What is reproduction in living organisms?
Reproduction is the process by which new organisms are generated from older generations. It is a fundamental feature of all living beings. Sometimes a cell may produce another of its kind and that is also defined as reproduction. Like regenerating a part of tissue, or the healing of a wound.
Reproduction to produce another independent living organism, can either be sexual or asexual, in the plant or animal kingdom.
How do plants undergo reproduction?
Plants can undergo two kinds of reproduction. – 1. Asexual Reproduction 2. Sexual Reproduction
What is asexual reproduction?
- It involves one parent only
- No gametes are produced (Gametes – male and female, are the reproductive cell or sex cells)
- Parent and offspring are identical
- Faster with no variation from the parent plant
- Budding in yeast cells
- Budding in potato and other tubers, bulbs etc.
- Runners(stem-like growths) in herbs like peppermint, strawberry etc.
What is sexual reproduction?
To reproduce sexually, plants have both male and female reproductive organs in their flowers.
What is the function of a stamen in a flower?
- The male part is called Stamen.
- The Stamen is the pollen producing part of the flower. It consists of an Anther and Filament. The pollen on the anther is produced by the microsporangia. Pollen grains contain the male gametophyte and are responsible for pollination.
What is the function of a carpel of a flower?
- The female part is called Carpel.
- A carpel is the innermost part of a flower. It is usually surrounded by male reproductive stamens. A carpel consists of a Stigma, Style and Ovary which contains the Ovule. A flower can have more than one carpel and a cluster of carpels is called a Pistil.
What is pollen and pollination?
To reproduce sexually, pollen from the male part is transferred to the female part, stigma, from where it descends into the Ovary, where fertilisation occurs to form a zygote, which eventually turns into a seed. This seed will germinate and sprout to become a new plant.
There are two types of pollination :
- Self Pollination – fertilisation is with the same flower
- Cross Pollination – pollen from one flower travels to fertilise the ovary of another flower
What are the methods of pollination?
Pollination may occur by either wind or water. This is known as Abiotic Pollination.
They may also be suitably adapted to be transferred by animals, birds and insects, including human. This is known as Biotic Pollination.