschland is Berlin.
3. Germany has the largest economy in Europe.
4. Football is the most popular sport in Germany.
5. The first book was printed in the German language.
6. German is the third most commonly taught language worldwide.
7. There are around 300 varieties of bread found in Germany.
8. Instead of saying ‘Hello’, the Germans answer the phone with their surname.
9. Gummy Bears were invented by the candy maker, Hans Riegel, in Germany.
10. The biggest festival of Germany known as Oktoberfest, starts from the last week of September and is a 16 to 18 day long festival held since the Middle Ages.

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Desert plants and their adaptations http://mocomi.com/desert-plants-adaptations-facts/ http://mocomi.com/desert-plants-adaptations-facts/#comments Tue, 16 May 2017 12:33:40 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95489 What is it that sets a desert apart from other landscapes? – Desert plants What are desert plants? Desert plants are those which grow in the environment of arid regions where rainfall is scanty. Their beauty is very different from other plants. Desert plants are sturdily built. There are different types of plants which grow in […]

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Desert plants and their adaptations

What is it that sets a desert apart from other landscapes? – Desert plants

What are desert plants?

Desert plants are those which grow in the environment of arid regions where rainfall is scanty. Their beauty is very different from other plants. Desert plants are sturdily built. There are different types of plants which grow in deserts around the world.

6 Most common desert plants

1. Elephant Tree:

This plant is found to be grown in the Santa Rosa Mountains and south western part of the Arizona. It is small in size and has thick trunk .It stores water in trunk, lower limbs and wood. Elephant tree produces beautiful small and star shaped flowers which are either white or cream in colour.

2. Organ Pipe Cactus:

Organ Pipe Cactus is mainly found in the rocky deserts of Mexico and the US. This plant has narrow stems and a small trunk. This species of cactus takes 150 years to reach its mature stage. This plant produces fruits and purple or light pink tinted flowers.

3. Desert Sage:

Desert Sage is a shrub. It grows about 2-3 meters in height. Flowers of this shrub are deep blue in colour with purple bracts. This shrub is evergreen plant .It does not require water once it has set well.

4. Desert Marigold:

These plants belong to the aster family. They are mainly found in the south western parts of the US and Mexico. Desert Marigold is annual and short lived perennial plant. Their heights range between 10 and 30 inches. They possess hairy leaves which increase the reflection of light. This lowers leaf temperatures and blocks UV rays, making them to survive in extreme climate. The flowers of these plants are yellow in colour.

5. Saguaro:

The saguaro belongs to the cactus species. Its growth depends on the amount of precipitation present in the deserts. It produces ruby red fruits; white and yellow flowers.

6. Barrel Cactus:

These are the most common plant found in the deserts around the globe. Their heights vary between 1 meter to 10 meters. Barrel Cactus produces flowers of different shades such as orange, red, yellow and pink.

11 Interesting facts about desert plants

1. Desert plants are highly adaptable to the tough and extreme climate of the deserts.
2. Desert plants store water mainly in their trunk, stem and fleshy leaves.
3. Desert plants mainly the cactus group can be developed in nurseries and personal gardens.
4. They are ornamental plants which are used for home decoration.
5. Some cactus produces flowers.
6. Flowers of desert marigold are highly poisonous.
7. If the spine of barrel cactus accidentally pricks, one may need to take antibiotics to combat its effects.
8. Fruits of Organ Pipe Cactus are tastier than watermelon.
9. Fruits of Saguaro are consumed by locals.
10. Fruits of Organ Pipe Cactus serve as medicines.
11. Desert Sage has medicinal properties which cure headaches, common cold, stomach aches, influenza, pneumonia and eye problems.

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11 Crazy facts about the world http://mocomi.com/11-crazy-facts-about-the-world/ http://mocomi.com/11-crazy-facts-about-the-world/#comments Mon, 15 May 2017 09:59:57 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95478 The world we live in has some unknown, weird and crazy truths or facts that might just blow your mind. Let us look at some of the crazy facts our world hides! 1. Russia is bigger than Pluto Pluto has been deleted from the list of planets but it is the largest object in the […]

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11 Crazy facts about the world

The world we live in has some unknown, weird and crazy truths or facts that might just blow your mind.

