Vikram Betaal: King Shoorsen

King Vikram was given the duty of bringing Betal to a tantric. Betal traditionally means ‘evil spirit’. Each time Vikram tried to capture Betal, it told him a story that ended with a riddle. If Vikram could not answer the question correctly, Betal agreed to remain in captivity. But, if the king knew the answer and still kept quiet, his head would burst into a thousand pieces. And if King Vikram spoke, Betal would escape and return to his tree.

As King Vikramaditya carried Betal on his shoulders, Betal asked him, “What in a man, makes him higher than others? Listen to my story and then tell me.” And with that, he began another tale.

Once upon a time, the just and good King Shoorsen ruled the Kingdom of Magadha. One afternoon, lost in a hunt, he went deeper and deeper into the forest, till he didn’t know where he was. Hearing a rustling sound nearby, he stumbled upon a young man.

“I am Gunadhip, an orphan who has been travelling from town to town searching for work,” said the young man. “From your dress and jewels, I can tell you are royalty, how did you end up in this forest?”

After hearing the king’s story, Gunadhip guided the king out of the forest safely. Impressed by Gunadhip’s nature, he offered him the job of minister in his court.

Gunadhip was deeply in love with a young maiden and wanted the king to meet her. The maiden was the most beautiful girl the king had ever seen. Upon being introduced, the girl bowed low and uttered , “It is my pleasure to meet you, King Shoorsen. I would like to marry you. I am sorry Gunadhip, but it has always been my dream to live in a palace and I can do so if I marry the king.”

Gunadhip took a deep breath and regained his composure. He turned to the king and said, “You are my king and master. If you would like to marry her, I will not stop you.”

The king was surprised but turned to the maiden and said, “Do you not know who Gunadhip is? He is my minister and has his own palace with hundreds of maids and servants. You will live a life of luxury.”

Hearing this, the maiden agreed to marry Gunadhip.

Betal asked King Vikramaditya, “Which man was higher and nobler for his actions? King Shoorsen or Gunadhip?”

“Betal, King Shoorsen’s duties are to protect the welfare of his people, including Gunadhip. By convincing the maiden to marry Gunadhip, he put the happiness of his subjects before his own, making him more noble than Gunadhip.”

Betal laughed, “Right you are, but since you have spoken, mighty king, I will fly off and return to my peepul tree!”

10 Facts about Alligators

To know or not to know, that is the question! Well, wouldn’t you prefer to know?

Hamlet, an ever curious hamster, is on a quest to learn new and interesting facts about the world around us. With a new subject each time, Hamlet explores intriguing facts that you may not have heard before. He’s bored of the same old facts about the same old things. You may feel like you already know everything there is to know about everything, but there’s a whole world out there for you to explore and unknown facts you may not already know! Why not shake things up with Hamlet’s curiosity and great sense of humour? Take this fun fact loaded adventure with him!

10 Amazing alligators facts for kids!

1. Alligators can be described as ‘living fossils’ as they have been living on the Earth for millions of years.
2. Damaged bones suggest that dinosaurs were a regular part of the ancient alligator’s diet.
3. The pressure exerted when an alligator bites down equals the weight of a small pick up truck.
4. An adult human can hold the jaws of an alligator shut with their bare hands as the muscles used to open the jaw are much weaker.
5. An alligator can go through over 2,000 teeth in its lifetime.
6. Other than meat, alligators also eat fruit when they get the chance.
7. American alligators can climb very well and sometimes climb trees to get a better spot to bask in the sun.
8. These animals keep to themselves and usually don’t attack humans unless they are threatened.
9. The alligator’s rough skin makes it look like a floating log, which is helpful when stalking prey.
10. Alligators have no vocal cords, but can bellow loudly by sucking air into their lungs and blowing it with a roar like sound.

Why do feet smell?

What is the cause of smelly feet?

The scientific name for stinky feet is bromodosis. Foot odour is caused by the build up of bacteria which multiply in sweaty areas. They inhabit sweaty, dark places, such as your feet that, have been in your socks all day long. Some socks do not effectively absorb your sweat and as a result your feet remain damp.These bacteria feast on the dead skin and sweat on your feet and produce a smelly organic acid or by-product. It is this acid, which causes stinky feet.

Why do only your feet smell?

The feet have more sweat glands as compared to the rest of the body, producing sweat to keep the feet moist and supple. Hence, more bacteria are attracted to your sweaty feet and as a result, create an unpleasant smell. Also, your feet spend their day trapped in your socks and shoes, creating the perfect environment for the bacteria to breed.

Is there a treatment for smelly feet?

There are several things you can do to reduce the build-up of sweat bacteria such as wear fresh cotton socks everyday to absorb sweat, wash your feet regularly and make sure your shoes aren’t too tight.

Discovery of Radium

What is radium?

Radium is a radioactive element with the chemical symbol ‘Ra’. It emits radioactive light rays which cause it to glow in the dark. In regular conditions, radium is a silvery metal. When exposed to air, it reacts to nitrogen and quickly forms a black coating.

Who discovered radium?

Marie Curie and Pierre Curie discovered radium in the form of radium chloride. Later, it was isolated in its metallic state through the electrolysis of radium chloride, by Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne.

When was radium discovered?

It was discovered in 1898 and isolated in its metallic state in 1911.

How did Curie discover radium?

Marie and Pierre Curie discovered radium while working with samples of uraninite (pitchblende). After extracting uranium from uraninite, they discovered it was still radioactive. This suggested that it contained another element other than uranium which was also radioactive. Further studies led to the discovery of radium. The Curies announced their discovery to the French Academy of Sciences on the 26th of December, 1898.

In September of 1911, Marie Curie and André-Louis Debierne announced that they were successful in extracting a sample of radium in its metallic state.

What are the uses of radium?

Radium was initially used to make paints which would glow. These paints were used on clocks, watches and instruments that people could see in the dark. However today, the element has no major industrial uses as radium is highly radioactive and dangerous.

How do people in Igloos stay warm?

Where are igloos found?

Igloos are often associated with the Eskimo or Inuit community. They are built as temporary houses or camping stations for hunters living in areas of extreme cold, such as the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, the United States and Russia.

Are igloos warm inside?

Despite being made from snow, igloos are able to keep its inhabitants warm due to many properties. Instead of ice, blocks of wind-blown snow are used to build igloos. These blocks have interlocked pieces of ice, which help trap heat and insulate the igloo. The inside of the igloo also has many levels or tiers. A small fire is built on the lowest tier and the inhabitants sleep on the upper tiers. They are able to stay warm as warm as rises to the higher tiers, while cold air sinks down to the bottom. The body heat radiated from the inhabitants also plays a part in keeping the igloo warm on the inside. Bodily heat is insulated and trapped within the igloo and helps keep its inhabitants warm.

The entrance of the igloo is also connected with a tunnel built at a right angle. Hence, cold air blowing outside cannot blow directly into the igloo and make its inhabitants feel cold.

Melting helps the igloos!

Igloos are not immune to the sun outside or to heat being insulated inside. However, when the igloo melts slightly, it creates a thin layer of ice, which makes the igloo sturdier and helps make it a better insulator.

Human Heart Facts and Information

To know or not to know, that is the question! Well, wouldn’t you prefer to know?

Hamlet, an ever curious hamster, is on a quest to learn new and interesting facts about the world around us. With a new subject each time, Hamlet explores intriguing facts that you may not have heard before. He’s bored of the same old facts about the same old things. You may feel like you already know everything there is to know about everything, but there’s a whole world out there for you to explore and unknown facts you may not already know! Why not shake things up with Hamlet’s curiosity and great sense of humour? Take this fun fact loaded adventure with him!

12 Fascinating Facts about the Human Heart

1. The thump thump of a heart beat is the sound made by the valves of the heart opening and closing.
2. The adult heart is the size of a large fist.
3. The human heart beats 35 million times a year. That’s 2.5 billion times through your life!
4. All of the blood in your body travels through your heart once every minute.
5. A woman’s heart beats faster than a man’s, with a woman’s at 78 beats per minute and a man’s at 70 beats per minute.
6. Every cell in the body gets blood from the heart except your corneas.
7. Blood is actually a tissue.
8. If all the blood vessels in your body were laid out end to end, they would extend to a 100,000 kms! That’s almost 2 ½ times around the Earth!
9. A kitchen faucet would need to be turned on all the way for 45 years to equal the amount of blood pumped by the heart in an average life time.
10. The youngest person to receive heart surgery was one minute old.
11. Laughing is good for your heart. It lowers blood pressure and reduces stress hormone levels, improving overall cardiovascular health.
12. The heart has its own electrical supply and will continue to beat when separated from the body as long as it has a supply of oxygen.

Discovery of black holes

What is a black hole?

A black hole is an area in space which has a very strong field of gravity and as a result, light is unable to escape from it. Due to this, black holes are invisible. In order to observe them, telescopes are equipped with special instruments which observe the behaviour of material and stars surrounding black holes in order to detect their presence. Black holes are formed when a large star dies and collapses into itself. It is this compression of matter into a tiny space, which causes the strong field of gravity.

Who discovered black holes?

In 1915, Albert Einstein published his Theory of General Relativity – upon which a majority of modern physics is based. Soon after its publication, German physicist Karl Schwarzschild found solutions to Einstein’s equations and predicted the existence of black holes.

In 1970, it was the theoretical work of Stephen Hawking which defined black holes as we now understand them. His studies revealed characteristics of black holes – their ability to have a temperature and give off heat, which played a part in helping future scientists understand them better.

What are the different types of black holes?

As per different theories, there may be three types of black holes (based on their masses)-

1. Miniature Black Holes – Their mass is much smaller than that of the sun. None have been discovered so far.

2. Stellar Black Holes – They are formed when a massive star collapses.

3. Supermassive Black Holes – They are most likely formed as a byproduct when a galaxy is formed and as result are at the centers of galaxies. They are surrounded by stars and gas clouds and continue to feed on matter and grow.

Why are some people left handed?

There are many misconceptions about people who are left-handed. It is still rare, as 10-12% of the population are lefties. Till the mid-20th century, it was common belief that left-handedness was a defect. It is in fact, left-handed people who face difficulties as the world is not designed to cater to them. A tool as common as a pair of scissors is designed to be used by right-handed people, as are certain sporting goods and most guitars!

Is left handedness determined by genetics?

Till recently it was believed that the inheritance of left-handedness was based on your parents and their genes. Research had previously focussed on the fact that your brain is the determiner for left or right handedness. However, new research suggests that the brain is not the deciding factor in the establishment of handedness.

The science of being left handed

When a child is in its mother’s womb, by 8 weeks, they have chosen a dominant hand. By the 13th week, they are either sucking their right or their left thumbs. However, it is interesting to note that it is only by the 15th week, that the motor cortex in the brain begins sending messages to the spinal cord. If the brain and the spinal cord aren’t connected in the 8th to 13th week, how did the child choose which thumb to suck? It has been suggested that gene expressions in the spinal cord lead it to make the choice, rather than the brain.

Hurricane Facts and Information

To know or not to know, that is the question! Well, wouldn’t you prefer to know?

Hamlet, an ever curious hamster, is on a quest to learn new and interesting facts about the world around us. With a new subject each time, Hamlet explores intriguing facts that you may not have heard before. He’s bored of the same old facts about the same old things. You may feel like you already know everything there is to know about everything, but there’s a whole world out there for you to explore and unknown facts you may not already know! Why not shake things up with Hamlet’s curiosity and great sense of humour? Take this fun fact loaded adventure with him!

12 Interesting Facts about Hurricanes!

1. Hurricanes, typhoons and tropical cyclones are all names for the same phenomenon. They’re just called by different names in different ocean basins.
2. Hurricanes are named based on a list created by the World Meteorological Organization, used on a six year rotation.
3. If a storm is particularly destructive or deadly, the WMO will “retire” that name from official lists so it’s never used again out of respect for the families of the storm’s victims and survivors.
4. The first hurricane that caused people to fly in it, occurred in 1943 during World War II.
5. Hurricane Hunters fly planes into hurricanes to gather weather data.
6. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale defines hurricane strength by categories. A Category 1 storm is the weakest hurricane with winds having speed between 74 and 95 miles per hour; while a Category 5 hurricane is the strongest with winds greater than 155 miles per hour.
7. Hurricanes that move slowly are likely to produce more rains causing more damage by flooding, than fast moving hurricanes.
8. The eye of the hurricane is a section at the center of the hurricane which has the calmest weather with clear skies and low winds.
9. The eye is surrounded by an eyewall which is the deadliest part of the hurricane. It is a towering ring of thunderstroms, high wind speed and severe weather.
10. Planet Jupiter has a hurricane which appears as a red dot on it and it has been spinning for 300 years. This hurricane is bigger than Earth itself.
11. Hurricanes need the Coriolis Force to form – which is very weak at the Equator. This is why hurricanes can not form near Equator.
12. The deadliest hurricane on record is the 1970 Bhola Cyclone in Bangladesh, which killed between 150,000 to 300,000 people.

Did ants invent the world’s first social network?

What exactly is a social network?

Facebook, Twitter, Instagram… all these are nothing but different social networking websites. But what exactly is a social network? Just like you interact with your friends and family on a day to day basis, a social network is a platform which allows you to send and accept information. It is a web of different interactions – both social as well as personal.

Social network is not limited to humans!

Recent research has shown that the concept of a social network is not limited to us humans. Ants, through their colonies, have exhibited social behaviour, a belief which was earlier limited to humans. An ant colony is a series of complex tunnels and chambers, shared together by the colony. They use a system of chemical signals to communicate with each other. These pheromones are transferred between ants using their antennae. By doing this, they are sharing important information to help one another – to sense food, protect themselves from predators or share where they have previously been.

Communication in ants

Through the passing on of pheromones, ants are able to optimize the manner in which the colony functions. Ants in search of food for the colony have information which guides them in the right direction.

This shows us how ants created a social network long before we had Facebook!

Discovery of America

There are several beliefs in regard to who discovered America first. Most people are aware of the journeys of Christopher Columbus and how he was the first sailor to make the round trip voyage around the Atlantic. However, despite his nautical achievements, was he the first?

Who discovered America?

The most commonly known and believed story is that of Christopher Columbus – an Italian navigator and explorer who landed on the shores of ‘The New World’ in 1492. His discovery is significant as it opened up America to colonization at the hands of European powers.

History of America

However, the history of America is not as simple as that. Research has shown that Columbus was one of the last explorers to “discover” America. Almost 500 years before him, a group of Vikings, led by Leif Eriksson, landed on the shores of what is now known as Newfoundland, Canada. They did not stay for long as their relationship with Native North Americans grew hostile.

Who was the first to discover America?

A fact we often forget when investigating the mystery of who discovered America first is, that when all these different explorers came to America, there were already people there! The first settlers to come to America were in fact, immigrants. Studies suggest that Native Americans, as we know them, have genetic markers connecting them to Asian roots. During the last Ice Age, research shows that there existed a land bridge where there is now the Berring Strait – connecting Asia to North America.

There have also been claims in the past that explorers from Asia and Ireland landed on the shores of America before Columbus and Vespucci. However, these claims are still under exploration.

Moon Facts and Information

To know or not to know, that is the question! Well, wouldn’t you prefer to know?

Hamlet, an ever curious hamster, is on a quest to learn new and interesting facts about the world around us. With a new subject each time, Hamlet explores intriguing facts that you may not have heard before. He’s bored of the same old facts about the same old things. You may feel like you already know everything there is to know about everything, but there’s a whole world out there for you to explore and unknown facts you may not already know! Why not shake things up with Hamlet’s curiosity and great sense of humour? Take this fun fact loaded adventure with him!

13 Interesting Facts about the Moon (Luna)

1. The moon was formed when an astronomical body about the size of Mars crashed into Earth 4.5 million years ago. This is known as the Theia Impact.
2. The sun is 400 X larger than the moon but is also 400 X farther from Earth. As a result, the sun and moon look the same size.
3. The moon is 81 X lighter than Earth.
4. The moon is slowly drifting away from Earth, approximately 4 cms a year.
5. The Earth rotates on its axis at the same speed as the moon rotates around the Earth, so we always see the same side of the moon.
6. The Moon and the Earth orbit each other.
7. The moon is not round, rather, it is shaped like an egg.
8. The moon experiences ‘moonquakes’ much like Earth experiences earthquakes. However, moonquakes can last up to an hour, unlike earthquakes.
9. The lunar maria (singular – mare) are large and dark basaltic plains on the moon made by ancient volcanic eruptions. They are known as moon seas as ancient astronomers first believed them to be filled with water.
10. An astronaut’s footprint could last for a million years, as there is no wind or water on the surface of the moon.
11. When pieces of moon rock were brought back from the Apollo 11 mission, scientists were surprised to find out they had magnetic qualities.
12. The original tapes of the Apollo moon landing were erased and re-used by accident.
13. The Moon takes 27.3 days to rotate on its axis and the same amount of time to complete one revolution around Earth. To us Earthlings, it may look like it isn’t rotating at all! Scientists call this synchronous rotation.

