1. Indian National Flag
The Indian national flag is also known as the Tiranga. It has 3 stripes:
Orange – representing courage
White – which represents purity
Green – it represents fertility.
It also has a navy-blue chakra in the middle of the white stripe.
This is the Dharma Chakra or the Wheel of Law.
2. Indian National Emblem
The government seal of India is taken from Ashoka’s Sarnath Lion pillar. Underneath it are the words Satyameva Jayate which means ‘truth alone triumphs.’ This is the government letterhead and will appear on all official documents.
3. Indian National Currency
The rupee symbol was adopted by the government in 2010 for official use on Indian bank notes and coins. It is a graphical representation of the Devanagari ‘ra’ and the English ‘r’ alphabets. It has 2 parallel lines at the top which looks like an ‘=’ sign.
4. Indian National Anthem
The Indian national anthem or Jana Gana Mana was written by Rabindranath Tagore. It is written in tatsama Bengali. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the national anthem in 1950.
* tatsama = sanskrit form of Bengali
5. Indian National Song
Vande Mataram is the national song of India. It was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. It is a hymn to the goddess Durga as if she were the land of India.
I show gratitude to thee, Mother,
cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests,
I show gratitude to thee, Mother.
6. Indian National Flower : Lotus
This sacred flower plays an important role in the different folklores of ancient India. The lotus holds a sacred place in the art of many cultures and religions of ancient India.
7. Indian National Fruit : Mango
India is very famous for over 100 different varieties of Mangoes. In the late 16th century Emperor Akbar planted 10 lakh mango trees in Lakhi Baug near modern day Bihar!
8. Indian National Tree : The Banyan tree
Ficus benghalensis is a variety of a fig tree. They are considered immortal and sacred since their roots descend from their branches to form entirely new trunks.
The Buddha is said to have attained nirvana whilst meditating under a banyan tree.
9. Indian National Animal : The Royal Bengal Tiger
The Panthera tigris has a thick coat of orange fur with deep black stripes. It is found throughout India and some surrounding countries.
If you shave a tiger, you would still see a striped pattern since a tiger’s skin is also striped.
10. Indian National River : The Ganga
The Ganga or Ganges is the longest river in India and its banks are one of the most fertile and densely populated areas in the world.
11. Indian National Aquatic Animal : The River dolphin
Platanista gangetica is a fresh-water dolphin that represents the purity of the Ganga.
12. Indian National Bird : The Indian Peacock
The Pavo cristatusis, a swan-sized bird, has a beautiful fan of plumes which it can furl and unfurl in order to attract a mate.
13. Indian National Game : Field Hockey
Even though cricket might be more popular, field hockey is the national sport of India. India has a winning streak of 8 Olympic gold medals with 6 consecutive wins from 1928 – 1956.
14. Indian National Calendar
India uses a Saka calendar alongside the gregorian calendar. It is sometimes referred to as the Hindu calendar because the names of the months are marked from the traditional Hindu lunisolar calendars.
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