Let us look at some of the crazy facts our world hides!

1. Russia is bigger than Pluto

Pluto has been deleted from the list of planets but it is the largest object in the Kuiper belt orbiting the Sun. Russia, the largest country by land mass on earth, is bigger than Pluto! Russia’s surface area is 17,075,200 square kilometres while Pluto stands at 16,647,940 square kilometres.

2. Mammoths did not extinct with dinosaurs

Woolly mammoths existed even when the pharaohs were busy building the pyramids in Egypt. So the mammoths got extinct not so long ago and man did get to see them in real, though man could not see the dinosaurs. They overlap in time with the construction of pyramids. Man exploited mammoths for their skin and tusks.

3. Lobsters are immortal or so they call

Lobsters can die of external forces but they just keep growing and growing when left on their own. Even after they attain sexual maturity lobsters keep growing. They can even regrow a limb after losing it in an accident. They cannot live forever, some scientist say, but they can grow and live an extremely long life, which might seem as eternity.

4. Holes in pen lids and Lego

Do you know why pen lids and Lego blocks have holes in them? They were created just so that if they are accidentally swallowed by someone, they would still be able to breathe due to passage of air through that hole!

5. Panda is China property

Every Panda you see is the property of China. If you see a Panda anywhere else in the world then they have rented that Panda from China. Any guesses on the rate? US $1 million a year!

6. Smelly bacteria

Rain brings with it immense joy and a slight, pleasant fragrance of the after showers. Do you know what this pleasant smell is? It is the smell of bacteria called Actinomycetes. They are of great importance because of their contribution to the soil and forests.

7. Life forms living on your skin outnumber people on the planet

There are about trillions of microbes living on your skin. 90% of our body is home to microbes. They are on our eyelashes, tongue, skin, hair follicles, teeth…everywhere!

8. An octopus that mimics

Yes, there is an octopus called the mimic octopus which is capable of impersonating or mimicking other species. They can change their skin colour and texture to blend with the surroundings. But they can change shapes and mimic flounder, lion fish or sea snakes!

9. Dead bodies on Mount Everest

There are over 200 dead bodies on Mount Everest and climbers use them as way pointers. The corpses are left there with the flags of specific countries. They die for Everest and are left there as it is difficult to carry them back.

10. Vacant houses in United States

There are more vacant houses in the United States than homeless people. Homeless has been on the rise in America but you just cannot put homeless people in any vacant house. So, empty houses end up being owned by banks rather than people.

11. A Jellyfish is 95 percent water

Only about 5 percent of the body of a jellyfish is solid. They don’t have blood, brain or even a heart, but they can sting real badly!

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Alexander the Great http://mocomi.com/alexander-the-great/ http://mocomi.com/alexander-the-great/#comments Fri, 12 May 2017 10:09:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95469 Alexander the Great was the King of Macedonia, the ancient kingdom of Northern Greece, and the conqueror of the Persian Empire. In his short life span he had conquered many empires and thus he was considered as one of the greatest military geniuses to have ever lived. Early life Macedonia was ruled by Alexander’s father, […]

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Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great was the King of Macedonia, the ancient kingdom of Northern Greece, and the conqueror of the Persian Empire. In his short life span he had conquered many empires and thus he was considered as one of the greatest military geniuses to have ever lived.

Early life

Macedonia was ruled by Alexander’s father, King Philip II. Alexander was born in July in356 B.C in Pella. Alexander was raised by a nurse and a strict tutor and learned how to read, play the lyre, ride, fight and everything that a son of a noble family would do. At the age of 13 Alexander was tutored by the famous philosopher and scientist Aristotle. He taught him medicine, philosophy, logic, morals, religion and it was through his teachings that Alexander developed a passion for the wars of Homer and the Iliad. These stories were the ones that inspired him to become a war hero.