How Do Birds Find Their Way Home?

Did you know that almost 40% of the species of birds in the world practice migration on a regular basis? As amazing as this statistic is, what is even more interesting is the different tools that birds use to navigate during these migrations!

A migratory bird does not have a map it can use to find its way nor can it stop and ask for directions. Then how is it that at least 4,000 birds on Earth successfully migrate each year?

How do birds navigate?

There are several tools a bird can use to navigate itself to ensure it gets home safely. Birds are able to use the sun in order to have a sense of the time of the day and even nocturnal birds use the setting sun to guide themselves. Since nocturnal birds do not have the option of the sun as a reference through the night, they instead use the stars to guide themselves.

How do birds use the magnetic field of the earth?

Certain birds also have a trace amount of the mineral ‘magnetite’ in their beaks. Magnetite works like a bird’s compass, aligning itself with Earth’s magnetic field to help them gauge the direction of Earth’s magnetic poles.

Why don’t migrating birds get lost?

Birds also use familiar landmarks to help navigate themselves – such as mountain peaks, valleys, rivers and roads. Scientists have continued their research into the field of migration and migratory patterns in birds to try and also look at the role of a bird’s sense of smell in their navigation systems.

Mulla Nasruddin and the People’s Judgement

One day, Mullah Nasruddin and his son were travelling to the next town. Nasruddin preferred to walk while his son rode the donkey. On the way, they passed a group of bystanders, and a man remarked, “Look, that selfish boy is riding on a donkey while his poor old father is forced to walk alongside. That is so disrespectful. What a horrible and spoiled child!”

Nasruddin’s son felt embarrassed, so he got off the donkey and asked Nasruddin to get on it instead.  His son started walking beside him and the donkey. Soon they passed another group of people. “Oh, that’s detestable!” one of them exclaimed. “That poor young boy has to walk while his abusive father rides the donkey! That horrible man should be ashamed of himself for the way he’s treating his son. What a heartless parent!”

Nasruddin was upset to hear this. He wanted to avoid anybody else’s scorn, so he decided to have both himself and his son ride the donkey at the same time. As they both rode, they passed another group of people. “That man and his son are so cruel,” one bystander said. “Just look at how they are forcing that poor donkey to bear the weight if two people. They should be put in jail for their despicable act. What scoundrels!”

Nasruddin heard this and told his son, “I guess the only way we can avoid being ridiculed by anyone, is for both of us to walk.”

“I suppose you are right,” the son replied.

So they got off the donkey and continued on foot. But as they passed another group of people, they heard them laughing. “Ha, ha, ha,” the group laughed rudely. “Look at those two fools. They are so stupid that both of them are walking under this scorching hot sun and neither of them is riding the donkey! What morons!”

Moral – Well, If you keep doing what other people want, neither would you be happy nor will they stop judging you.

More fun and interesting Mullah Nasruddin stories, here.

How does a bicycle stay upright?

Scientists have been fascinated by the science of how a bicycle stays upright for almost as long as bicycles have existed! There are several contributing factors which aid our ability to remain upright while riding a bicycle.

How does a bicycle work?

Bicycles function through the conversion of muscular energy (energy created by the cyclist peddling) into kinetic energy (energy created by movement). The bicycle itself has several components which are simple machines – a combination of levers, pulleys and wheels and axles, which help convert the action of pedalling into movement. This may answer any confusion as to how bicycles work, however, does not address how exactly it stays upright.

Gyroscopic Effect

Till a few decades ago, scientists believed that bicycles remained upright owing to the ‘Gyroscopic Effect’ – which means that a spinning wheel will stay aligned to its original direction during motion. The momentum, in this case, is an Angular Momentum, created when a cyclist pedals and propels the bicycle forward. Though the Gyroscopic Effect explains how a bicycle remains stable, experiments conducted revealed that even if the Gyroscopic Effect were to be cancelled, the bicycle would still remain upright!

Caster Effect

The Caster Effect is another effect in play which helps guide the front tire of the bicycle in order for it to stay upright. The centrifugal force of the back wheel also plays a part in ensuring the bicycle does not fall over.

Why does a bicycle stay upright?

A bicycle stays upright due to a combination of different effects – Gyroscopic as well as the Caster Effect. Alongside this, the rider must be taken into consideration. Our mind also plays a role in making sure we do not fall over while riding a bicycle. The body unconsciously balances itself whenever it is needed. If we feel a tilt to the left, we automatically balance ourselves, by leaning into the right.

Avoid Biting your Nails!

Why do we bite our nails?

The habit of nail biting or ‘onychophagia’ could develop because of many reasons. You may notice that this habit is one seen in both children and adults. There are many causes for this habit to grow. People sometimes bite their nails when they are feeling nervous, worried, lonely or bored. They do not realize when they are chewing their nails as it becomes such a natural action. You may notice that you bite your nails more before or during exams or when you are feeling upset.

Why is biting your nails a bad habit?

Biting your nails is an unhygienic habit for many reasons. Your finger nails contain many germs which enter your stomach when you chew or bite on your nails. Biting your nails or pulling on the skin around them could also damage your finger tips or cause your nails to regrow unevenly. This habit could also lead to an infection on your finger tips and cause damage to your teeth and jaws.

What can we do to stop biting our nails?

The first habit you must develop is to keep your nails cut short and keep your hands clean. There are many things you can do every time you feel the need to bite your nails. You can play with a stress ball or stroke a smooth pebble to help deal with feelings of anxiety or stress. You can also stop yourself from biting your nails by painting your nails with bitter tasting nail polish or by wearing a pair of gloves on your hands.

Discovery of Laser

What is a laser?

The full form of ‘laser’ is actually ‘Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation’. Did you know that we use lasers every single day? We use laser printers in offices, lasers to scan the barcodes on products when we buy them and doctors use lasers in life-saving surgeries! But have you ever stopped to wonder exactly what a laser is and how it works? The light that we see around us is a mixture of beams at different wavelengths. Together they can be seen as ‘White Light‘, which is colourless. Lasers, unlike natural light, do not occur in nature and are a creation of man. Scientists figured out how to artificially create this special kind of light.

How can laser light cut through solid objects?

A laser cannot be simply defined as a very strong torch. Lasers produce a narrow, intense beam of light, which is strengthened using a curved mirror. Unlike the light we see around us, the light from a laser consists of rays which are all at the same wavelength. Owing to this property, the waves of light in a laser travel in phase (with their peaks lined up). It is able to cut through things because of this intensity and the fact that it can be focussed into a very tiny spot. It is different from a simple beam of light in many ways. A laser is ‘monochromatic’- only of one colour. This is because all the light in a laser beam is of the same wavelength. The rays of light in a laser are also ‘collimated’ – they can travel in beams parallel to each other, which allows them to travel in a straight beam for long distances. Lastly, the light is ‘coherent’, meaning that it moves in phase together.

Do fish sleep?

Imagine a fish swims all day long. It must get really tired and probably just wants to have a shut eye. But how? Most fish have no eyelids.

Eyelids help terrestrial animals keep their eyes moist. But since fish are always underwater, they do not need eyelids to help keep their eyes moist.

So it’s really difficult for us to make out, if they are sleeping or not!

So if fish don’t have eyelids, does this mean they do not sleep?

Almost all fish sleep. Though some zebrafish are insomniacs. Which means they have trouble sleeping!

Do fish lay down to sleep like other animals?

Since fish live in an environment unlike ours, laying down and sleeping like humans can be dangerous. They rest their brains in parts at different times and are never completely unconscious.

How do fish sleep?

Some fish like the shark keep swimming in their sleep. Tuna fish rest motionless at night, suspended in the water. Bass and perch will sleep under or on top of logs. Reef fish seek refuge in crevices. Parrotfish build a cocoon of mucus in which to sleep.

Why is sleep and resting our body so important?

If we do not sleep properly, we will always be tired, cranky and unhappy. This is because when we sleep, the body also gets a chance to clean itself of waste and other by-products of cell functions within our bodies.

So, fish also need to sleep, so that they can repair their cells and also conserve their energy.

Being responsible with money!

Where does money come from?

Who doesn’t love to get a toy that they were eagerly awaiting or a nice pair of shoes? But have you ever wondered where does money come from? From our parents? How do they get it? From the ATM? From the bank? Well, they work very hard for it and bank just keeps them safe.

How can you be responsible with money?

You can get all you want if you plan the way you want to spend the money that your parents give you.

Make a wish list –

1) Make a wish list which will have all the items that you want for yourself.

2) Rank them in order of what is the most important item for you.

3) Spend money on the items that are ranked higher on the list.

How to save money?

Don’t spend all the money you have as soon as you get it. Create a budget, spend it only on the items that are top ranked on your wish list. Set aside the remaining money (in your piggy bank!).

Once you save enough money, spend it on the rest of the items you have mentioned in your wish list. This way you will get all that you want. Money can be used not just to buy things you like but also to help people. You can always donate a portion of your allowance to a charity that is important for you (like helping hurricane survivors!)

Discovery of Ozone

What is ozone?

Ozone is a highly reactive gas made of three atoms of Oxygen. It is produced naturally when the sun’s rays split oxygen molecules. The free atoms combine with nearby oxygen molecules to form a three oxygen molecule, known as Ozone. This occurs in the Stratosphere and Troposphere layers of the atmosphere.

When was ozone first discovered?

Ozone was first created in a lab by the Dutch chemist Martinus van Marum, in 1785.

Health and environmental effects of ozone

The Ozone in the Stratosphere protects us from the harmful ultra – violet rays of the sun. The Ozone in the Troposphere layer of the atmosphere contributes to air pollution, damaging life forms including causing several breathing problems to human and animals.

Mullah Nasruddin: What clever people do?

One fine morning, Mullah Nasruddin was wandering around a lake. The cool breeze was creating ripples on the surface of the water. Green grass and algae grew on the fringes of the lake. The air was filled with birds chirping.

Mullah Nasruddin sat down beside the lake, enjoying nature around him. He collected small pebbles around him and started tossing them in the water, causing more ripples in the water. The fish in the water darted around, trying to avoid the pebbles. Mullah was lost in thought, when he heard ducks quacking. He looked up to see a flock of ducks swimming close by in the lake.
Mullah thought to himself, “It would be nice to catch a duck or two for dinner.”

He got up and started wading in the water to get closer to the ducks. Mullah was very excited, as he thought about the duck soup he was going to enjoy. The ducks saw Mullah approaching and moved away. But, Mullah kept moving towards them, determined to have his duck and eat it too!

Mullah lunged towards them and the ducks flew away. A surprised Mullah slipped and went under the surface of the water. As he tried to gulp in some air to breathe, he gulped in water, instead. He finally emerged out of the lake, coughing and sat down on the shore.

he was determined to try to catch a duck or two, again. Even though I have failed the first time, I will try again. I shouldn’t lose hope. But the ducks were more cautious this time and had a different plan.

All the ducks were gathered at the centre of the lake and were not moving an inch. As Mullah Nasruddin had no option, he got into the lake and moved to the centre of the lake. But then, the ducks moved to the opposite corner. After several failed attempts, he got tired, and lay down on the lake side, to dry himself off and catch his breath.

After some time, he got up He sat down, by the lakeside again and opened his bag and took out a roll of bread. He dipped the bread in the water and began to eat it.

Some people from the village close by were walking past the lake when they saw Mullah dipping his bread in the lake and eating it.

A man asked, “Mullah, what are you doing?”

Mullah replied, “I am having Duck Soup.”

The man looked at Mullah asked bemused, “Duck Soup?”

The people in the crowd looked at each other. Mullah looked at their confusion and laughed and answered, “That is what clever people do. One who accepts what he or she has, is always happy.”

What came first, the fruit or the colour Orange?

What do you think of when you hear the word ‘orange’?

Do you think of the colour, or the fruit?

Do you imagine the vivid, sweet citrusy fragrance and tangy taste of the fruit, or do you see the colour and its myriad shades?
Don’t you think its fun to eat a colour? No, you aren’t really eating the colour!

Origin of the word orange

The word orange did not exist in the English dictionary till 1300s. So what did people refer to when they wanted to refer to the colour orange? They called it geoluhread or yellow – red. Till some one decided to call the colour orange, ORANGE colour!

Wow! Wonder how he did that? Do you think he saw the exotic fruit and thought, hmm, it reminds him of the colour yellow – red.
But first, let’s see where the fruit’s name originally came from.

What was the colour orange called before oranges?

The fruit’s homeland is in India. The Indians referred to it as narange or naranga, which may have its root in the word for smell in Dravidian languages. The fruit travelled to Europe with Indian, European and Arab traders. The Arabs refer to it as burtakal, which originates from the word for Portugal and the Persians refer to it as naranje.

The word naranje probably worked its way to into the English dictionary from the French, who called it pomme d’orange. The english simplified the word to simply call it orange, in the 1500s.
In 1600s, someone decided to adopt the name of the fruit to the colour, they have previously referred to as yellow – red.

Did the colour orange come before the fruit?

So, now you know, what came first. The fruit ofcourse, and the colour is named after the fruit.

The fruit came first.

Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman and the Jinx


Poet, clown and jester… Tenali Raman was a minister in the court of Krishnadevaraya, the ruler of Vijayanar. He was an extremely versatile personality. The entire kingdom always buzzed with the news of his stories and practical jokes.

He was very famous and stories of ......


Poet, clown and jester… Tenali Raman was a minister in the court of Krishnadevaraya, the ruler of Vijayanar. He was an extremely versatile personality. The entire kingdom always buzzed with the news of his stories and practical jokes.

He was very famous and stories of his wisdom spread beyond Vijaynagar, in cities which are a part of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu now. A great scholar by profession, Tenali Raman also knew several languages.

There once lived a man called Ramaya in the town of Vijayanagar. It was believed that whoever saw the face of Ramaya the first thing in the morning, would not be able to eat anything throughout the day. So, all the people of Vijaynagar avoided Ramaya all the time.

The news also reached the king’s ears. He wanted to find out the truth for himself and called for Ramaya at once. He made Ramaya stay at a room adjacent to his bed chamber for one night.
The next day, when the king woke up, he went and saw Ramaya’s face the first thing the morning.

Later in the afternoon, the king sat to have his lunch. He was served with freshly cooked hot food. As he was about to take his first bite, he noticed that there was a fly in his food. He threw away the platter and ordered for fresh food. But by the time the food was cooked for the second time, he was not hungry any more.

Thus, the king realized that whatever the people said were true, Ramaya was indeed jinxed. So he ordered his soldiers to hang him immediately.

The soldiers did not want to hang him, but they could not go against the king’s words. They were taking Ramaya towards the gallows, when they met Tenali Raman on the way. Tenali whispered something in Ramaya’s ear and then Ramaya was whisked away by the soldiers.

Later, when the soldiers asked Ramaya about his last wish, he said that he wanted to send across a message to the king. He requested them not to hang him until he received the response of the king.
He said to the soldiers, “Go and tell the king that if it is true that anyone who sees my face in the morning loses his appetite for the day, then anyone who sees the king’s face in the morning is destined to lose his life that day. Tell him that if I am jinxed then so is he, and in fact more than me.”

The king was speechless when he heard Ramaya’s message. He ordered the execution to be stopped immediately. He was ashamed of his ignorance. At once he called Ramaya and offered him a lot of gifts and also requested him to not disclose this incident to anyone in the town.

After all, the people of Vijaynagar would not like to be ruled by a man who was jinxed.

  • For more interesting Tenali Raman stories for kids, click here.
  • For other interesting stories for kids, browse through our huge collection of short stories here.

Mullah Nasruddin and The Guest of Honour

It was a busy day in the village. Mullah Nasruddin was out for his evening stroll, with his donkey, when he chanced upon a huge gathering of people outside the town hall.

He turned to a person in the crowd and asked him. “What is happening here?”

The person replied, “I don’t know, but some very important people from all over the country and some neighbouring countries have also come.”

“Oh!”, exclaimed Mullah, “Let me find out.”