Alexander – The soldier and king

Alexander became a soldier at the early age of 16. At that young age, Alexander helped his father in an important battle to defeat the Athenian and Theban armies. Alexander became king when his father died. He had gained support of most of the army. Though King Philip succeeded in uniting all Greek-city states, after his death the states were divided once again. Alexander worked towards getting the support of the Greek city states. With the exception of Athens, the Greek city states supported Alexander with full military power.

Alexander’s empire

Alexander now turned east to conquer more of the civilised world. First he moved and conquered Asia Minor, which is Turkey today. Next he took over Syria, defeating the Persian Army. He then set to conquer the Persian Empire, the largest kingdom to the Eats of Greece. In 334 B.C Alexander broke the power of Persia and defeated the kingdom in a series of decisive battles. After defeating the Persian King Darius III, Alexander became the king of the Persian Empire. Alexander’s empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. He then conquered Egypt and declared Alexandria as its capital. He then moved to Babylonia, including the city of Susa.

Alexander conquered many kingdoms and even grew his empire to occupy Punjab in Northern India. He defeated King Porus in India but was very impressed by his bravery and tactics and made him an ally. He gave Porus his Kingship back and also some land that he did not own previously.

Death of Alexander

Alexander had just come to Babylon and captured it when he suddenly fell sick and died. Many people suspect he was poisoned as the reason of death is unknown. He died at the age of 32. Some say he died of a fever, maybe malaria or typhoid. He was sick for 12 days before he succumbed to his illness.

4 Facts about Alexander the Great

  1. Alexander never lost a battle, not even one.
  2. He named more than 70 cities after him and one after his horse, Bucephalus in India.
  3. After defeating the Persians Alexander started dressing like them.
  4. After his death, Alexander’s body was immersed in honey by the Babylonians to save it from decoy. Many years later it was placed in Alexandria’s communal mausoleum.
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Difference between metals and non-metals http://mocomi.com/difference-between-metals-and-non-metals/ http://mocomi.com/difference-between-metals-and-non-metals/#comments Thu, 11 May 2017 12:42:55 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95454 Elements on the Earth are classified into metals and non-metals based on their characteristics and physical properties. The periodic table has metals placed on the left while non-metals are placed on the right. Let us first look at what we mean by each of them. What are metals? Metals are solid materials and are typically […]

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Difference between metals and non-metals

Elements on the Earth are classified into metals and non-metals based on their characteristics and physical properties. The periodic table has metals placed on the left while non-metals are placed on the right. Let us first look at what we mean by each of them.

What are metals?

Metals are solid materials and are typically hard, malleable (bendy), ductile (flexible) and heavy. They are good conductors of heat and electricity. Metals are shiny and have a high density. They can also be opaque as a thin sheet. Example: aluminium, copper, gold, silver, steel are all metals. Metals have one to three electrons in their outer shells.

What are non-metals?

Any material or substance that is not a pure metal is a non-metal. They do not have the properties of a pure metal. Non metals are dull in appearance. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals maybe solids, liquid or gases at room temperature. Non metals have four to eight electrons. Non metals are very good oxidising agents but they are very brittle and have low density. Example: hydrogen, helium, phosphorus, iodine, carbon are some non-metals.

Chemical properties of metals and non-metals

  • Metals are very reactive. They tend to lose electrons very easily and form positively charged ions. This allows metals to form compounds with other elements very easily.
  • Metals corrode easily. They are damaged by oxidation like rust or tarnish
  • Almost all metal combine with oxygen to form metal oxide
  • Metals like lead, copper, silver and gold do not recat with water at all
  • Metals react with acid to give salt and hydrogen
  • Non metals form oxides that are acidic in nature
  • Non metals readily gain or share valence electrons
  • Non metals gain electrons to form anions (an atom that has donated electrons, hence giving a negative charge)