Mullah Nasruddin walked to the entrance and tried to enter unnoticed.

The guard standing at the town hall’s big doorway stopped and asked him, “Sir, please let me know your name. I cannot allow common people to enter. Some very important people have come here today.”

Mullah looked at the guard and said, “Sir, I am here to deliver an important message for some very important people.”

The guard looked at Mullah Nasruddin suspiciously.

“Sir, please let me in. It is an important message and I cannot tell you whom it is for.”

“No sir, I cannot allow you inside, without knowing whom you want to meet”, replied the guard.

“Sir, please let me in. I will only go inside for a few moments and come out. Here, you can hold my donkey, while I go in.” answered Mullah.

Reluctantly, the guard allowed him inside.

Mullah Nasruddin entered a formal reception area and seated himself at the foremost elegant chair.
The Chief of the Guard approached and said: “Sir, those places are reserved for guests of honour.”

“Oh, I am more than a mere guest,”replied Nasruddin confidently.

“Oh, so are you a diplomat?”, asked the Guard doubtfully.

Answered Mullah, “Far more than that!”

“Really? So you are a minister, perhaps?” the Guard asked again.

“No, bigger than that too”, replied Mullah.

“Oho! So you must be the King himself, sir?” asked the Chief sarcastically.

“Higher than that!” asnswered Mullah, cheekily.

“What?! Are you higher than the King?! Nobody is higher than the King in this village!”

“Now you have it. I am nobody!” said Nasruddin.

Moral of the story – “One cannot be successful or happy in life without a humble but reasonable confidence in oneself.”

For more interesting Mullah Nasruddin Stories, go to Mullah Nasruddin Stories.

Tenali Raman : Tenali Raman and The Arab Horse Trader

Once, an Arab horse trader came to Krishan Deva Raya’s court.

He said, “Your Majesty, see this Arab steed! It is my finest. If you like, I can get more.”

Krishna Deva Raya replied thoughtfully, “This is the only breed missing from my stable.”

The king saw the beautiful horses standing outside his palace.

Krishna Deva Raya said impulsively, “I will buy them all!”

The trader replied, “I need an advance of 5000 gold coins. I’ll bring them in two days.”

Two weeks passed.

Krishna Deva Raya thought to himself while walking in his garden, “Where is the trader?” He saw Tenali Raman sitting there, writing on a piece of paper.

Krishna Deva Raya asked, “What are you writing, Tenali Raman?”

Tenali Raman replied, “I’m listing the biggest fools in the land.”

Curious, Krishna Deva Raya said, “Let me have a look.” Tenali Raman handed him the paper.

Krishna Deva Raya was taken aback and angry. “How can my name be at the top of this list? I’m the king!”

Tenali Raman retorted, “Whoever gives a stranger 5000 gold coins and thinks that he will return is a fool, Your Majesty.”

Krishna Deva Raya asked, “What if he returns?”

Tenali Raman replied in an instant, “Then I will put his name at the top of the list instead of yours!”

Krishna Deva Raya said, “I understand what you’re saying, Tenali. I will always consult you now on important matters.”

Return things you have borrowed from others

Why is it important to return things that you have borrowed?

A lot of us have favourite things, objects or books or clothes or toys we have collected or found or saved for special occassions. Some times it’s a present from some one we love a lot, or sometimes a favourite relative thought of you and brought it from some place they travelled to. Which means they thought you were special.

What happens when someone borrows it and doesn’t give it back, or damages it or breaks it?

You get upset. The same way, your friend may also get upset, if you don’t return their things. Your friend must like you a lot, if they have shared something with you. You must always remember to return it. It shows we like the friend or relative and we value them in our lives.

It is called good manners or good social etiquettes.

Mullah Nasruddin and the Trial

Mullah Nasruddin’s wife was worried that her husband didn’t earn a living. This caused her a lot of stress. She thought her husband, like other husbands should work and earn a living for the family.

As she usually did, she started questioning the husband again, which soon became an argument.

Wife angrily said, “Why can’t you be like normal husbands and do some work and earn a living?”

“Dear Wife, I am worker of the Almighty God. How can I do another job?” replied Mullah.

“Dearest Husband, maybe you can then ask your God to give you something in return for your service,” retorted his wife.

Answered Mullah calmly, “Dearest Wife! You are right. I hadn’t thought of asking God for any returns for my service. Maybe that’s why he doesn’t give me anything.”

“Ohh, then please go and ask your almighty God for some return for your service”, the wife grumbled.

Mullah Nasruddin went to the garden near his house. He sat down on the ground and opened his arms, looking towards the sky.

He said loudly, “Oh God, since I am your humble and devoted servant, will you give me a 100 gold coins for my devotion towards you?”

Mullah’s neighbour, Ahmed was in the balcony and he heard this. He decided to play a prank on Mullah. He threw a bag full of 100 gold coins towards Mullah.

A shocked and surprised Mullah opened the bag to find a 100 gold coins in the bag. He got up and went home with the bag. He called his wife and showed her the bag and said, “See! I am such a good devotee of the Almighty that he gave me a 100 gold coins.”

His wife happily took out a coin from the bag and went to the market.

Seeing Mullah’s wife shopping, their neighbour Ahmed’s wife, grew suspicious. She had a word with Ahmed about this. Ahmed stormed into Mullah Nasruddin’s house and angrily demanded his 100 gold coins back. Mullah remarked back, “How dare you ask for my gold coins? I know you overheard me when I asked the Almighty God for the gold coins.”

“I should sue you in court for justice” an angry Ahmed replied.

Mullah pleadingly, “My friend Ahmed! I am a poor man. I don’t have any good clothes or even means to travel. The judge will surely trust you more.” A resigned Ahmed, gave Mullah Nasruddin his jacket and horse too! They went to the court.

At the court, the judge listened to Ahmed’s complaint. He turned to Mullah and asked him, “Do you want to say anything?’

“My neighbour Ahmed is completely mad”, replied Mullah.

The judge asked Mullah if he had any proof.

“Yes”, replied Mullah.

“Well he assumes, everything I own is his. First it’s the gold coins, then it’s the jacket, then it’s the horse,” replied Mullah.

The judge asked “Is this true Ahmed?”

Ahmed was very upset and angry on hearing this. He replied angrily to the judge, “Yes!”

The judge looks at both of them and said, “There is no point to Ahmed’s complaint. You can both leave.”

Well now, do you think Ahmed’s prank on Mullah was worth it?

For more Mullah Nasruddin stories click here.

Discovery of Genetics

What is Genetics?

The study of genetics is a fascinating science and a useful one. It is the study of genes, genetic variation and hereditary characteristics in living organisms.

Who discovered Genetics?

Gregor Mendel is considered the father of genetics. Mendel studied ‘trait inheritance’, patterns in the way traits or characteristics are handed down from parents to offsprings. The units of inheritance are referred to as gene.

The genetic make up is what makes a person unique.

Subsequent research and study in genetics have helped us to understand chromosomes, mutations, DNA and understand evolution better.

Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman and the Horse


Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, king Krishna Deva Raya wanted to expand his army. So, he needed more horses. He decided to give one horse to each person in his kingdom, to take care of. He also gave everyone a good supply ......


Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, king Krishna Deva Raya wanted to expand his army. So, he needed more horses. He decided to give one horse to each person in his kingdom, to take care of. He also gave everyone a good supply of straw to feed the horses. Everyone except Tenali Rama was happy with this plan. He shut his horse in one room and everyday at exactly nine o’clock he gave the horse very little straw through the window. He gave the rest of the straw to his cows who became fat and healthy.

At the end of a year, the king wanted to see all the horses. All the people who had been given horses to grow up, brought their horses for inspection. But Tenali Rama did not bring his horse. On being questioned, he answered that his horse had become so strong that he could not bring it to the court. The king was surprised on hearing this. He said, “Alright, I will send my chief inspector to your house tomorrow morning at nine to inspect the horse there.” Tenali agreed.

The next morning, the chief inspector went to Tenali’s house. He had a long beard. Tenali took him to the room where the horse was kept and asked him to look through the window. When the inspector peeped through the window, naturally his beard went in through the window first. Seeing the beard, the horse thought that it must be straw that was being given to him at the fixed time. It caught hold of the beard in his teeth and pulled. The inspector shouted in pain and tried to pull his beard back. But the horse knew that this was the only food he would get all day and pulled with all his might till the inspector lost his beard.

The inspector went running to the king. He reported that indeed Tenali Rama’s horse was the strongest of them all.

  • For more interesting Tenali Raman stories for kids, click here
  • For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

Be Nice, Ask for Permission!

Everyone is a bit inquisitive. Sometimes we go to a friend or a relative’s house. We play, we jump, we take things, even open cupboards and play inside or we may even try out clothes or shoes! Sometimes we even open the fridge and may even drink water or juice.

But wait.

Did we ask our friend or relative, if we may touch or play with their things? To ask to use or touch something, or even enter a room is called Asking for Permission. Sometimes people don’t like it and may even get upset, if you touch their things. Your friend may even fight with you and not speak to you. Because they may feel they are being taken for granted.

Asking for permission is social etiquette

Do you remember, we learned about social etiquette and that we must say please and thank you? Well, asking for permission, before we touch or use something that doesn’t belong to us, is also social etiquette.

So, remember to ask for permission the next time!

Mullah Nasruddin at Tea Shop

Mullah Nasruddin was sitting at his favourite tea shop and having his daily tea.

A twelve years old boy, came running through the door, and went directly towards the Mullah and knocked his beautiful cap off his head. The mischievous boy ran away, leaving Mullah surprised. Mullah Nasruddin remained quiet about the boy’s prank. He picked up his cap, and put it back on.

The next day, the same thing happened again. Mullah didn’t react this time either. Although this happened several times, Mullah Nasruddin remained unaffected. The boy thought his prank was amusing and repeated it daily. Mullah would patiently dust his cap and put it back on, every time.

One day, Mullah’s friend questioned him about the daily incident. “Why don’t you punish that naughty boy? He is behaving so badly with you. How can you not get angry?”

“It is useless,” Mullah replied.

One day, Mullah reached the tea shop a bit late. When he reached there, he saw a tall, well built soldier sitting at his favourite place already. Wishing to avoid trouble, Mullah sat on another chair.

In a while, the mischievous boy appeared and ran straight to Mullah’s usual place. He knocked his cap off his head and started to run away. The poor unfortunate boy, in his hurry didn’t realise that it was the soldier and not Mullah Nasruddin, having tea. The soldier spilt his tea and got angry. He caught and lifted him.

Mullah Nasruddin turned to his friend and said, “Now, do you understand, why I was patient?”

It’s always better to Wait for the right time!

For more interesting Mullah Nasruddin Stories, go to Mullah Nasruddin Stories.

Discovery of Gold

What is gold?

Gold, a shiny metal is also known as a noble metal. It has been revered since time immemorial to be fit for kings and god and rightly so!

It is one of the most ductile and malleable metals and substances known to man. It is also resistant to tarnishing and maintains its original structure even under the most severe chemical stress.

Who discovered gold?

According to ancient Greek legends, there is proof that gold existed and was known to the Greeks of the Chalcolithic (5000 BC) period, also known as the early Bronze Age. They had even devised methods of refining and extracting gold from ores, including a smelting process called ‘Fire Sitting’. Later Greek geographer Strabo (64 BC – 24 AD) makes a mention of this in his works.

The early Romans from around the same time period, also had a fascination for gold and infact expanded their empire, to get more gold. They had improvised on physics to make a hydraulic gold mining machine.

The ancient Egyptians also have records of their gold mining sites in Nubia in the Turin Papyrus Map, one of the oldest topographical maps discovered.

When and where was gold discovered?

Gold objects have been found in several burial sites or old civilisation of the same time. The oldest known gold objects were discovered by chance, by a Bulgarian excavator operator, Raycho Marinov, in 1972. The ancient burial site, Varna Necropolis, dates back to 4560–4450 BC, according to carbon dating conducted in 2006.

Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman And The Great Pundit


Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, a great pundit from a foreign land visited King Krishna Deva Raya’s court. He claimed that he had knowledge of all subjects and was an expert in every field. He challenged that he would argue with all ......


Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

Once, a great pundit from a foreign land visited King Krishna Deva Raya’s court. He claimed that he had knowledge of all subjects and was an expert in every field. He challenged that he would argue with all of his wise ministers and defeat them. The king accepted his challenge. The pundit then proceeded to argue with the learned men of the kingdom on various subjects. The king’s ministers failed miserably. Then, the king summoned his wisest minister, Tenali Raman.

Tenali took a small bundle from his home, gave it the shape of a book and tied it up. Then, he went to the court and announced that he was ready to argue against the pundit but on the condition that the topic of their debate would be based on the great book ‘Thilakashta Mahisha Bandhanam.’ The great pundit was stumped when he heard this because he had never heard of any such book. He asked the king to give him one night’s time to prepare for the argument. He was sleepless all night. He could not bear the thought of losing so he took all his belongings and left the city before sunrise. He left a note for the king saying that he had never heard of the great book.

The next day, at the appointed time Tenali appeared in court for the debate. But he was informed that the pundit had already gone away. The king being a learned man wanted to read the great book that Tenali had mentioned, so he asked Tenali about it. Tenali laughed and replied that there was no such book called ‘Thilakashta Mahisha Bandhanam’. Inside the bundle, there was til which is called Thila in Sanskrit and some sheep dung which in Sanskrit is known as Kashta. These contents were tied by a rope made of buffalo’s hide which is called Mahisha. Bandhanam refers to ‘tying’ in Sanskrit.

This is how Tenali tricked the pundit into believing that there was a great book that the pundit was completely unaware of. The king appreciated Tenali’s intelligence and rewarded him.

  • For more interesting Tenali Raman stories for kids, click here.
  • For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

Who decided a year should have 12 months?

People across the world follow the Gregorian calendar.

The world converted to the Gregorian calendar in 1752. Otherwise different people around the world followed different calendars. Infact people who do agriculture and farming, still use a combination of solar and lunar calendars.

Who came up with the 12 month calendar?

The 12 months in the calendar, as we know them today, were first introduced by Julius Caesar, in the year 45 BC, on 1st January.

How many months were in the original calendar?

The calendar used previously consisted of 10 months. But it couldn’t account for the cyclic revolution of the earth around the sun, which takes exactly 365.2422 days.

The 10 month calendar

The previous Roman calendar, began the year in March and ended it in December. It had been in use from 753 BC, by Romulus, the legendary first king of Rome.

This calendar was later modified because it accounted for only 304 days in a year.

Who started the leap year?

The second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius added two months at the end of the calendar, Ianuarius and Februarius, to account for the missing days. He also introduced an intercalary month that occured after Februarius in certain years. These years became known as leap years. In addition, he deleted one day from all the months that had 30 days, so that they had 29 days instead.

Around for 700 years!

This resulted in a total of 355 days in a common year and 377 days in a leap year. The leap years were declared at the whim of the king. Although unstable, the calendar was in use for 700 years.

But it got very confusing because seasons and calendars did not match. It played havoc with the farmers.

So Julius Caesar, in 45 BC, under the guidance of his astronomers, decided to alter the calendar and make it more stable. Finally, the seasons had a chance to catch up!

For sixteen centuries!

When did we switch to the Gregorian calendar?

The same calendar had been in use since 1752, when the Gregorian calendar was adopted all over the world, to synchronise it to the English and American Colonies. The world and its boundaries had expanded quite a bit, from Caesar’s times! The Gregorian calendar fixed the Julian calendar error of calculating one revolution of the earth around the sun to take 365.2422 days, into account.

So, there you have it! It was originally Julius Caesar, who initiated the 12 months we have in the calendar today!

Why cleaning your room is important?

Keep your room clean and organized!

We all have days when we feel a little dis – organised. But sometimes a few days of being dis – organised can become a bad habit. Soon, we start becoming messy, and start creating a messy environment around us. We misplace things or even allow them to get spoilt. What do you think? Would you like to visit a friend’s house and see a messy room. An unkempt bed, leftover food, or all their books all over the place. Obviously, no!

So let’s keep our rooms organised and clean. Because we like coming back to a clean room!