Physical Properties of metals and non-metals

  • Metals are hard except Sodium and Potassium
  • The boiling and melting points of metals are high and they also have high density
  • Metals are sonorous (when a metal is beaten it produces sound) except mercury
  • Metals can be turned into thin sheets by hammering, this is called malleability
  • Metals can be changed into thin wires, this is called ductile
  • Non metals are soft- except diamond
  • Non metals are mostly found in gaseous state, except Bromine which is found in liquid state
  • Non metals have a dull surface except iodine and graphite
  • Non metals are not sonorous
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Why is it called a building if it’s already built? http://mocomi.com/why-is-it-called-a-building-if-its-already-built/ http://mocomi.com/why-is-it-called-a-building-if-its-already-built/#comments Thu, 11 May 2017 10:54:23 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95452 Why is a building called a building? Em and Emma are having ice cream sitting on a bench. There is a construction site in the background. Em: Emma, have you noticed how fast these builders are working? Till last month there was no building and look at this huge structure now. Emma: Yes, and soon […]

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Why is it called a building if it’s already built?

Why is a building called a building?

Em and Emma are having ice cream sitting on a bench. There is a construction site in the background.
Em: Emma, have you noticed how fast these builders are working? Till last month there was no building and look at this huge structure now.
Emma: Yes, and soon there will be people living in this building.
Em: Come to think of it, if a building is already built then why it is still called a building? The construction is stopped or are there invisible gnomes still building floors?
Reason: Firstly, there are no gnomes in the city. Now, it is called a building because the ‘ing’ in the English language is added to certain verbs to make them nouns. The verb ‘built’ is suffixed with ‘ing’ to make the thing a noun- Building.
Em: So Building is a noun and when it is being built it is a verb?
Reason: The act is of building it when the actual work is in progress. Building is a gerund- a noun made from a verb. Any action verb can be made a gerund. Example: Singing is my hobby or Nursing is a good career.
Em: So it is called a building to denote the process of building it?
Emma: You got that bang on Em! You are a smart boy. Here, you get sprinklers on your ice cream for that!
Em: Don’t be a smarty pant Emma.
Reason: Ok, I’ll take the sprinklers.
Em and Emma: NO!

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South America Facts http://mocomi.com/south-america-facts/ http://mocomi.com/south-america-facts/#comments Wed, 10 May 2017 12:51:50 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95352 Where is South America located? South America is the fourth largest continent in size and is located in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. It is home to the majestic Andes mountain range and the mysterious Amazon River. The continent of South America is compact and slightly triangular in shape, being broad in the north […]

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South America Facts

Where is South America located?

South America is the fourth largest continent in size and is located in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. It is home to the majestic Andes mountain range and the mysterious Amazon River.
The continent of South America is compact and slightly triangular in shape, being broad in the north and in narrowing down at the point called Cape Horn in the south.
South America is bounded by three major water bodies from three sides: Pacific Ocean on the west, Caribbean Sea to the northwest and the Atlantic Ocean on the east.

20 Interesting facts about South America

  1. South America comprises about 12% of the earth’s land.
  2. South America is the fifth largest continent in terms of population.
  3. Andes mountain system in South America is the second highest mountain range in the world, next to the Himalayas, in Asia.
  4. The highest waterfall in the world, Angel Falls, is situated in South America.
  5. World’s highest lake, Lake Titicaca, is located here
  6. World’ largest salt lake, Salar de Uyuni, is located here.
  7. Portuguese and Spanish are the main languages spoken in South America.
  8. Brazil, the largest producer of coffee in the world, is situated in South America.
  9. The highest point in this continent is Cerro Aconcagua in Andes in Argentina.
  10. The continent of South America is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.
  11. Anaconda, the heaviest snake on earth, is found in South America.
  12. It has the world’s largest river Amazon (by volume).
  13. Amazon rainforest is also the largest rainforest in the world.
  14. A total of 12 countries together constitute the continent of South America.
  15. Area wise, the largest country in South America is Brazil.
  16. Suriname is the smallest country in South America.
  17. Brazil is the most thickly populated country in South America.
  18. The Atacama Desert, Chile, is the largest desert.
  19. Some of the rare animals found in South America are ant-eaters, armadillos and llamas.
  20. It is the only continent to have wild Pink Dolphins.
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Union Territories of India http://mocomi.com/union-territories-of-india/ http://mocomi.com/union-territories-of-india/#comments Tue, 09 May 2017 12:16:36 +0000 http://mocomi.com/?p=95345 What is Union Territory? A Union Territory is a like a small state; but it is operated by the Indian government and lacks its own elected government. They are Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep, Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and Puducherry. The President of India chooses a Lieutenant Governor for each […]

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Union Territories of India

What is Union Territory?