Coley: Why would you need binoculars in your own room Bumbley?
Bumbley: Don’t disturb me. I am trying to concentrate here.
Coley: Concentrate?? For what?
Bumbley: Can’t you see? I am looking for an assignment I need to submit in school today.
Coley: Oh okay. Wait. I am gonna ask again. Why do you need binoculars for that??
Bumbley: How else do I find it in here!
Coley: Keeping your room clean would be a better start, no?
Bumbley: I keep hearing this from mom. Now, you don’t start!
Coley: Okay.
Bumbley: No, wait! Help me find this assignment. It is very important for my school report.
Coley: I will. But on one condition. Start keeping your room clean.
Bumbley: I do try. But somehow it ends up being messy. How do I keep it clean??
Coley: By putting back every item where you took it from. That way you won’t create a mess to clean it up later.
Bumbley: Hmm..
Coley: Keeping things organized not only helps you find something when you need it, but also saves you time and lets you think with clarity.
Hey, I found your assignment!
Bumbley: Really? And I find you awesome!

Discovery of Ink

Human beings as they evolved from prehistoric ancestors, developed many forms of communication. One of the most important tools discovered by humans, has been written communication.

He first wrote on cave walls and then stone and developed a pictorial vocabulary. As time progressed, shapes and sounds were incorporated in the written form. The earliest surviving texts from Mesopotamia dating back from 2100 BC, were written with reeds or stylus on clay tablets. These show that by then, man had developed an evolved form of writing and communication.

History of ink

It was the Chinese who are credited with first discovering ink 5000 years ago. It is still being used in that form. The liquid India Ink we use today was also discovered by the Chinese. The ink was thus named because the carbon black that was used to make the ink was sourced from India. It was the Cao Wei Dynasty (220 AD – 265 AD), who established the manufacture of India Ink.

Ink and how it is used has evolved over the years, changing colours and composition to adapt it to different needs.

Don’t Litter, Make The World Better!

Imagine it’s a beautiful summer day, and you’re out with your friends for milkshakes in the park. You finish your milkshake and look around, but there’s no trash can for your empty cup. It’s okay to just leave it underneath the park bench, right? Nobody can even see it under there, and you want to go play baseball. You don’t want to carry around this gross, sticky milkshake cup.

You might think it’s okay, but it’s not. Leaving your empty milkshake cup under the bench is littering.

What is littering?

All of you must have seen the bits of wrappers, packets, plastic bags lying all around when you go for a walk, or step outside your home. That is litter. Sometimes in small quantities it is just simply annoying. But when you have huge quantities of it, it becomes garbage and causes landfills.

Landfills, not only become eye sores but also places which become breeding places for disease causing animals and pollute the environment.

What are the effects of litter on the environment?

The litter often finds its way into drain holes and waterways, choking them. It is also carried away into our water resources, in the rainy season. Our rivers and oceans become polluted causing animals and plants to die in the water.

You must have also seen animals unknowingly eating bits of paper, or plastic thinking it is food. This harms them.

Why cleaning up our litter is expensive?

  • Sometimes when we knowingly or unknowingly throw litter, we don’t realise it might become inconvenient for someone to clean it up later. Although in cities, there are people who do go about cleaning, sometimes it is delayed. It is also expensive.
  • Every year, a city’s administration spends lots of money to clean up the city on a daily basis and dispose it off. Some of our litter is biodegradable and some of it is not. And lots of people spend time and energy to make sure our cities and town are clean and healthy for us to live.

A new word is added to the dictionary every two hours!

Em: Emma, I need to finish my English homework. Can you help me? I need to borrow your Oxford dictionary.
Emma: Sure I will help you Em, but do remind me to buy the new version of the dictionary tomorrow.
Em: New version? Isn’t a dictionary like, forever?
Emma: No it isn’t. Do you know that a new word is added to the dictionary every two hours? So if that happens every day, imagine how many words will be added to the dictionary in a year!
Em: Wow! Is that so… but where do they get hold of so many new words from?

How are new words born?

Reason: Everywhere. There can be old words or phrases which have been used and the meanings not known or new phrases or words or even slang words used today to communicate.
Emma: Oh right, I came to know that the word ‘Oompa Loompa’ from Charlie and the Chocolate factory has been added to the Oxford dictionary.
Em: ‘Oompa Loompa’? Really? Hahahaha. That’s silly!
Emma: You are silly!
Reason: She is right Em. These are not just any silly words that are added. They are added because they have a meaning or refer to something unique.
Em: That is interesting. I can’t imagine how much people who make dictionaries read!
Reason: They do read a lot! Today Oxford Dictionary is one of the largest and longest running research projects. Changes in language reflect in the day to day world… and so does in the dictionaries.
Em: Well, then let’s go get the new version of the Dictionary and then get on with the homework. Maybe we can fit in some new words too!
Emma: Oh sure! That’s likely, nincompoop.
Em: Huh?
Emma: Go get a dictionary.

Why do we have feelings?

Imagine you went home from school one day and there was a nice warm delicious pie waiting for you. It would make you happy, right?

Now imagine you went home from a bad day at school knowing there was going to be a delicious hot pie waiting for you; only to find out there is no pie. How would you feel? Probably quite sad and disappointed, right?

Happiness, contentment, love, bitterness, worry are some of many feelings we have. To understand why we have feeling, we must first understand, ‘What are feeling.’

What are feelings?

Feelings are mental associations and reactions to an emotion. They are coloured by our personal experiences and beliefs. Wait a minute. Aren’t feelings and emotions the same?

Well, they are many times used interchangeably so one might think they are the same, but the truth is that they are DIFFERENT.

What are emotions?

Emotions are involuntary bodily responses like when you’re when you go to school and come to know there is a surprise test. Your pulse increases and you feel uneasy in your stomach.

What is the difference between feelings and emotions?

On the other hand, feelings make of you aware of your emotions. So, feelings arise out of the narrative we give to the emotion. To understand this better, imagine you are sleeping peacefully at night and suddenly hear a loud knock on your bedroom door. You will instantly experience fear and your heart will beat faster. You might break into a sweat. While describing this incident to someone you will describe it as, “I felt terrified. It was really scary to imagine there might be an imposter in the house. I felt a sense of panic. ‘Terrified, scared, panic-stricken,’ are all feelings that are extension of the basic emotion of fear.

Why do we have these feelings and emotions?

  • So, one might wonder, WHY do we have these feelings? Isn’t life complicated enough with so many emotions.
  • Well, feeling might sometimes seem like a burden when they grow intense, like the feeling of grief or distress when you lose or break your favourite toy or when your beloved pet gets hurt.
  • But feelings are important as without them we would not have been able to build and accomplish our goals. Without care, wonder, expectation and a sense of pride; we wouldn’t have developed as a society.
  • Even animals have emotion. Think about a deer caught in headlight. It does experience fear. But it stops there. There is no feeling of horror as animals don’t have the symbolism of language and the sense to rationalize to turn that emotion into a feeling.
  • So, if we didn’t have feelings, we would be no different from animals. It is the ability to reason about the past and future and to have feelings that give way to action that has allowed us to dominate the food chain. It has helped us shape the world for our future through inventions and discoveries and the will to survive.
  • So, the next time you feel distressed or perplexed, know that the feeling is what makes you human and it will eventually pass.

Discovery of Magnets

Who discovered magnets?

Legend has it that magnets were discovered accidentally by a Greek shepherd named Magnes. While tending his sheep in a region of northern Greece called Magnesia, the shepherd took a step and suddenly found that the metal tip of his shoe was stuck on a rock he was standing on. Puzzled, he began digging and discovered the first recorded lodestone. It is said that since then Lodestone started getting known as “magnetite”, probably named after Magnes or Magnesia.

Although the term lodestone comes from the Anglo-Saxon meaning “leading stone”

How were magnets first used?

The first documented use of magnets has been for a compass. Between the years 1405 and 1433, Zheng He of Yunnan province mentioned the use of a compass with a magnetic needle as he recorded his voyages across seven oceans.

Although it is argued that the earliest understanding of magnet as a guide in a compass for seamen was recorded in 1180 by an Englishman Alexander Neckam.

And by 1820, the Dutch scientist Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnets which a year later French physicist Andre Ampere expanded it further.

Electromagnetism is used in all kind of electronic devices we use today, e.g. Hard disk drives, speakers, motors and generators. They are also used for MRI machines to take pictures of your body parts to detect any health issue!

Say please and thank you! – Social Etiquette

Do you get upset if someone takes something from you and doesn’t bother to say a ‘thank you’ to you? Or do you have friends who constantly expect you to do something, without requesting or even using the word ‘please’?

What is a social etiquette?

So what is a social etiquette? It is important that when we interact with other people, that we follow basic manners and courtesy, so as not to cause discomfort. This is known as social etiquette.

Why is it important to have social etiquettes?

By saying Please and Thank yous when asking and receiving something from some one, we make positive impressions.

  1. Manners and courtesy allow us to be nice to people.
  2. We develop respect and trust people who display social etiquettes.
  3. We let the people we interact with, know we respect the time and effort they give to us.
  4. When we are kind and courteous, we are not only being nice to others but also to ourselves.
  5. Through good manners, we can create a happy environment for others and ourselves.

What Rhymes with Orange, Silver, Purple, and Month?

There is no word in the English language that rhymes with orange, month, silver or purple

Emma: Yummy! This orange is so sweet…it makes such a delightful treat! Try one Em.

Em: Hey! You just made two words rhyme! Sweet and treat…can you see it or are you in dilemma Emma?

Emma: Happy to make my name rhyme? By the way, do you know any words in English that do not rhyme at all?

Em: Are there any such words? I always thought every word has some rhyming word in English language.

Words with no rhyming words

Emma: Yes but only four have none. No word in the English language rhymes with orange, month, silver, and purple.

Em: really? Let me think… Orange!!!!!! Hmmmm….Gorange….Florange….torange!!

Reason: Hahaha… those are not even words. A perfect rhyme demands the exact match of the way the word sounds from the stretched vowel to the last alphabet. Example: hat/cat, plate/eight, later/alligator.

Em: Come to think of it. Did you notice that 3 of the words that do not rhyme are the names of colours?

Reason: Yes and the fourth word that does not have a rhyme is ‘month’. You can’t even fake rhyme for this word. Dunth? Hunth? Bonth? Nothing rhymes with it!

Em: Hmm..Let’s write a poem with these four words. We can make up our own words which rhyme with them!

Emma: Oh sounds like fun to me!

Do Dragons exist?

What exactly are dragons?

Stories of Dragons have existed since the time stories were told. Dragons generally are said to have wings, scales, and claws and breathe fire. They are also thought be majestic creatures of mystery and Magic.

Different cultures have varying stories about dragons

  • The Greek called them serpents of the sea and the first mention of the word Greek word δράκων pronounced drakon is from the Iliad by Homer.
  • The Europeans early on thought of them as sea creatures and had maps depicting them waiting to eat unsuspecting sailors at the edge of the earth
  • Generally, the dragons were thought of as bringers of destruction and terror often depicting them as hoarders of treasure or maidens or both
  • At the other side of the planet the Japanese, Koreans and Chinese revered and worshipped them as mythical creatures who brought wisdom, prosperity and good luck.
  • Japanese ones are water deities and celestial beings associated with rainfall and bodies of water and are typically depicted as large, wingless, serpentine creatures with clawed feet.
  • Chinese dragons traditionally symbolize potent and auspicious powers, particularly control over water, rainfall, typhoons, and floods. The dragon is also a symbol of power, strength, and good luck for people who are worthy of it. With this, the Emperor of China usually used the dragon as a symbol of his imperial power and strength.

Has there been proof that dragons existed?

  1. Well, ancient people may have discovered dinosaur fossils and understandably misinterpreted them as the remains of dragons. Chang Qu, a Chinese historian from the 4th century B.C., mislabeled such a fossil and gave credibility to the myth of dragons.
  2. A Stegosaurus, was a giant beasts 30 feet in length and typically 14 feet tall and were covered in armored plates and spikes for defense.
  3. Even in a small town of Austria they mistook the skeleton of the ancient Rino and called it Dragons, A Statue of a Dragon still stands in the Middle of the town square
  4. Humans usually try to find meaning in things they can’t explain.
  5. The closest thing we can call to actual Dragons is the KOMODO Dragon, not entirely a dragon but fearsome anyway.
  6. So we know now that Dragons are fictional but as they say, there is no smoke without fire.

Coughing and sneezing etiquette

If you can’t completely separate you and your child during a minor cold, learning cough and sneeze etiquette at least helps.

How to cough and sneeze to avoid spreading germs?

Teaching your child to cough and sneeze into their shoulder or elbow instead of directly into hands (which then touch other things, and further spread the germs) is just one way to go.

Similarly, blowing one’s nose has some etiquette involved, too. Even with a handkerchief or tissues, some germs are blown into the air. And being as loud and honking as possible is definitely not the point! In addition, washing hands and/or use of antibacterial hand gel immediately after blowing one’s nose is critical to help stop the spread of germs.

What is the correct way to sneeze or cough in public?

  1. Turn away from people when coughing or sneezing to avoid contaminating others.
  2. Cover your mouth or nose with your left hand to keep your right hand germ free.
  3. If you are in a crowd of people and cannot turn to avoid coughing or sneezing directly at someone, cough or sneeze downward, directly in front of you.
  4. Always carry a tissue or handkerchief to cover your mouth or nose.
  5. If you are having a coughing or sneezing episode, excuse yourself from the room until it subsides.

Discovery of light

What is light?

Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy. Radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and gamma rays are some of the forms of electromagnetic radiation. Sunlight is also a form of electromagnetic energy, but visible light is only a small portion of the spectrum, which contains a broad range of electromagnetic wavelengths.

Who discovered light?

Aristotle was responsible for one of the first theories of light. He stated that, “The essence of light is white light. Colors are made up of a mixture of lightness and darkness.” However, It was Sir Isaac Newton who conducted several experiments to understand light. And how light is composed of several wavelengths. In his book, Optiks, Newton describes how he used prisms to disassemble and reassemble light.

Wavelength of visible light

Visible light falls in the spectrum between infra red and ultra violet, the wavelengths easily visible to the human eye. Violet has the shortest wavelength, at around 380 nanometers, and red has the longest wavelength, at around 700 nanometers.

How do we perceive color?

Cone-shaped cells in our eyes act as receivers tuned to the wavelengths in this narrow band of the spectrum. Other portions of the spectrum have wavelengths too large or too small and energetic for the biological limitations of our perception.

Sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick – Tongue Twister

The most difficult tongue twister in English language is “sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick”

Em: Hey Emma I bet you can’t say ‘babbling, bumbling band of baboons’ really fast 5 times!

Emma: You really want to play tongue twister? Then try saying a real one. How about ‘Betty Botter bought some butter, but the butter was bitter so Betty bought a better butter to make the bitter butter taste better!

Em: Hey! I know, I read somewhere about the most difficult tongue twister in English language…something with six….ummmm

Emma: Sixth…sick…sheik’s….sixth…. sheep’s….sick! Man! it is so difficult…see how long I have to pause after each word.

Em: I will have to write it down to even say it!

Reason: You sure do. ‘Sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick’ is considered as the hardest tongue twister by Guinness Book of World Records. It is extremely difficult to say this string of words quickly multiple times. It may not make much sense, but then tongue twisters are just a string of silly words put together to exercise your tongue. Why don’t you try again?

Em: Sixth.sick..sixt..sorry..sheik’s…this one will surely twist my tongue! I am happy with my bumbling baboons.

Why is oral health important?

Why is it so important to take care of your teeth?

Taking care of your teeth since childhood goes a long way. You will thank yourself when you could enjoy a piece of chocolate or any delicious fruit even at the age of 70 yrs.

Here are some easy ways to improve your oral health

  1. Brush your teeth along with the gum line twice a day with an ADA (accepted fluoride toothpaste) to remove plaque – the sticky film on teeth which is the main cause of tooth decay.
  2. Eat a well-balanced diet that limits starchy or sugary foods, which produce plaque acids that cause tooth decay.
  3. Drink plenty of water.
  4. Limit sugary foods which contribute towards the tooth decay.
  5. Have regular visits to the dentist.
  6. Wear a mouth-guard during contact sports or activities where there is risk of injury to the face.

Elasticity vs Plasticity

All of you would have heard the terms ‘plastic’ and ‘elastic’. Do you know that ‘plastic’ and ‘elastic’ are also important scientific terms that are used to describe the properties of materials such as rubber, plastic, metal, etc?

What is elasticity?

In Physics, when an external force is applied to the surface of any material, the material goes through a physical change or deformation. When the force is removed, the material, depending on its properties, may or may not return to its original shape. Now, if the material returns to its original shape, it is said to be elastic in nature, and this property is known as ‘elasticity’.

What is plasticity?

On the other hand, if the material does not regain its original shape, it is said to be plastic in nature, and this property is known as ‘plasticity’.