A Union Territory is a like a small state; but it is operated by the Indian government and lacks its own elected government. They are Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep, Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and Puducherry.

The President of India chooses a Lieutenant Governor for each Union Territory.

Why does India have Union Territories?

Political tensions in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands caused the government to take over them. Before this it had been controlled by the Britishers, with prisoners being kept there. Chandigarh fell into a tug of war between Punjab and Haryana, before becoming a union territory.

7 Union Territories of India

There are seven union territories in India, which are administered by the Central government.

1. Delhi

Delhi officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India. It was converted into a Union Territory in 1956. It was officially named National Capital Territory of Delhi. It is also own as National Capital Region urban area in which Noida, Gurgaon, Greater Noida, Faridabad and Ghaziabad are included. It is located on beautiful banks of Yamuna river, one of the holly river in India. Palika Bazaar, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid are few of the many tourist attractions Delhi has with The India Gate being considered as The Pride of India.

2. Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman and Nicobar Islands have emerged from being a prisoner’s camp to a disease stricken land, to now being the most coveted and beautiful islands. 572 small and loosely flowing islands filled with the unpolluted sun and untamed wild life, make this a breathtaking place. Fishes die from old age as commercial fishing is banned. The Dermochelys Coriacea endangered turtles, weighing 500 kilograms, flock in thousands here every year where they nest. The Robber Crabs are the only crabs who climb up coconut trees to stealthily steal the soft coconut kernels without breaking apart the coconut.

3. Chandigarh

Le Corbusier had designed the beautiful and modern city of Chandigarh. The famous Open Hand Monument symbolizes the notion of giving and taking peacefully. There are interesting places to see like the Butterfly Park, The International Doll Museum, and Topiary Park etc. The Rock Garden contains eccentrically carved rocks made from industrial wastes. Chandigarh holds the second largest museum filled with Gandhara statues; which feature a confluence of Indian and Roman art, with gold and bronze details on stone.

4. Puducherry

Puducherry or the French Riviera of India still echoes its French influence through language, majestic colonial palaces and docile boulevards. The streets are oval shaped and cut at right angles. Be careful as you walk, as a street can have one name assigned at one end, and another name at the other end! You can try an exotic dish like the bébé octopus a l’Armoricaine (baby octopus cooked in fire) here.

5. Daman and Diu

Daman and Diu feature massive Portuguese and Gujrati cultural influences. The Zampa Gateway, not only features an inscription dated to 1702; but also intricate carvings of lions and angels. The Pandava brothers from the Mahabharata had spent a couple of days in Daman. The Diu Museum was actually the St Thomas Church; as there wasn’t enough space to build a proper museum to hold the dear antiques! Diu is the only place in India to house African palm trees.

6. Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Dadra and Nagar Haveli houses 62% of the tribal population like Kokana and Dublas. The Daman Ganga River watershed flows through it. It is comprised of 70 villages. The Tarpa dance constitutes of people holding each other’s waists, and dancing to the sound made by instruments made of gourd. The Vasona is a place for all the brave people who want to go and see the ferocious lions roaming around.

7. Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep consists of 36 majestic coral reef islands filled with tall coconut trees, scenic beauty and ample places to fish. The history of Lakshadweep has been passed down mostly through word of mouth. The Pitti Island is home to the grand pelagic (who love the water more than land) birds like Brown Noddy. The territory looks like a few dots on India’s map. Fish, jaggery, rice and coconut are the ingredients found here but they give rise to a plethora of mouth watering dishes. The people of the northern part of Lakshadweep feel they were washed ashore. Lakshadweep has the largest literacy rate of 92.28%.

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