What kind of materials are known as elastic and plastic materials?

Elastic material:

One of the most common examples of elasticity is a rubber band. You can easily stretch it to a length many times its original one, but when you release it, it returns to its original shape. The balloons that you use in your birthday parties are again made of rubber, which is an elastic material. Even those stretchable jeans and shirts that you wear are made of an elastic material, mostly spandex which is a stretchable fiber.

Plastic material:

The bending of a steel rod upon applying force is an example of plasticity. Once bent, it cannot come back to its original position.

What happens when force is applied to a body?

When an external force is applied to a body, the body tends to break. This happens because the distance between the atoms inside it, increases and each atom tries to pull its neighboring atom closer to itself. The pull between the atoms creates a force inside the body that tries to resist the deformation. This force is called strain, and the deforming force on the body is known as stress. The resistance of a material to elastic deformation or deflection is called stiffness. Also, there is a limit to the force which a body can resist without breaking. This limit is called the elastic limit of a body.

Difference between plasticity and elasticity

Plasticity

Elasticity

Process

It is an irreversible process.

It is a reversible process.

Ductility

Plastic materials are highly ductile in nature.

Elastic materials are less ductile in nature.

Shape and size

The shape and size of materials change permanently in this process.

The shape and size of materials does not change permanently

Example

Plastic

Rubber

Hooke’s Law and elasticity

Hooke’s Law proposes that the amount of elongation of a spring is directly proportional to the force that is acting on it. Springs and every elastic material require an application of some force to stretch it. The force required to stretch an elastic material depends on the stiffness of the material, and is known as the ‘Young’s modulus’ or ‘elastic modulus.

In other words, Young’s modulus is a measure of the flexibility of a given material. With the help of Young’s modulus, engineers and scientists can calculate and understand the behavior of a material under load. For example, it can be used to foretell how much a wire will extend under tension, or to predict the load at which a thin column will give away under compression.

Young’s modulus is constant over a range of strains. Such materials are called linear. Examples of linear materials include Steel, Carbon Fiber and Glass.
Rubber is a non – linear material.

Uses of plasticity in the metal industry

The metal industry takes advantage of the plastic properties of materials by making them undergo some degree of permanent deformation without rupture or failure. Almost all materials including metals, plastics, soils, rocks and concrete undergo plastic deformations. Heat and pressure are commonly used to shape these materials into the desired form. This is done in a carefully controlled environment so that the objects do not beak apart. Metals like copper, silver, steel and gold have greater plastic deformation ranges. Materials like rubber, crystals and ceramics have the least plastic deformation ranges.

5 Interesting facts about elasticity

  1. A steel bar or wire can be extended only around 1 percent of its original length, while in case of rubberlike materials, we can get elastic extensions of up to 1,000 percent also.
  2. When force is applied on a given body, the bonds between the atoms inside it break leading to deformations. Elastic materials like rubber have long-chain molecules that uncoil because of which it gets extended and gets back into shape when they recoil.
  3. Rubber can be stretched three times its original size.
  4. Your hairs have elastic properties too. A single strand of hair can hold 100 grams of weight without breaking!!
  5. Young’s modulus is represented by the alphabet E. The higher this value is, the stiffer the material is!!

English is the official language of the sky!

Emma: Hey Em! How was your trip to Dubai? I want to know everything about it.

Em: It was so much fun. I did not want to come back.

Emma: So did you learn some Arabic words?

Em: Not really! Everyone seemed to understand and speak English. We heard some Arabic during the flight but it was soon spoken in English as well.

Emma: Well, English does seem to be the official language all over the world. Plus, English is the official language of the sky! It doesn’t matter which country they are from, all pilots speak in English on international flights.

Em: Yeah? So even if I go to… say… Africa?

Emma: Of course silly! English is the language that is understood and learnt by almost everyone, all over the world.

Why English is considered the language of the skies?

Reason: That’s true. These days the skies are so busy that accurate communication is most important. Communication lapses and errors can occur if different languages are used for different zones. So, English is officially used in the aviation industry worldwide to avoid any miscommunication.

Em: That makes so much sense. Imagine if I pilot a plane to Africa from India and I communicate with them in Hindi, they wouldn’t understand a thing and may not let me land!

Emma: You got that! Now tell me about your trip and show me all your fun pictures.

Reason: Me too!

Why does time seem to pass at different speeds?

Time has always fascinated man. Early civilisations first divided the day based on light and dark. They constructed sun dials to calculate the movement of the sun and hence time. As thinking and understanding progressed, days were divided into hours and minutes and seconds, even nano seconds.

But did you think, how time sometimes goes by really fast or really slow? And how you cannot measure it in hours or minutes?

Have you noticed how…
Time sometimes seems to go by really fast
And sometimes really slow

So, does time move at different speeds?

Time always moves one second per second.

It moving slow or fast depends on how your brain experiences it.

Time or your experience of it slows down when you encounter a boring moment. When you are not doing anything in particular, boredom draws your attention to time and gives you the feeling of time slowing down.

Time tends to fly when you are experiencing fun moments and do not think about time or pay any attention to it. The amount of time you have spent might be the same as a boring moment you’ve had earlier but you have so much fun that you do not realise how time passed by.

So times doesn’t fly or stand still. Time always continues at the same speed. It is your experience of time that makes it seem to go by slow or fast.

Related article – Is time travel possible, according to science?

Who discovered Pi?

What is Pi?

Pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. No matter what is the size of the circle, pi is always the same number. For any circle, dividing its circumference by its diameter will give you the exact same number: 3.14159…or pi.

Discovery of Pi

It is said that Pi has been known for nearly 4,000 years and was discovered by ancient Babylonians. The Great Pyramid at Giza, which was built between 2550 and 2500 BC, has a perimeter of 1760 cubits and a height of 280 cubits, which gives it a ratio of 1760/280, or approximately 2 times pi.

The earliest textual evidence of pi dates back to 1900 BC; both the Babylonians and the Egyptians had a rough idea of the value. The Babylonians estimated pi to be about 25/8 (3.125), while the Egyptians estimated it to be about 256/81 (roughly 3.16).

How did Archimedes discover it?

Archimedes was one of the first mathematicians to discover the approach to estimate a Pi. He figured out how to estimate the perimeters for polygons with twice as many sides. He went from a 6-sided polygon, to a 12-sided polygon, to a 24-sided polygon, to a 48-sided polygon, and ended up with a 96-sided polygon. This final estimate gave a range for π between 3.1408 and 3.1428, which is accurate to two places.

Early to bed and early to rise!

If you are a night owl, it is time to change your sleeping habits.

Benefits of early to bed and early to rise

An early riser reaps many benefits. Research has shown that children who go to bed early and wake up early are smarter and tend to get good grades in academics. They are more positive and can plan their day accordingly. Going early to bed gives your body that relaxation time and you wake up feeling energetic and rested. Mornings are the time when your mind is fresh and best for revisions and studying or finishing up the leftover homework. Sleeping early also keeps your immune system strong, keeping you away from the seasonal coughs and colds. When you sleep early, you are ready to take on the next day with more energy.

There are ghost words that mean nothing!

Em: Why are you sitting with such a fat book Emma? I could never read such big books.
Emma: It isn’t a book Em, it’s a dictionary, see.
Em: Oh! So, tell me which word are you looking for?
Emma: I am trying to find if there are any ghost words in it.
Em: Hahaha… did you just say ghost word? What is that? And if it is a ghost can you really find it? Does the word look scary? Ha ha.

What are ghost words?

Reason: Actually Em, you just answered your question. It is difficult to find a ghost word in a dictionary. But a ghost word is a word which doesn’t have any meaning and has been printed in the dictionary. These words are not used anywhere.
Emma: I know what Em is going to ask now..why put them in a dictionary in the first place?
Em: Exactly. Why print them if these words are not used anywhere?
Reason: Well, believe it or not…sometimes there are some words that have been printed in the dictionary due to a printing mistake or an error like typographical or linguistic confusion. There is one such fake word- dord, which made its way to Webster’s dictionary and remained there for five long years before being discovered.
Emma: There, can you see the ghosts now Em? Do they look scary to you? Eh?

How do we store and retrieve memories?

What is memory?

Memory is when something happens or when you learn something or meet someone new; your brain determines whether or not to store this information. Just like a computer that saves the data in files, your brain too saves memories in various parts or files. The human brain has different parts and each part saves data of various types.

How are memories stored and retrieved in the human brain?

Usually the brain stores memories in two ways…

Long term memory which is stored in a deeper section of the brain. The part that stores the long term memory is the hippocampus and is one of the most important parts of the brain to store and retrieve memories.

Short term memories like the room number of your hotel. Short term memories are sometimes transferred to the hippocampus based on their importance. The brain decides which type of memory is worth remembering.

How do you remember things from the past?

When some information is determined to have long term value or is worth remembering, the hippocampus links significant elements from that event or information, puts the experience together to form a permanent or long term memory.

Information that cannot be stored by the hippocampus cannot be remembered or retrieved. If the hippocampus is damaged then all memories are lost.

An emotional memory is the strongest to recall and retrieve. An excellent performance in an exam, a final dance with that someone special, a goal scored when you were about to lose are some special emotional moments that will be stored as long term memories and are easy to recall or retrieve.

Will you remember this video?

Can sitting too close to the TV damage your eyes?

While sitting too close to the TV may not permanently damage your eyesight, it sure will affect the health of your eyes in the long run. Eyestrain happens when your eyes suddenly become watery or itchy or red and you feel relaxed when you close them.

Don’t sit too close to the TV!

Modern TV sets emit very little electromagnetic radiation, but they can be damaging if viewed from an extremely close distance. Some parts of the TV emit more, while others less, frequency radiation. Since the TV’s today are large in size, sitting at a distance is always preferred to get a perfect, complete picture of what you are viewing.

Who discovered Fingerprints were unique?

What are fingerprints?

If you have looked closely at your hands, you will notice very fine lines closely placed that are either arched, whorled or in loops. All of your fingers will have a definite pattern. These are unique and only you in this entire world will own this set of fingerprints. Infact it’s one of the most foolproof ways to identify a person, that it’s even used in this age of biometric identification.

History of fingerprints

Sir William Herschel, a British Civil Servant, stationed in India in 1858, collected handprints from Indians to prevent forgeries and he discovered that each print was different.

A Scottish physician, Dr. Henry Faulds went to Japan in 1873, as a medical missionary. There he established the Tuskiji Hospital and was also the surgeon superintendent. On his stay there, he got involved in a nearby archaeological site. It was at the archaeological dig, that he observed imprints on clay pottery shards and he became interested in the science of human fingerprints.

He further observed through various experiments that the finger prints grew back the same each time, if a person accidentally lost the skin on his fingerprints.

British Scientist, Sir Francis Galton is also credited with this discovery, although it looks as if his work was based on Faulds’ research.

When were fingerprints first used to solve crimes?

It wasn’t until 1896 that a man named Edward Henry developed a classification system for identification of fingerprints. Henry divided fingerprint patterns up into five different sections. They were: Plain Arches, Tented Arches, Ulnar Loops, Radial Loops, and Whorls.

He coded these patterns and then devised a method for fingerprint mapping. His method made the identification and retrieval of fingerprint data base much easier. This system was adopted by the police of America and Europe. But it was FBI in 1920s that utilised the system and created an archive of fingerprints.

Avoid getting drenched in the rain!

Rain rain go away, come again another day, little Johnny want to play…” Well Johnny is absolutely right in asking the rain to go away, so that he can play. Getting wet in the rain might seem like a fun idea but it can cause a lot of harm. It can lead to cold, cough and fever.

How to avoid getting wet in the rain?

If you absolutely must get out in the rain, make sure to carry and wear rain gear like a good raincoat, rain shoes and umbrellas. This will prevent you from falling sick. When you are done, have a good bath with clean and warm water with a few drops of mild antiseptic. This prevents the chances of getting a cold, cough and keeps the bacteria at bay.

Another dreadful thing about rain water is, that when stagnant, it is a breeding ground for mosquitoes that cause malaria and other dreadful diseases. So, make sure you apply a mosquito repellent when you step out in the monsoon season.

It is definitely fun to prance around in the rain, especially the first rain. However, keep in mind the above warnings and precautions before you decide to have your share of fun.

What is the shortest complete sentence in the English language?

Em: Hey Emma, I was wondering what is the shortest sentence in the English Language?
Emma: I am.
Em: Haha… I know you are short but I meant a sentence in English language!
Emma: Silly you. ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence in English Language. Doesn’t have to do anything with my height!
Em: Is it?

Is I am a complete sentence?

Reason: Yes. To make a complete sentence in English you need a subject and a predicate. The sentence ‘I am’ has both- the subject- I and Predicate- am. It also expresses a complete thought. So ‘I am’ is the shortest sentence.
Emma: I read in an article that ‘Go’ is a short sentence too.
Reason: In case of ‘Go’ as a sentence, the subject is understood as it is said to either singular or plural beings. Thus by emitting ‘you’ it just becomes an ellipsis. ‘Go’ is an imperative sentence. ‘I am’ is a non-imperative short sentence.
Em: Wow! I never knew something short can be so complicated! Oh wait, Emma is a complicated girl too.
Emma: Hey! I am not short!

Discovery of Planetary Motion

Who discovered planetary motion?

In the early 1600s, Johannes Kepler created three laws of planetary motion. While it was Nicolaus Copernicus who discovered that the planets revolve around the Sun, it was Kepler who correctly defined their orbits. And this gave birth to Kepler’s first law, Law of Ellipses.

What is Law of Ellipses?

While assisting a wealthy astronomer, Tycho Brahe, Kepler was asked to define orbit of Mars. For many years, he struggled to make Brahe’s observations of the motions of Mars match up with a circular orbit which was the common conclusion by many philosophers of that time.

Through Brahe’s astronomical measurements and Kepler’s own drawings of the geometrical relationship between the Sun and Mars in various parts of the planet’s orbit, Kepler eventually discovered that planets moved faster when they were closer to the Sun. From this realization, he concluded that the orbit of Mars was elliptical, not circular.

Australia is drowning in Plastic Bags!

Plastic is one of the worst threats our planet faces. It is part of our daily lives and we have been using plastic since over 50 years. Plastic is not only killing life in our oceans, but is also threatening our very existence on this planet.

Australia gets top marks for being the worst hit by the plastic mania.

How many Plastic Bags are used every year in Australia?

Australia alone accounts for 14 billion or 606 bags per Australian per year! Heavy duty plastic bags are handed out by retailers and they don’t even get recycled.

Plastic Bags harming Marine Life!

These plastic bags are dumped in the ocean and are found inside the stomach of poor marine creatures. Turtles mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and then they are choked to death. Sea birds are also dying due to an increase in such toxic waste.

Recycling bags is seen as a hassle in Australia, thus these bags are just dumped. Australia throws away almost 7000 plastic bags per minute!

Wake up Australia! Its time to make the planet a better place…

Read food nutrition labels carefully!

Our body is all we have. But are we really aware of all that which goes inside our body?

Basics of food nutrition labels

Every packaged item of food has nutritional label behind it. They tell you what’s inside the food you’re eating and list its parts. Fresh food that doesn’t come prepackaged sometimes has nutrition facts, too.
Most nutrients are measured in grams, also written as g. Some nutrients are measured in milligrams, or mg. Milligrams are very tiny — there are 1,000 milligrams in 1 gram.

Determining the serving size

The nutrition label always lists a serving size, which is an amount of food, such as 1 cup of cereal, two cookies, or five pretzels. The label also tells you how many servings are contained in the particular package of food.

How to read food nutrition labels?

The key nutritional ingredients to look out for are the amounts of total fat, saturated fat, sugar and sodium/salt.
You can refer to following proportion to understand the amount of intake that is considered to be healthy.

  • Total fat 0-3g (best), 3.1-20g (okay), 20g+ (sometimes)
  • Saturated Fat 0-1.5g (best), 0-1.6g (okay), 5g+ (sometimes)
  • Sugar 0-5g (best), 5.1-15g (okay), 15g+ (sometimes)
  • Sodium 0-120mg (best), 121-600mg (okay), 600mg+ (sometimes)

What letter starts the most words in the english language?

More English words begin with the letter ‘S’ than any other letter of the alphabet

Em: Hey Emma, now that you seem to spend so much time with that dictionary of yours, can I ask you a question?
Emma: I am enjoying my ice cream, but go ahead.
Em: Which alphabet in the English language has the most words starting with it?
Emma: Tell me which alphabet do you think it is?
Em: Well… umm….I think it is ‘E’?
Emma: I think it is ‘A’.
Reason: No, not even close. It is the alphabet ‘S’ which has more English words starting with it than any other letter. The reason being, there are more clusters of words that begin with ‘sc’, ‘sh,’, ‘sp’, or ‘st’. These clusters also act as independent words.
Emma: Hmm… Yes, now that i I think about it there are so many words with S… School, Shut, Special, String, Straight, Shun, spatula, scan…wow!
Reason: Samuel Morse, the inventor of the Morse code was the first one who had the curiosity in knowing the answer to this question. So he used his techniques of using codes to frequently used letters. Later an analysis of the concise dictionary revealed ‘S’ as the letter having most words.
Em: ‘S’ sure is a winner! Now finish your ice cream, its melting.

Don’t talk with your mouth full

Why should you not talk when your mouth is full?

You should not talk with your mouth full! It can cause choking.

What is choking?

To understand what is choking, you first need to understand what happens to the food that you eat. When you chew the food, it passes through your throat to get into your body.

The food and air travels through the same tube for a short distance until the tube divides into two tubes – the oesophagus which carries food down into the stomach, and the trachea (windpipe) which carries air to the lungs. Sometimes food slips into the windpipe – which can block the windpipe. That’s why you choke.

How to avoid choking?

  1. Make sure to chew every mouthful of food until it is small and soft enough to swallow.
  2. Sit down, take small bites, and don’t talk or laugh with your mouth full!
  3. Do not put anything in your mouth that is not food or drink.
  4. Be extra careful while eating nuts, grapes, raw carrots, popcorn, and hard or gooey candy.

Look out for the little ones

Babies and toddlers love to put things in their mouths, so help keep them safe by:

  1. Cutting up and dividing their food into small pieces.
  2. Picking up anything off the floor that might be dangerous to swallow — like deflated balloons, pen caps, coins, beads, and batteries.
  3. Never share your food or candy with a baby unless an adult says it’s OK.

What do you do when someone is choking?

If you see someone coughing while eating and going breathless, wait and see if they can cough the food up. If the person can then breathe normally, usually nothing more needs to be done – but get a grownup to check that the person is okay.

If the person is not able to breathe normally get help as soon as possible.

Can we measure beauty?

To understand if beauty is measurable, let us first understand the terms, ‘measure’ and ‘beauty’.

What is measurement?

Measurement means, to define something in a clear and precise way.

What is beauty?

Beauty refers to the quality of being pleasing, especially to look at.

What makes something or someone beautiful?

The debate on ‘What makes something or someone beautiful’ has been going on for centuries. (thinker)

Western theory of beauty

The earliest Western theory of beauty can be found in the works Greek philosopher Pythagoras who saw a strong connection between mathematics and beauty.

This was the time when It was believed that proportionate and symmetrical objects were more attractive.

This definition is still held as relevant by many, so in that manner we can say that beauty can be measured.

The question then arises of whether beauty is universal.

The painting of Monalisa by Leonardo da Vinci is considered beautiful and so is Van Gogh’s Sunflowers. What do they have in common? What makes them both beautiful despite the lack of symmetry here?

The Taj Mahal is considered beautiful and so is Beethoven’s ninth symphony. What element that could describe beauty is common here? In this case it definitely cannot be measured by math.

A combination of qualities, such as shape, colour, or form, arrangement that pleases the senses, be it sight or sound makes something beautiful.

It is also found that people around the world find different music, visual art, performance, and physical attributes to be beautiful. It’s on the basis of those considerations that many believe that beauty is a label we attach to different sorts of experiences based on a combination of cultural and personal preferences.

So the saying, ‘Beauty is in the eye of the beholder,’ used to express the fact that not all people have the same opinions about what is attractive and pleasing, holds true.

Who invented clothes and how did they make them?

When were clothes invented?

The first evidence of clothes has been found to be used 100,000 years ago.

History and development of clothing

Neanderthals used to tan animal skins to clothe themselves. They used to tan buckskin, fur and inner hides by painstakingly scrapping it off and soaking it in pulverized deer brains. They then wrung, stretched and hung it to dry and smoked it to make it waterproof.
But lack of stitching tools such as needles caused them to either drape the clothes or tie it, which was not always comfortable or convenient.
It was only 30,000 years ago that simple needles were created out of animal bone which helped the early humans to sew leather and fur garments.

Exercise regularly, keep healthy!

Exercise is very important to stay active. But it does not have to be only at gym class. It can be something fun too. Playing is not just fun but also keeps you physically active.

Benefits of exercise

There are a lot of benefits from regular exercise. Kids who are active will:

  1. have stronger muscles and bones
  2. be less likely to become overweight
  3. decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes
  4. lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels
  5. have a better outlook on life

Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They’re also better able to handle physical and emotional challenges — from running to catch a bus to studying for a test.

The three elements of fitness

The three elements of fitness in action when kids play in the playground are:
1. Endurance: When a child is chasing or being chased by another child at play.
2. Strength: When a child crosses a monkey bar.
3. Flexibility: Bending down to tie their shoes.

Regular aerobic activity helps a child to build good endurance levels. Aerobic exercise causes the heart to beat faster and a person breathes harder. Regular aerobic activity strengthens the heart and improves the body’s ability to deliver oxygen to all its cells.

Following are some fun aerobic activities

  • basketball
  • bicycling
  • ice skating
  • soccer
  • swimming
  • tennis
  • walking
  • jogging
  • running

Improving strength doesn’t have to be only from only lifting weights instead, kids can do push-ups, stomach crunches, pull-ups, and other exercises to help tone and strengthen muscles. They also improve their strength when they climb, do a handstand, or wrestle.

Stretching exercises helps a child improve flexibility, allowing muscles and joints to bend and move easily through their full range of motion. Simplest activities like reaching out for a toy or practicing a split or doing a cartwheel are fun ways to stretch and build one’s flexibility.

Benefits of Surya Namaskar

Sun is the life source of our planet. Every organism on earth derives life from some element of the sun. “Surya Namaskar” or “Sun Salutation” essentially means bowing down to the sun.

The principle of Surya Namaskar, as described by Indian sages, is to “digest” the sun, internalize it, and make it a part of your system to reap its many physical and spiritual benefits.

What is Surya Namaskar?

The Surya Namaskar, or sun salutation, comprises of a sequence of 12 yoga postures, best done at sun rise. If done fast, it serves as a great cardiovascular workout. If done slowly, these postures help tone our muscles and relax the system. Regular practice of the Surya Namaskar gives strength, vitality and flexibility to our bodies.

How to do Surya Namaskar?

The 12 poses of the Surya Namaskar, in order are

  1. Pranamasan / Prayer Pose – The first pose, where one stands erect with feet fully touching each other, and palms together. The idea is to start with a prayer to the sun.
  2. Hastauttanasana / Raised Arms Pose – The pose where arms are raised upward, with palms still together. The idea is to stretch the body, towards the sun. Inhale Pose.
  3. Hasta Padasana / Hand to Foot pose – A pose where one bends forward such that our palms touch our feet, while keeping our spine erect, and without bending our knees. Exhale pose.
  4. Ashwa Sanchalanasana / Equesterian Pose – Pose where the right leg is pushed as far back as possible, with the left leg between the palms on the ground. Inhale Pose.
  5. Dandasana / Stick Pose – A pose where you balance the entire body on your arms, keeping the spine erect.
  6. Ashtanga Namaskara / Eight Point Salutation Pose – A pose where the chin, chest, palms, knees and feet are touching the ground, with the hips raised. Exhale Pose.
  7. Bhujangasana / Cobra Pose – A pose like the cobra, where the lower body and palms touch the ground, and the upper body is stretched upwards and forward. Inhale Pose.
  8. Adho Mukho Shavasana/ Downward Dog Pose – With the palms and feet touching the ground, the hips are raised so the body forms an inverted “V”, resembling a stretching dog. Exhale Pose.
  9. Ashwa Sanchalanasana (Equestrian pose) – Pose where the left leg is pushed as far back as possible, with the right leg between the palms on the ground. Inhale Pose.
  10. Hasta Padasana / Hand to Foot pose – A pose where one bends forward such that our palms touch our feet, while keeping our spine erect, and without bending our knees. Exhale pose.
  11. Hastauttanasana / Raised Arms Pose – The pose where arms are raised upward, with palms still together. The idea is to stretch the body, towards the sun. Inhale Pose.
  12. Tadasana / Standing Pose – A relaxing pose, where one stands erect, with arms to the side. Exhale Pose.

10 Benefits of Surya Namaskar

Regular practice of Sun Salutation offers a lot of interesting benefits for every part of the body. Let’s take a look at some of them –

  1.  Improves circulation of blood. Good blood circulation is the first law of health.
  2. Strengthens the neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, fingers, back, stomach, waist, abdomen, intestines, thighs, knees, calves and ankles. Basically strengthens us overall.
  3. Gives the body a rigorous workout, thereby reducing excess fat.
  4. Helps tone our muscles and keep them lean and strong.
  5. Helps relax our mind and reduces anxiety, fear and restlessness.
  6. Helps build focus and achieve inner peace.
  7. Improves flexibility of the spine and limbs.
  8. Improves posture and thus, general attractiveness
  9. Improves the functions of all our internal organs.
  10. Helps calm your mind, giving you a good night’s sleep.

Thus, we see that regular practice of Surya Namaskar basically ensures that our body is performing at its optimum level. Children as young as 5 can start doing the Surya Namaskar. In fact, in recent times, people have started becoming more aware of the benefits of yoga, such that parents even ensure that babies include yoga as a part of their daily regimen.

Get to know more about the International Yoga Day, here https://mocomi.com/international-yoga-day/

Why is too much sugar bad for you?

How does sugar affect the body?

1. Weak Immune System –

Sugar weakens the immune system which causes Hypoglycaemia, Also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels. This results in weakness and loss of energy. High sugar weakens the immune system by creating an imbalance in the digestive tract between the good and bad micro-organisms.

2. Acidity –

Maximum sugar intake causes acidity, and symptoms are –

  • Stomach pain
  • Restlessness
  • Nausea
  • Arthritis and joint pain
  • Headache etc.

3. Diabetes –

why excess of sugar is bad, the major reason behind this is Diabetes.

What do sugary drinks do to your teeth? – Science Experiment

  • Put tooth in soft drink for 24hrs, after 24hrs, we can observe decay of tooth.
  • It happens mainly due to high sugar is present in soft drink.

How to eliminate sugar from your diet?

  • Can have sugar free breakfast and Fruits, dry fruits instead of cookies or industrial snacks.
  • Can replace sugar with honey.

Tenali Raman: The King’s Condition


One day, Krishnadevaraya saw a strange dream. He dreamt of a magnificent magical palace. It was made of dazzling stones and floated in the air. The palace had every comfort and amenity that one could ever wish for. It could be lit up with ......

One day, Krishnadevaraya saw a strange dream. He dreamt of a magnificent magical palace. It was made of dazzling stones and floated in the air. The palace had every comfort and amenity that one could ever wish for. It could be lit up with a thousand lights or made to disappear into the darkness in a jiffy.

The next day when the king woke up, he vividly remembered the dream. He summoned all his courtiers and told them about it. The courtiers sang praises of the king and his beautiful dream. The king made a public announcement: “I will give a hundred thousand gold coins to the person who can build me the palace of my dream.”

Everyone was startled at the king’s announcement. They knew that it was not practically possible to build the palace that the king wanted. But no one had the courage to say so. Many of the king’s well-wishers told him that such a palace can only exist in one’s mind. But he refused to listen and threatened his courtiers with grave consequences if they did not find someone who could make his dream come true.
The courtiers got worried and approached Tenali Raman for help.

The senior minister requested Tenali Raman, “Dear Tenali, now only you can make our king understand that his wish to erect the palace of his dream is absurd or else all of us will get a severe punishment.” Tenali Raman assured them that he would try to help them.
A few days later, a very old man came to meet the king in his court. He was crying for justice.

Krishnadevaraya asked, “What brings you here my good man? Tell me without fear and I assure you that justice will be done.” “I have been robbed, Your Majesty,” wailed the old man. “Someone has taken away all my savings and now I don’t have a single paisa left.”
“Who robbed you?” asked the king angrily. “Such a crime cannot go unpunished. You name him and I will have him hanged immediately!”
Your Majesty! I will tell you but first assure me that on hearing upon his name, you will not get angry and punish me instead,” requested the old man.

Yes, I promise,” replied the king impatiently.
“It is you, my lord,” said the old man in a trembling voice.

How dare you say a ridiculous thing like that, I will…,” began the king, but then he remembered his promise and calmed down. He asked that the old man to explain what he actually meant to say.

“Your Majesty! Last night, I dreamt that you came with your entourage of ministers and soldiers and looted my entire life’s savings, five thousand gold coins!” said the old man.

“Are you a fool or completely insane?” roared the king. “How can you treat your dream as a reality? Dreams are not true!”

“But they are, Your Majesty! If your dream of a palace hanging in air can come true, why can’t my dream come true?” retorted the old man.
And then, the man took off his beard, hair and stood before the king. It was none other than Tenali Rama!

He bowed before the king and said, “Your Majesty! This was the only way of convincing you that building the palace of your dreams was not practically possible.”

Moral: If people talk foolishly, you can use their own logic to show them that they’re being illogical.

  • For more interesting Tenali Raman stories for kids, click here.
  • For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

Mullah Nasruddin: Honest Smuggler

Nasruddin the smuggler was leading a donkey that had bundles of straw on its back. An experienced border inspector spotted Nasruddin coming to his border.

“Halt,” the inspector said. “What is your business here?”

“I am an honest smuggler!” replied Nasruddin.

“Oh, really?” said the inspector. “Well, let me search those straw bundles. If I find something in them, you are required to pay a border fee!”

“Do as you wish,” Nasruddin replied, “but you will not find anything in those bundles.”

The inspector intensively searched and took apart the bundles, but could not find a single thing in them. He turned to Nasruddin and said, “I suppose you have managed to get one by me today. You may pass the border.”

Nasruddin crossed the border with his donkey while the annoyed inspector looked on. And then the very next day, Nasruddin once again came to the border with a straw-carrying donkey. The inspector saw Nasruddin coming and thought, “I’ll get him for sure this time.”

He checked the bundles of straw again, and then searched through the Nasruddin’s clothing, and even went through the donkey’s harness. But once again he came up empty handed and had to let Nasruddin pass.

This same pattern continued every day for several years, and every day Nasruddin wore more and more extravagant clothing and jewelry that indicated he was getting wealthier. Eventually, the inspector retired from his longtime job, but even in retirement he still wondered about the man with the straw-carrying donkey.

“I should have checked that donkey’s mouth more extensively,” he thought to himself. “Or maybe he hid something in the donkey’s rectum.”

Then one day he spotted Nasruddin’s face in a crowd. “Hey,” the inspector said, “I know you! You are that man who came to my border everyday for all those years with a donkey carrying straw. Please, sir, I must talk to you.”

Nasruddin came towards him and the inspector continued talking. “My friend, I always wondered what you were smuggling past my border everyday. Just between you and me, you must tell me. I must know. What in the world were you smuggling for all those years? I must know!”

Nasruddin simply replied, “donkeys.”

For other interesting stories for kids, go to: Stories for Kids.

What are homonyms?

Homonyms meaning and examples

Em: We are running out of popcorn. We need to get some more.

Emma: I need change.

Em: You can’t just want change. “You need to BE the change you want to see.” That’s what Mahatma Gandhi said.

Emma: Don’t try to show off what you learnt in school yesterday, stupid. I’m talking about money. I need change for hundred bucks, to buy more popcorn.

Em: Don’t call me stupid. How am I supposed to know what you are talking about when ‘change’ and ‘change’ mean the same thing!

Emma: Use your brain. If I say I’ve lost my bat, are you going to think I’m talking about my pet bat? A flying mammal that hangs upside down at night?!

Em: Of course not! I’m not dumb. I know you are too lame to have a cool pet like a bat.

Emma: Who are you calling lame?!?

Reason: Stop fighting you guys. The words you are talking about like ‘bat’ and ‘bat’ and ‘change’ and ‘change’ are homonyms. These words are spelled the same and pronounced the same, but have different meanings. Anyone who is familiar with the English language will know what the word means by putting it in context.

Em: Woah! imagine the confusion of someone trying to learn the language for the first time!

Reason: True. It can get problematic.

Emma: The only problem I see is, we still don’t have enough popcorn and I still don’t have change.

Weird green ice floats on Antarctic harbor

Microalgae abounds in the Antarctic!

Microalgae abounds in the Antarctic region but certain factors like sea ice, winds, sunlight, nutrient availability and predators are necessary to make them visible from outer space.

Photosynthetic Plankton grows all around Antarctica in the summer months which are from October to February. Though it is now autumn in this region, the algae bloom can happen during the fall too. It is a late season bloom which seems to have gotten trapped in the slushy, just-about-to form sea ice. The algae are trapped within or below it. Many aquatic creatures like whales, shrimp, snails and jelly fish acquire nourishment from these.

Benefits of eating watermelon

What makes watermelon a cool fruit?

Apart from being delicious, watermelons are a great summer fruit you can enjoy to beat the heat. They also have some amazing health benefits which are as follows:

6 Amazing health benefits of watermelon

1. Hydration :-

Watermelon has a 92% of water content. This makes it hydrating and helps you feel full.

2. Nutrients :-

Watermelon contains, vitamin A, E, C, Lycopene which gives a red colour and is linked to many health benefits. Watermelon is a low-calorie fruit high in some nutrients, especially carotenoids, vitamin C and cucurbitacin E.

3. Potential to prevent cancer :-

Some compounds in watermelon, including cucurbitacin E and lycopene, have been studied for their potential to prevent cancer.

4. Good heart health :-

Watermelon has several heart-healthy components, including lycopene, citrulline and other vitamins and minerals.

5. Good skin and hair :-

Several nutrients in watermelon are good for hair and skin. while others protect against sunburn.

6. Healthy digestion :-

Fibre and water are important for healthy digestion. Watermelon contains both.

Can Penguins fly?

Have you ever seen a flying Penguin?

The way they flap their “wings” and run around is adorable. And yet, in spite of all the flapping around, they never seem to get off the ground and fly. Do you ever wonder why that’s the case? Why can’t these adorable birds fly? A lot of research has gone into answering this question.

And here’s what the research says,

The penguin is a bird species that is highly specialized for its native environment, which includes the coasts of Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, South America, and the Galapagos Islands. There, being able to swim to catch fish is more useful than flying.

Firstly, do Penguins have Wings?

Yes and no. Penguins have wing-like flippers. These tapered, flattened flippers are covered with short, scale-like feathers. Typical wings are too flexible, and hence, ill-suited for swimming. Water being denser than air, penguin wings are shorter and stouter than the wings of flying birds.

Why do Penguins have Wings if they can’t Fly?

As mentioned before, penguin wings are actually flippers that are perfectly adapted for swimming. They are narrow and hard and help propel and steer penguins through the water. So it’s these “wings” that make penguins such expert swimmers.

Why can’t Penguins fly?

A Study of the Evolution of Penguins reveals more,
As penguins evolved, their wings adapted to becoming more efficient while swimming and diving (to catch their food). This meant that flying now required more and more energy. At some point, this trade-off meant that flying consumed too much energy. Hence, instead of sustaining flight, becoming flightless was by far a better option for penguins. This also means that penguins today have heavier bones, more suited to grounded birds.

Thus, the penguins that can dive as deep as 1,850 feet in search of fish, squid and tiny crustaceans called krill are awkward on land – waddling across the ice or sliding on their bellies.

Scientists have concluded that a wing that is good for flying cannot also be good for diving and swimming in other words, a bird that is a good swimmer cannot excel at flying.

Related Article

Here’s a fun video about 11 amazing Facts about Penguins.

Why are you ‘In’ a movie but ‘On’ a television?

Why do we say “in” a movie but “on” a TV show?

Em: Emma, did you see Johnny Depp on Alice through the looking glass? I found the movie very interesting.
Emma: Yes it was good. But Johnny Depp was ‘in’ the movie not ‘on’.
Em: Really? I thought it was ‘on’ like ‘on’ television.
Emma: No silly. A movie is like a book. You can be ‘in’ a book or ‘in’ a movie. A television is a physical object and you can be ‘on’ a television.
Em: Haha! Am I sitting ‘on’ the television?
Emma: Very funny! When you are watching television, you are watching pictures displayed ‘on’ the television screen. But a movie is not an object. It is a collection of information or a story and the characters are all ‘in’ a movie.
Reason: That’s right. It all started before the invention of movies or television. People used to act in plays, on a stage- Stage plays. Another reason can be that television shows are ongoing but movies are not. Thus, you are ‘on’ an ongoing television show but you are ‘in’ a movie.
Em: Huh! Now I am confused as to what is going ‘on’ ‘in’ my mind!

If you own land, how far above and below do you own?

When you buy a piece of land, it is of common understanding that you are given unrestricted access to a predetermined amount of land.

But how much of that land do you own? Do you own the sky above it? How about the land below it?

“Cuius est solum, eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos”  A Latin maxim which is considered to be a traditional starting point to the property law states, “whoever owns the soil, holds title all the way up to the heavens and down to the depths of hell“.

So yes, historically, if you owned a piece of land, you owned everything, both above and below the soil from the deepest reaches of the Earth right up to the heavens themselves.

What is land ownership?

But property laws today have come a long way. Now, they vary from country to country.
As a property owner, one only has a right to the airspace above their land located in lower stratum, the precise boundaries for which is still up for debate.

For example, one can’t ask commercial planes to stop flying over their house, because the sky is considered to be a public highway. At the same time, there have been cases where trespassers have been fined to use the airspace above one’s house.

The most famous case of this kind comes from 1945 when a chicken farmer sued the US government for flying approximately 83 feet above his property. The noise of the airplane caused a bunch of his chickens to accidentally kill themselves by running into walls. The farmer won his case and the court agreed that although a property owner wasn’t entitled to own all the air above their land, they were entitled to own enough so that planes flying overhead wouldn’t kill their chickens.

And what about the earth below our land?

Just like the airspace, this varies. This depends upon, whether one has mineral rights along with ownership of land.

For example, if a home-owner finds out that there is a huge deposit of gas under their home but they don’t have any mineral right under their land then they can stake no claim over the gas deposit.

So, one can say if you own a piece of land, you may own more than you’d expect, but in a lot of cases, perhaps lesser than you might wish.

Tenali Raman: Tenali Raman and the three dolls


Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

The great king Krishna Deva Raya had a lot of wise ministers in his court. The wisest of them was Tenali Rama. One day, a merchant came to the king’s court from a foreign kingdom. He saluted the ......


Here’s another great story about Tenali Raman.

The great king Krishna Deva Raya had a lot of wise ministers in his court. The wisest of them was Tenali Rama. One day, a merchant came to the king’s court from a foreign kingdom. He saluted the king and then said, “Your Majesty, I have heard from many people that you have very wise ministers in your court. But with your permission, I would like to test the wisdom of your ministers.” This aroused the king’s interest and he gave the merchant his permission. The merchant gave the king three dolls that looked identical. He said, “Though these dolls look similar, they are different in some way. If your ministers can find out the difference, I will bow to their wisdom. But if they can’t, I will assume that there are no wise ministers in your court. I will be back in thirty days for the answer.”

The king asked all of his ministers except Tenali Rama to assemble. He gave them the three dolls and told them to find the difference in them in three days’ time. But at the end of three days, none of the ministers could figure out the difference. The king got worried and called Tenali Rama. He said to him, “Tenali, I did not summon you before because I thought that this problem will be too simple. But since no one has been able to find the solution, it is up to you now. Find the difference between these dolls.” Tenali took the three dolls and went away.

The problem proved difficult for Tenali too, but at last, after a lot of effort, he figured out the difference. He went to the court with the three dolls on the day that the merchant had to return. Then, he announced in front of the whole court that he had found the difference between the dolls. He said, “These three dolls are different because one of them is good, one average and one bad.” When everyone asked Tenali that which doll was which, he showed them a tiny hole that was present in the ears of each of the dolls. Then, he took a very thin wire and put it in the hole of the first doll’s ear. The wire came out from the doll’s mouth. He did the same with the second doll and the wire came out from the doll’s other ear. In the third doll, the wire went to the heart and did not come out.

Tenali Rama explained, “In the first doll, the wire went in through the ear and came out through the mouth. So, this doll is bad as it represents people who cannot keep a secret. In the second doll, the wire came out of the other ear. So, it is average and represents harmless people who do not understand what is said to them. The third doll, in which the wire went to the heart and did not come out, represents good people who will keep the secret that you tell them.”

The king, the merchant and all the courtiers were very impressed with Tenali’s wise answer. Then Tenali said, “But there can be another explanation too. The first doll represents people who gain knowledge and spread it among others, so it is good. The second doll represents people who do not understand what they are taught, so it is average. The third doll represents people who have knowledge but keep it all to themselves. They do not teach anyone anything and so they are bad people.

The king was even more impressed. He asked, “Can there be any other explanation?” Can you think of a third explanation to answer the king?

  • For more interesting Tenali Raman stories for kids, click here
  • For other interesting stories for kids, browse though our huge collection of short stories here.

African Folk Tales: Why Anansi has eight thin legs


A very long time ago, there lived a spider and his wife in a village. The spider was called Anansi. Though Anansi’s wife was an excellent cook, nevertheless he loved tasting food cooked by others in the village.

One day, while his wife was busy ......


A very long time ago, there lived a spider and his wife in a village. The spider was called Anansi. Though Anansi’s wife was an excellent cook, nevertheless he loved tasting food cooked by others in the village.

One day, while his wife was busy cooking lunch, he went out for a walk. On his way he visited the rabbit’s house. “Oh,the greens in your pot look amazing!” Anansi said staring into the pot in which the rabbit was cooking his food. “Oh, they are almost done; if you wait for a while you can have lunch with me,” the rabbit said. Anansi knew that if he stayed back the rabbit would ask him to help out in the house work. Anansi thought for a while and said, “Actually, I have some work to finish, but I can come back for lunch. I can spin a web and tie one end of it to your pot and the other to one of my legs. As soon as the food is cooked, you can tug on my web and I will come back immediately.” The rabbit liked the idea and agreed to do so.

Anansi started walking again. He could smell the aroma of deliciously cooked beans. “Ah, I can smell beans. They must taste lovely,” Anansi said while stopping at the monkey’s place. The monkey welcomed Anansi and said, “Please come and have some; they will be done in a minute or two.” “Oh thank you, Father Monkey. I will come back soon,” Anansi replied and suggested that he should tie one end of his web to the beans pot and one end around his leg. The monkey agreed to give him a tug. Anansi started walking again.

“Oh,this is the most amazing sweet potato that I have ever smelled! I can also smell honey!” Anansi exclaimed. The hog who was cooking the potatoes offered him some. Anansi suggested the same idea to him and he too agreed to it.

Anansi visited a few more places and, by the time he reached the river, he had one web tied to each of his eight legs.

Anansi was thinking about all the food that he was about to eat when suddenly he felt a tug on one of his legs. “This must be the rabbit,” Anansi said and just when he was about to leave, he felt another tug, and then another one. By now he was being pulled from four different directions. Soon, one by one,h is other four legs also started feeling the pressure of the pulls. The pull continued and he felt the stretch on all his eight legs. The animals continued to pull and Anansi’s legs started stretching, becoming thinner and thinner. Anansi jumped into the river to save himself from the pain. After all the webs were washed out, he slowly climbed out of the river.

“Oh God,this was certainly not a great idea,” Anansi said. Since that day, the spider has had eight thin legs.

Anansi, however, did not manage to get any food that day.

For more interesting Indian Folk Tales for kids, go to: Indian Folk Tales

Read here 19 Interesting Facts about Spiders.

Oats for breakfast

You might feel that oats for breakfast are boring, but they are packed with a lot of nutrients that help you stay mentally and physically active throughout the day.

What are the benefits of eating oats?

  1. Oats are among the healthiest grains on earth. They’re a gluten-free whole grain and a great source of important vitamins, minerals, fibre and antioxidants.
  2. A cup of oats has 13 grams of fibre. Having it for breakfast can help your brains work actively throughout the day. Health benefits of oats include weight loss, lower blood sugar levels and a reduced risk of heart disease.
  3. Oats contain a large amount of beta-glucan, a type of soluble fibre which has numerous benefits. It promotes healthy gut bacteria and increases feelings of fullness.
  4. You can get creative with your oat meal in the morning by adding some honey, chopped apples, strawberries, sliced bananas or crushed nuts like raisins or cranberries to it. These would increase the nutritional value of the meal and brighten up your day!
  5. You should have oats as often as you can. No need to skip other breakfast options. Though having one cup of oatmeal serving is essential. Having 13 grams of fibre in a day is a healthy habit.

Bamboo Forest, Japan

Where is the bamboo forest located?

The Sagano Bamboo forest is one of the most attractive natural environments in entire Japan. The forest is 16 sq. Km in area and has been a popular destination for tourists’ right from the noble era, when nobles would come and enjoy this serene beauty.

Beauty of Sagano Bamboo Forest

When the wind blows amongst its many bamboo trees, it makes a beautiful, musical sound. This sound has been voted as one of the ‘one hundred must be preserved sounds of Japan’. The bamboo grove has been made accessible for all. There has been made a path that cuts through the grove for making trekking across the forest possible. These tall bamboo tress provide an ideal walking environment and people can come and also stop to look at the temples built within. The bamboo forest paths are often illuminated at night and are frequently used as filming locations for movies and TV serials. There is a railing on the side of the road to enhance the pathway. This railing is made from old, dry and fallen parts of bamboo. Such bamboos are also used to make products like cups, boxes, baskets or mats.

3 Interesting facts about Sagano Bamboo Forest

  1. The forest is planted with a bamboo species called ‘Moso’. These are trees which originated in China and are considered to have unique abilities. It takes only 1 month for a young plant to reach a height of 20 meters. The largest bamboo stalk can grow up to 40 meters in height.
  2. The Japanese believe that the bamboo trees protect them from evil spirits, so they serve as guards for many temples.
  3. The entire forest can be covered in a 20 minute walk. The forest is a cultural treasure and the walk will leave one relaxed and bring one closer to the beauty of nature.

Note: Don’t forget to check out 6 Interesting Facts about Japan.

Onomatopoeia

What does “Onomatopoeia” mean?

Onomatopoeia is a noun which is generally used for a literary effect. It refers to the formation of a word reflected by a sound made by or associated with its referent. Words such as hiss, boom, buzz, bang, sizzle, cuckoo, meow, quack, woof are examples of onomatopoeia.

To read and download more Wordling HERE.

Seven earth like planets discovered orbiting nearby star!

Astronomers have long been exploring the outer space world in search for other planets orbiting stars and for life on other planets. Recently an international research team discovered a solar system 40 light years away and it has seven Earth like planets orbiting around a small star.

Why is this discovery important?

This discovery has thrilled astronomers and has now raised hopes of having life beyond earth. It is the very first time that so many earth size planets have been found and the discovery also suggests that our Milky Way maybe filled with such worlds that in many aspect resemble our very own planet earth.

What suggests there could be life on these planets?

These seven planets orbit around a dwarf star named Trappist 1, which at 39 light years away makes this system a prime object for search of life beyond earth. This star is just marginally larger than Jupiter and shines with a feeble light which is 2000 times fainter than the sun. This makes the star cold and its small size makes the planets orbiting it temperate which means they could have some liquid or water and maybe life. However, the planets are in tight orbits and at that proximity they show only one side to the star. Some of the planets among the seven are thought to be of the right temperature to host oceans of water and have a favourable atmosphere.

So, let us hope to find some life beyond our planet as well!

Read here Exoplanets: Facts and Information.

Why is w called a double u?

Emma: Hey, there goes Kim..Wohoo (Emma is waving at someone)
Em: You mean, Uuhoo (pronounced as yuuhoo)
Emma: Err..what? I mean wohoo.
Em: That’s what I said..Uuhoo (again pronounced as yuuhoo)
Emma: What is wrong with you?
Em: What is wrong with “u-u”. I mean, the alphabet “W”. If it is double u, why is it made of two v’s?

Why is the letter “w” called “double u” and not “double v”?

The ancient Roman alphabet did not have a letter “w” or the letter “v”. However, the sound was represented by 2 Us – literally a double “u”.
The English language evolved and gave birth to the letter “w” but it never lost its original name..double u!

Em – And Reason, why are u-u here?
Reason: You mean “W”?
Emma – Both of you, please leave.

Discovery of cause of disease

How was the cause of disease discovered?

It was a commonly believed notion that germs generated spontaneously. Nobody knew what exactly caused a disease. It was only in 1860s that a French chemist, Louis Pasteur began experimenting with bacteria. In one of these experiments he proved that germs can be generated in a controlled environment too. He showed that food went off because of contamination by microbes in the air. He went on to argue that these could cause diseases. His discovery of the cause of disease led to development of antiseptics and changed healthcare forever.

How do you kill germs in food and drink?

Louis Pasteur invented a process to kill germs, which went on to be called Pasteurization.
Due to the urban growth caused by industrialization, the period between production and consumption of milk increased widely. This became one of the crucial source of diseases like tuberculosis. It was the process of pasteurization which finally helped milk to be one of the safest foods.

How is milk pasteurized?

When milk is heated to 72 °C (161 °F) for 15 seconds, it causes the germs in the milk to stop functioning without affecting the nutritional value of the milk.

High Fibre Foods Benefits

What does fibre do for your body?

We need fibre to keep things moving in our digestive tract. It helps make us feel full. A daily diet rich in fibre helps prevents us from having constipation problem. They are also good sources of nutrients and vitamins which may help reduce risk of heart disease and certain type of cancer and obesity.

What are good sources of fibre?

  • Whole-grain breads and cereals
  • Fruits like apples, oranges, bananas, berries, prunes, and pears
  • Vegetables like green peas, broccoli, spinach, and artichokes
  • Legumes (split peas, soy, lentils, etc.)
  • Almonds

How much fibre should kids get?

  • Toddlers (1-3 years old) should get 19 grams of fiber each day.
  • Kids 4-8 years old should get 25 grams a day.
  • Older girls (9-13) and teen girls (14-18) should get 26 grams of fiber a day.
  • Older boys (9-13) should get 31 grams and teen boys (14-18) should get 38 grams per day.

Looking for more Health Tip articles? Go to: Ask Coley for Kids.

Mullah Nasruddin: Milk for the Maula


Here’s another hilarious Mulla Nasruddin story.

One day Mulla Nasruddin was going somewhere when he met a man who was carrying a large milk can. The man wished Mulla Nasruddin and said, “Mullaaji, I have a problem. Would you be kind enough to provide me ......


Here’s another hilarious Mulla Nasruddin story.

One day Mulla Nasruddin was going somewhere when he met a man who was carrying a large milk can. The man wished Mulla Nasruddin and said, “Mullaaji, I have a problem. Would you be kind enough to provide me a solution?” Mullaa Nasruddin willingly consented to hear him out as he was eyeing his big container of milk.

The man said, “Whenever I get up in the morning, I feel intoxicated. My head spins around and I feel as if I have a hangover. I don’t understand what could be the problem.”

Mullaa Nasruddin asked, “Hmm! This is a serious problem, indeed! Let me think. What do you generally eat or drink before you go to sleep?”

The man said, “I drink a big glass of milk.”

The Mullaa said, “Now, I have found your problem! The milk that you drink in the night causes the intoxication.”

The gullible man asked, “How is that, Mullaaji?”

Mullaa explained to him, “You drink milk before sleeping. In your sleep, when you toss in your bed, the milk gets churned. It turns into butter. When butter gets churned, it turns into fat. Fat gets churned, it turns into sugar. Then the sugar gets churned and turns into alcohol. So, finally you wake up with alcohol in your stomach in the morning, and that is why you feel intoxicated.”

“So what do I do?” asked the man in simplicity.

The clever Mullaa said, “The solution of your problem is very simple. Don’t drink milk! Here, give it to me.” Mullaa took away the milk can from the man and walked away from there.

The poor man stood there bewildered.

For more interesting Mullah Nasruddin Stories, go to: Mullah Nasruddin Stories.

For other interesting stories for kids, go to: Stories for Kids.

Oxygen Cycle Steps

You know that oxygen is a must for life. Oxygen gas makes up about 30% of the earth and about 21% of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. It is also the most common element of the human body. It makes up about 65% of the mass of the human body.

What is the oxygen cycle?

Oxygen is constantly used and created by different processes on planet Earth. All these processes together make up the oxygen cycle. The oxygen cycle is thus a biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within the earth’s three main reservoirs – the lithosphere (land), the hydrosphere (water), and the atmosphere (air), which make up the earth’s biosphere.

We now know that the oxygen cycle is a process by which oxygen is generated and used. What are these processes?

Oxygen is Produced by :

1. Plants – Plants produce oxygen via photosynthesis.
2. Sunlight – Some oxygen is produced when sunlight reacts with water vapour in the atmosphere.

Oxygen is used up in :

  • Respiration – All organisms use oxygen for respiration.
  • Decomposing – When plants and animals die, they decompose. This process uses up oxygen and releases carbon di oxide into the air.
  • Rusting – Also called oxidation, this process causes metals to rust. Also a process which uses up oxygen.
  • Combustion – The process by which fire is generated also requires oxygen, along with heat and fuel. This process also uses up oxygen and releases carbon di oxide into the atmosphere.

How the Oxygen Cycle takes place

It starts, of course, with plants and photosynthesis.

1. Photosynthesis :–

  • During the day, plants take energy from the sun, carbon di oxide from the air, and water from the soil to make their food. Their food is simple – glucose. This process is called photosynthesis. Oxygen is released into the air as a by-product of photosynthesis.
  • During the night, plants take in oxygen and release carbon di oxide, to maintain their metabolism. Which is why it is not a good idea to sleep under trees at night.

2. Respiration :–

  • The oxygen that is released by plants is used by humans, animals, and other organisms for respiration, i.e. breathing. We use oxygen to break down simple sugars and generate energy to sustain ourselves. During respiration, organisms take in oxygen and release carbon di oxide into the air.

3. Repeat :–

  • This carbon di oxide is again, taken up by plants, for photosynthesis.
  • Thus, we see that our life force is generated chiefly by plants. Which is why it is super important to preserve plant life on earth.

Related Article:

Read here Facts about Oxygen, visit : https://mocomi.com/facts-oxygen/

Energy efficient light bulbs for better living!

Despite all technological advances the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries continue to grow and will continue to almost 35 percent by the year 2020. Commercial and residential energy use is the second most rapidly growing area of global energy; not far behind transport. Households consume 29 percent of global energy thus resulting in 21 percent of all CO2 emissions.

Why are energy efficient light bulbs better?

If people worldwide switched to energy efficient light bulbs the world would save US$120 billion annually. Energy efficient bulbs use 25 to 80 percent less energy than traditional incandescent, thus saving lot of money as well as energy. They also last at least 25 times longer. Less cost and better durability would help save a lot of money and thus improve standard of living. The wasted heat generated by incandescent bulbs can increase your home cooling cost and will require you to pay more for lighting your house of office. Changing to energy efficient bulbs can add up to sustainable savings every year in addition to helping the environment.

Why do we like something?

What you like and what you don’t like?

  • We like something because we get a certain amount of pleasure and happiness from it.
  • We like something based on how we see, hear or feel it and what we believe that thing to be
  • If you see shrimp as a slimy yucky sea creature, you won’t like to eat it.
  • But if you see shrimp as a tasty delicacy, you will like to eat it for sure!
  • Our likes and dislikes are initially shaped by our parent’s likes and dislikes.

It is a psychological function!

Liking something is a psychological function which is associated to many conditions like:

Familiarity:

You tend to like something that is familiar to you

Reference:

You tend to like something because you have liked something in reference to it before.

Association:

You might like something because you associate it with a good memory but are unaware of it.

Now, let’s see why do some people like somethings which other people don’t?

Why do some people like scary or tragic movies?

Because they feel it will help them prepare to deal with pain and fear later in life.

Why do some people like spicy food?

It is because of the delicious moment of escape it provides when the heat subsides.

Why do we like something a lot and then after a few years don’t like it at all?

Sometimes we get very attached to something because of the memories associated with it, but as we grow older it becomes less important to us.

Epcot Theme Park, Orlando, Florida

Hello friends, today I am at a magical world to have some fun. The place you see behind me is the famous Walt Disney theme park in Florida named- Epcot.

History of Epcot

Epcot is an acronym of Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow, a utopian city. Originally Epcot was supposed to be a test city model with home to twenty thousand residents. But this vision of Walt Disney never came true and after his death the officials decided to take this park into a different direction. The theme park opened in 1982 and consisted of Future World and World Showcases. Future World was dedicated to new technology that was being developed.  World Showcase was developed to be a separate park that showed the customs and cultures of other countries.  The park was not known as we know it today until 1996, when the park was officially rebranded Epcot. The attractions inside the park keep changing according to changes in technology.

What are the various parts of Epcot?

The Park consists of Future World and World Showcases.

Epcot Future World

Future world is technology based and has innovative aspects. The enormous metal sphere you see behind me is the main attraction here and is called the Spaceship Earth. It is a time machine ride through the history of human beings from cave-dwelling times to modern day. Innovations provide several rooms full of frequently-updated new technology and machinery to play with and learn about.

Epcot World Showcase

The World Showcase pavilions are a series of 11 sections each is designed to represent the customs, décor and cuisine of different countries. There is a Norway pavilion, American Pavilion, Japanese Pavilion and many more selling various cuisines from different regions of the world. There is an American Adventure which is a theatre-like exhibition of the past 200 years of America, narrated by Ben Franklin and Mark Twain.

Epcot center attractions

Epcot is an amalgamation of the festivities of the world’s culture and selection of 3d and laser shows. The attractions range from one of the fastest Disney attractions to gentle boat rides, from a thrilling hang-gliding experience to interactive play areas which are fun and imaginative for kids. The park offers live shows, concerts, character meet and greets; acrobats, fireworks, musicians, mimes, dancers, drummers, and comedians. There are also special events on holidays and festivals.

Here’s more about Disneyland Park Facts and Secrets.

What are the benefits of eggs?

Why eggs are good for you?

Eggs are considered to be “Super food”. Why? Because they are loaded with nutrients and are so easily available.

Health benefits of eggs

Proteins: Eggs have full array of amino acids and is considered the most perfect protein. Amino acids are important for healthy immune system, metabolism and lean body tissue development.

Omega 3 fatty acid: Eggs contain Omega-3 fatty acid which help develop our brain and our cognitive memory.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin: The essential dietary component, Lutein and Zeaxanthin sharpen our vision. Our body does not create these components on its own. The yolk in the eggs are rich resource for this.

Looking for more Health Tip articles? Go to: Ask Coley for Kids.

Why is junk food unhealthy?

Bumbley – A dollop of ice-cream, a piece of chocolate, pizza, macaroni and cheese! Ooh how I love fooood.
Coley – That is not food. That is junk food! And you know that junk food is unhealthy, right?
Bumbley – I know, I know. But why? I mean how can something that tastes so good, be so bad for us?
Coley – It is quite simple Bumbley. We need food to supply us with nutrients. Nutrients which are used to build our body and fuel it.
Bumbley– Why can’t junk food do that for us?
Coley – Because junk food doesn’t have enough nutrients in it. It does not give you energy to play or stay strong.
Bumbley – I don’t mind not playing if I can have an extra burger.
Coley – Really? No play for a burger?
Bumbley – Actually, I won’t mind both. Play and junk food.
Coley – You can have both. You can have your burger if you eat fruits too. That way you are giving your body enough nourishment too.
Bumbley – I am sleepy now.
Coley – Oh, yes. Junk food makes you sleepy and tired too. You can sleep if you want. I am gonna go and play basketball.
Bumbley – Hey, wait for me! I promise, I will eat fruits and veggies too. Because I wanna play and have fun!

Watch our video to know why food spoils.

Why is ‘abbreviation’ such a long word?

Abbreviation: Origin and History

Em: Emma, I was wondering, how come abbreviation is such a long word?
Emma: Because “Abbreviation” is not an abbreviation, Em.
Em: Ha ha very funny. I’m sure there is more to it than that.
Emma: Actually I did read something about the origin of the word being fairly short. It started with “brevis” which is Latin for “short” and also the root of “brief”
Em: Then how did it get sooo long?
Reason: “Ab” was added to “breviare” to make it “abbreviare”, a verb meaning “to shorten”; then it got converted to a noun by adding “-ionem” at the end becoming “abbreviationem” which means “something that has been shortened”. Then the “em” was removed and voila!
Em: That explanation was way too long for the word abbreviation.
Reason: NO popcorn for you.

Susurrous

What does “Susurrous” mean?

Have you ever struggled for a word to describe a sound? A sound which is soothing or comforting? Susurrous is a word for one such sound. Pronounced as Suu-suh-rus, it means emitting a whispering or rustling sound. It stems from the Latin word susurrare and is used as an adjective. It is always used in a positive context unlike ‘hissing’.

The Discovery of Oxygen

When did we discover we needed oxygen for respiration?

We can’t live without oxygen…literally. Of course, everybody knows that. However, that wasn’t the case in the mid-1700s. People were unaware of a substance called “oxygen” that supported respiration.

Who discovered oxygen?

“Oxygen” was discovered almost simultaneously in three parts of the world. So, there is a lot of contention regarding who discovered it first. The major credit though goes to Joseph Priestley as he was the first one to publish his findings.

Here is the series of events that let the discovery of “oxygen” as we know it now.

Timeline of discovery of oxygen

In 1972 Carl W. Scheele from Sweden heated several compounds including potassium nitrate, manganese oxide, and mercury oxide and found they released a gas which enhanced combustion. He called this gas “fire air,” but did not publish his findings.

How was oxygen discovered as an element?

Then, in 1974 Joseph Priestly, an English chemist, independently conducted an experiment using a 12-inch-wide glass “burning lens,” with which he focused sunlight on a lump of reddish mercuric oxide in an inverted glass container. He found that the gas emitted, was “five or six times as good as common air.” He called this gas “dephlogisticated air”. In later tests, it caused a flame to burn intensely and kept a mouse alive about four times as long as a similar quantity of air. He published his findings in the same year.

How did oxygen get its name?

Later, Antoine Lavoisier, a French chemist, also conducted experiments which lead him to the discovery of “oxygen”. In 1775, he was the first to recognize it as an element, and coined its name “oxygen”- which comes from a Greek word that means “acid-former”.

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The unflappable albatross

The wandering albatross can travel 500 to 600 miles in a single day without even flapping its wings. It can maintain speeds higher than 127 km/hour for more than eight hours. This is the skill of dynamic soaring imbibed in the albatross.

What makes albatross fly high without flapping?

Scientists have proved that an elbow lock system allowed the albatross to keep its wings open at no energy. But researchers have been observing albatross for years and have now gained an insight into what makes them go high without flapping.

The soaring secrets of the albatross

The albatross gains height by angling their wings while flying into the wind. Then they turn and sweep along for about 100 meters. This is known as dynamic soaring. First they climb along the wind, then they turn from windward to leeward when they are at their flying peak, then they slightly make a leeward descent and finally a curve from the leeward to windward at an angle which makes them soar without flapping. This dynamic soaring allows for sustained flight. They can actually fly much faster than wind speed.

Why is an idea mostly associated with a light bulb?

Why does a light bulb represent an idea?

  • When active, Our brain produces electrical currents due to nearly 100,000 chemical reactions occurring in it per second.
  • These chemical reactions are carried out in our brain by tiny cells called neurons.
  • Neurons process and transmit information through electrical and chemical signals that they pass on to each other.
  • They pass this information at the speed of 420 km/hr.
  • Which is faster than the speed of a race car!
  • After processing this information, when we arrive at an insight, our brain literally lights up!
  • That is why an “idea” is usually associated with a light bulb.
  • The moment when we get an idea, is also referred to as an ‘Aha’, ‘Eureka’ or ‘light bulb’ moment.

More Information –
Click here to know how a light bulb works.

Karma

What does “Karma” mean?

“Karma” is a Sanskrit word which means deed, work or action. It mainly means that the actions or intent of an individual will determine his or her future, and is the spiritual principle of cause and effect. If you do good, then you can expect good to happen to you, but if you do bad, you can only expect bad to happen to you. Basically the word “Karma” confirms to the saying, “As you sow, so shall you reap.”

Cows transfixed by saxophone sound!

Sam Greenfield played his saxophone to attract the attention of cows at the New York State Animal sanctuary.

Do cows like music?

The cows- Jesse and Amos, were grazing and were not in sync with their surroundings. When Sam came there with his saxophone; initially the cows were sceptical of the moves and sounds but eventually walked up to Sam for a close up view of him and his soothing saxophone music. The cows seemed calm and rather in love with the music being played. In fact, one of the cows showed appreciation by licking Sam’s face after he stopped playing the saxophone.

Seems like even cows have developed a love for the musical instrument!